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1.  Comparison of Blue-Yellow Opponent Color Contrast Sensitivity Function between Female Badminton Players and Non-athletes 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;4(2):107-113.
Purpose
To compare the chromatic contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the blue-yellow opponent channel (BYOC) between female badminton players and non-athlete controls.
Methods
We recruited 40 young females (18-25 years old) who played badminton for at least 5 consecutive years as the test group, and 30 age-matched female controls who had no history of regular physical activity. The Pattern Generator™ system was used to test the CSF for the BYOC which was performed at three spatial frequencies (SFs) of 2 cycles per degree (cpd), 5 cpd, and 25 cpd.
Results
Comparison of BYOC thresholds showed significantly better results in the test group for all three SFs (P<0.001). Band pass shift (better CSF in the middle SF) was seen in the test group. The control group had low pass (better CSF in the low SF). Ocular motility (heterophoria, fusional convergence and divergence at far and near distances, and near point of convergence) was better in the test group, but the inter-group difference was not significant.
Conclusions
The BYOC threshold results for badminton players indicated a better visual performance which may be a result of enhanced performance of the parallel processing of the parvocellular and magnocellular systems. This may be inherent and/or acquired in badminton players. In addition, badminton players appear to have developed sensory-motor programmed activities. Testing the CSF for BYOC may be useful for athlete selection in different levels and/or used as a criterion for screening players in the field of badminton.
PMCID: PMC3690730  PMID: 23802052
Sports; Vision; Contrast Sensitivity; Badminton; Athletes
2.  Use of Platelet Rich Plasma in an Isolated Complete Medial Collateral Ligament Lesion in a Professional Football (Soccer) Player: A Case Report 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;4(2):158-162.
Purpose
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is derived from centrifuging whole blood to obtain a high platelet concentration containing numerous growth factors. Despite its widespread use, there is still a lack of high-level evidence regarding randomized clinical trials assessing the efficacy of PRP in treating ligament injuries. Although there is research showing an improvement in the early stages of healing in the animal model of acute medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury of the knee, there is no strong evidence to support the efficacy of PRP injections for treating MCL lesions in humans.
Case Report
In this report, we present a case of an elite football player, treated with multiple PRP local injections followed by rehabilitation, for a high grade MCL lesion of the knee. He was able to resume training at day 18, painfree, with full range of motion and the ability to complete a functional test based on all sport specific movements. He played matches at 25 days with no residual symptoms or functional deficit. There were no further complaints or recurrences at the 16 months follow up.
Conclusions
On the basis of this report, we can assume that the treatment of high grade acute MCL lesions of the knee with PRP is a promising therapeutic option to be further explored with good quality Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs).
PMCID: PMC3690737  PMID: 23802059
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL); Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP); Football
3.  Static Stretching of the Hamstring Muscle for Injury Prevention in Football Codes: a Systematic Review 
Purpose
Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes.
Methods
A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane's ‘risk of bias’ tool.
Results
The review identified 35 studies, including four analysis studies. These studies show deficiencies in the quality of study designs.
Conclusion
The study protocols are varied in terms of the length of intervention and follow-up. No RCT studies are available, however, RCT studies should be conducted in the near future.
PMCID: PMC3685153  PMID: 23785569
American Football; Soccer; Prevention of Muscle Lesion; Flexibility
4.  Echocardiographic Findings in Power Athletes Abusing Anabolic Androgenic Steroids 
Purpose
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse for improving physical appearance and performance in body builders is common and has been considered responsible for serious cardiovascular effects. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs in published articles, this case control study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic findings in body builder athletes who are current and chronic abusers of these drugs.
Methods
Body builder athletes with continuous practice for the preceding two years and were training at least twice weekly were selected and divided into AAS abuser and non user and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers (15 cases in each group).
Results
There was no significant difference in left ventricular size or function either systolic or diastolic in comparison to cases and control groups. The only difference was in diastolic size of septum and free wall but observed differences were only significant (P = 0.05) between first (athletic with AAS abuser) and third group (non athletic and nonuser). The difference between the above-mentioned indexes were not significant between two groups of athletes.
Conclusion
Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid results in accentuation of physiologic hypertrophy due to long term sport most probably due to higher rate pressure product. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic doses do not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.
PMCID: PMC3685154  PMID: 23785570
Androgenic Anabolic Agent; Body Builder; Left Ventricular Hypertrophy; Echocardiography
5.  Changes in Skinfold Thicknesses and Body Fat in Ultra-endurance Cyclists 
Purpose
The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thicknesses and body fat during an ultra-endurance cycling race.
Methods
One hundred and nineteen ultra-endurance cyclists in the ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’ covering a distance of 600 km were included. Changes in skinfold thickness, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and total body water were estimated using anthropometric methods.
Results
The subjects were riding at a mean speed of 23.5±4.0 km/h and finished the race within 1,580±296 min. During the race, body mass decreased by 1.5±1.2 kg (P<0.001), and fat mass decreased by 1.5±1.1 kg (P<0.001). Skeletal muscle mass and total body water remained unchanged (P>0.05). The decrease in body mass correlated to the decrease in fat mass (r = 0.20, P=0.03). The skinfold thicknesses at pectoral (-14.7%), abdominal (-14.9%), and thigh (-10.2%) site showed the largest decrease. The decrease in abdominal skinfold was significantly and negatively related to cycling speed during the race (r = -0.31, P<0.001).
Conclusion
Cycling 600 km at ∼23 km/h led to a decrease in fat mass and in all skinfold thicknesses. The largest decrease in skinfold thickness was recorded for pectoral, abdominal, and thigh site. The decrease in abdominal skinfold thickness was negatively related to cycling speed. The body seems to reduce adipose subcutaneous fat during an ultra-endurance performance at the site of the thickest skinfold.
PMCID: PMC3685155  PMID: 23785571
Endurance; Fat Mass; Muscle Mass; Anthropometry; Body Fat; Training
6.  Biochemical Responses to Level-1 Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test in Young Tunisian Football Players 
Purpose
The aim of this work was to investigate the metabolic and muscle damage responses after the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in young football players.
Methods
Fifteen male football players (17.42 ± 0.2 yrs, 69.91 ± 4.4 kg, 178.64 ± 3.8 cm; mean ± SD) participated in this study. Fasting blood samples for various biochemical parameters (i.e. lactate (Lac), glucose (GLC), triglycerides (Tri), creatine kinase (CK), uric acid (UA)) collected from a forearm vein after 5-min of seated rest and 3-min after the test. Moreover, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and maximal heart rate during and after the YYIRT were recorded.
Results
Mean levels of the selected biochemical markers were raised after the YYIRT exercise (P<0.001 for the other markers). Moreover, lipid parameters increased significantly after the test (P<0.01 for Tri and P<0.001 for HDL).
Conclusion
These findings confirm the higher metabolic demand of aerobic as well as anaerobic metabolism and reflect a significant mobilization of purine cycle during the YYIRT. The increase of muscle damage markers also reflects the higher anaerobic solicitation. From these findings, we can conclude the importance of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during soccer-specific endurance performance (i.e. YYIRT, soccer match).
PMCID: PMC3685156  PMID: 23785572
Metabolic Responses; Intermittent Recovery Test; Lactate; Lipid Profile
7.  Prevalence of Fungal Skin Infections in Iranian Wrestlers 
Purpose
Fungal infections are one of the most common skin infections. Athletes, especially in contact sports such as wrestlers are the group at risk of fungal skin infections (FSI). The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of FSI and some effective factors in wrestlers in Tehran, Iran.
Methods
This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study which was conducted in 2009 and subjects were wrestlers of wrestling clubs of Tehran, Iran. In this study the prevalence of FSI and its related factors was collected based on clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests. We also determined the rate of dermatophytic contamination of wrestling mats. The relationship between independent variables and incidence of fungal infection analyzed by Chi square test and regression analysis.
Results
In this study, out of 454 wrestlers, 111 (24.5%) subjects had suspicious fungal skin lesions on physical examination. The Prevalence of FSI was 8.2% in all of the wrestlers (34.2% of the wrestlers with suspicious lesion). Malassezia furfur (50%) and trichophyton tonsurans (30%) were the most common causative agents. Epidermophyton floccosum (7.5%), Trichophyton rubrum (5%), Candida albicans (5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2.5%) were other isolated fungi. Eleven wrestling mats (44%) were contaminated with different fungal organisms.
Conclusion
The prevalence of fungal skin infection in Iranian wrestlers is relatively high. Appropriate preventive measures need to be prepared and implemented to reduce incidence of FSI in wrestlers.
PMCID: PMC3685157  PMID: 23785573
Wrestling; Sports; Skin Infection; Dermatophytosis; Tinea
8.  A Comparative Study on Shoulder Rotational Strength, Range of Motion and Proprioception between the Throwing Athletes and Non-athletic Persons 
Purpose
The repetitive micro traumatic stresses placed on the athletes shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion challenge the surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder rotational strength, range of motion and proprioception between the throwing athletes and non-athletic persons.
Methods
Fifteen throwing athletes and 15 non-athletes participated in a nonrandom case – control study. Strength of shoulder rotational movements was tested with a hand held dynamometer. The ranges of internal and external rotation of shoulder were measured by a standard goniometer. The ability of subjects to replicate the target position and kinesthetic sense was examined on the subjects’ right shoulder by using a continuous passive motion device. Independent and paired t tests were used to statistically analyze between and within group differences.
Results
No significant difference was detected on the range of internal rotation between throwing athletes and non-athletic candidates (P=0.3). The range of external rotation was significantly more in athletic subjects (P=0.03). The results also showed that throwing athletes demonstrated a significantly higher isometric strength of shoulder external and internal rotation than the non-athletic group (P<0.05). However, the comparison of the internal and external rotation strength of dominant side in each group showed that throwing athletes showed a significant lower isometric strength of shoulder external rotation than internal rotation (P<0.001). It was also demonstrated higher joint position acuity in the throwing athletes than non athlete subjects (P=0.01).
Conclusion
The repetitive nature of overhead throwing and the high forces that it causes result in adaptive changes of the dominant extremity. Throwing can lead to mobility, strength and neural adaptation.
PMCID: PMC3685158  PMID: 23785574
Throwing Athletes; Muscle Weakness; Mobility Impairment; Proprioception
9.  Association of Short-Passing Ability with Athletic Performances in Youth Soccer Players 
Purpose
This study was designed to examine the relationship between multiple short-passing ability [measured using the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT)] and athletic performances in youth soccer players.
Methods
Forty-two young soccer players (age 14.8±0.4years) performed the LSPT, the squat-jump (SqJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ), the 30m sprints (with 5m and 20m split times also recorded), the 15m agility run (Agility-15m), the 15m ball dribbling (Ball-15m), the Illinois agility test (IAGT) and the Yo-Yo IRT Level 1 tests.
Results
LSPT total performance (LSPT TP) showed significant positive correlation with 5m, 20m, and 30m sprint times, Agility-15m, Ball-15m and Illinois agility test (r=0.60, r=0.58, r=0.49, r=0.75, r=0.71 and r=0.72; P<0.01, respectively). Significant negative correlation were found between LSPT TP and SqJ and CMJ (r=−0.62 and r=−0.64; P<0.01, respectively). It was determined that Agility-15m, Illinois agility test and Ball-15m were the most effective factors associated with LSPT TP among other factors in multiple regression analysis.
Conclusion
This study showed that LSPT TP of young elite soccer players is determined by their agility abilities, thus enabling this test to be used for talent identification purposes.
PMCID: PMC3685159  PMID: 23785575
Technical Skills; Agility; Cognitive Function; Physical Fitness; Football
10.  Blood Phosphorus and Magnesium Levels in 130 Elite Track and Field Athletes 
Purpose
This study tested the clinical utility and relevance of serum phosphorus and magnesium as markers possibly useful to monitor training in athletes.
Methods
Phosphorus and magnesium serum concentrations of 130 elite track and field athletes (65 males and 65 females, age range 20-30 years) from the National Athletics Sports Medicine Center database in Thessaloniki, Greece were measured.
Results
Abnormal results were found in 61 (47%) athletes (32 men and 29 women). In male athletes, serum phosphate was higher than normal in 18% and decreased in 1.5%, whereas serum magnesium concentration was higher in 26%, and lower in 3%. Regarding female athletes, higher serum phosphate and magnesium levels were detected in 26% and 17% respectively, whereas decreased serum magnesium was found in 3%. The most common alterations were higher serum phosphate (29/61, 47%) and magnesium concentrations (28/61, 46%). Abnormalities of serum phosphorus and magnesium concentrations were detected in almost half of the athletes. Hyperphosphataemia and hypermagnesaemia were the most common abnormalities.
Conclusion
The reference intervals used for general population cannot be used for athletes. Given the lack of pathological manifestations, the physiopathological significance of these findings is uncertain. Further studies on the interpretation of reported ion concentrations in athletes should take in account the type of sport practiced and also the possible variations during the training and competition season.
PMCID: PMC3685160  PMID: 23785576
Athletes; Hyperphosphataemia; Hypophosphatemia; Hypomagnesaemia; Hypermagnesaemia
11.  The Effect of Synchronized Forced Running with Chronic Stress on Short, Mid and Long- term Memory in Rats 
Purpose
Impairment of learning and memory processes has been demonstrated by many studies using different stressors. Other reports suggested that exercise has a powerful behavioral intervention to improve cognitive function and brain health. In this research, we investigated protective effects of treadmill running on chronic stress–induced memory deficit in rats.
Methods
Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10) as follows: Control (Co), Sham (Sh), Stress (St), Exercise (Ex) and Stress and Exercise (St & Ex) groups. Chronic restraint stress was applied by 6h/day/21days and also treadmill running at a speed 20-21m/min for 1h/day/21days. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test in different intervals (1, 7 and 21 days) after foot shock.
Results
Our results showed that: 1) Although exercise alone showed beneficial effects especially on short and mid-term memory (P<0.05) in comparison with control group, but synchronized exercise with stress had not significantly improved short, mid and long-term memory deficit in stressed rats. 2) Short and mid-term memory deficit was significantly (P<0.05) observed in synchronized exercise with stress and stress groups with respect to normal rats. 3) Memory deficit in synchronized exercise with stress group was nearly similar to stressed rats. 4) Helpful effects of exercise were less than harmful effects of stress when they were associated together.
Conclusion
The data correspond to the possibility that although treadmill running alone has helpful effects on learning and memory consolidation, but when it is synchronized with stress there is no significant benefit and protective effects in improvement of memory deficit induced by chronic stress. However, it is has a better effect than no training on memory deficit in stressed rats.
PMCID: PMC3685161  PMID: 23785577
Memory; Passive Avoidance; Running; Stress
12.  Effects of Different Rest Intervals between Circuit Resistance Exercises on Post-exercise Blood Pressure Responses in Normotensive Young Males 
Purpose
To investigate the blood pressure responses during recovery after two protocols of circuit resistance exercises (CRE) with different rest intervals (RI).
Methods
Eleven normotensive males (aged 19.5 ± 1.0 yrs, height 172.8 ± 5.7 cm and weight 65.1 ± 8.1 kg) performed two CRE with RI of 30 (RI30s) and 40 (RI40s) seconds between the exercises randomly, as well as a control session without exercise. The protocols consisted of 3 circuits of 6 exercises with 10 repetitions maximum (10RM) and 2 minute rest between circuits, followed by an 80 minute recovery period. Measurements were taken before exercise and at each 10 min of post-exercise recovery. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Repeated Measures (group × time) was used to analyze data, followed by post-hoc Bonferroni test, for P≤0.05.
Results
Post-exercise hypotension of systolic blood pressure was observed after both CRE with RI30s and RI40s (at R40, R50, R60, R70 and R80), whereas diastolic blood pressure did not differ from that measured at rest. In all measured moments, there was no significant difference between exercise trials in post-exercise levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Conclusion
CRE with RI30s and RI40s between the exercises can lead to occurrence of PEH similarly in magnitude and duration. Our findings suggest a potentially positive health benefit of strength training.
PMCID: PMC3685162  PMID: 23785578
Post-exercise Hypotension; Resistance Exercise; Systolic Blood Pressure; Diastolic Blood Pressure
13.  Management of Hypertrophic Burn Scar: A Comparison between the Efficacy of Exercise-Physiotherapy and Pressure Garment-Silicone on Hypertrophic Scar 
Purpose
Our study aims to investigate the effectiveness of other treatment methods for burn related scarring and to determine the possibility of their routine administration in similar clinical settings.
Methods
Through a prospective study, 66 patients were enrolled to receive either the conventional pressure garment therapy (PGT) and Silicone (control group) or exercise and physiotherapy (case group). Patients were visited regularly to be examined for the status of their scars’ regression, limbs’ dysfunction, and joint motion. Then, these two groups were compared to determine the efficacy of exercise and physiotherapy as an alternative to the conventional treatment with PGT.
Results
After about 20 months follow-up, decreased articular range of motion (ROM) was: 16 (51.5%) cases compared to 5 (15%) of controls had mild, 11 (35.5%) of the cases compared to 13 (39.5%) of the controls had moderate; and 4 (13%) of the cases compared to 15 (45.5%) of the controls had severe decreased ROM which revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.01). At the same time, Vancouver Scar Scale score was: 15 (48%) of the cases and 6 (18%) of the controls had mild Scar Scale, 12 (39%) of the cases and 14 (42.5%) of the controls had moderate score and 4 (3%) of the cases and 13 (39.5%) of the controls had severe score which revealed a statistically significant difference (P<0.05).
Conclusion
Our study showed that physical therapy andexercise are more effective than PGT, in management of burn hypertrophic scar, hence could be an alternative in cases that conventional therapy cannot be used for any reason.
PMCID: PMC3685163  PMID: 23785579
Silicone Gels; Burn Exercise; Physiotherapy; Hypertrophic Scars
14.  Suprascapular Neuropathy in Collegiate Baseball Player 
Background
Suprascapular neuropathy (SSN) is generally thought of as a diagnosis of exclusion. However, increasing attention is being paid to the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of this pathology to prevent chronic supraspinatus and infraspinatus atrophy in patients. To date, literature has only articulated variable or customized treatment and rehabilitation plans without clear standardized care. This case study provides a detailed description of the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of a collegiate baseball player's recovery from suprascapular nerve release.
Case Presentation
A 20 year-old male baseball pitcher with right shoulder pain reported for athletic training evaluation, was treated conservatively, and due to lack of resolution was referred for further imaging and evaluation by an orthopedist. Following inconclusive magnetic resonance imaging findings the patient underwent electrodiagnostic testing which showed decreased nerve conduction velocity of the right suprascapular nerve. The patient elected for surgical intervention. Post-operative rehabilitation followed and the patient was able to pitch in 22 weeks. The patient provided positive subjective feedback and was able to return to unrestricted pitching without pain, loss of velocity, or loss in pitch control.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates a need for further investigation into the most appropriate treatment and rehabilitation of suprascapular nerve injury.
PMCID: PMC3685164  PMID: 23785580
Nerve Injury; Rehabilitation; Baseball; Rotator Cuff
15.  Changes in Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mass with Reducing Levels of Jumping Exercise Regimens in Female Rats 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):225-232.
Purpose
To date, little is known about the effects of a reduced level of jumping exercise regimens on bone turnover markers and mass. This study investigates the effects of different jumping exercise regimens with varying exercise loads on serum bone turnover markers and bone mass in female rats.
Methods
A total of 144 female rats aged 12 weeks, were divided into 12 groups as follows: no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) consisting of 200 jumps per week (200J/w), given at 40 jumps per day (40J/d) for 5 days per week (5d/w) (8STP24E), followed by 24 weeks of exercise at loads of either 10J/d or 20J/d or 40J/d, for either 5d/w, or 3d/w, or 1d/w. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (1CTP) concentrations, and tibial fat free dry weight were measured.
Results
Tibial mass was significantly higher in 8STP than 8S. No changes were evident in serum markers of bone turnover parameters after 8STP. Significant increases in tibial mass were observed in rats that continued to exercise at workloads of 30J/w and above after 8STP. Serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations increase whereas serum 1CTP concentrations decrease in rats given workloads of 40J/w and above.
Conclusions
It appears, an exercise load of 30J/w, i.e. 10J/d for 3d/w, was the minimum level of continuous exercise load that was required to maintain the 8STP-induced bone gains. In addition, significant increases in bone mass in young rats following 8STP might not always be reflected by changes in serum levels of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and 1CTP.
PMCID: PMC3525818  PMID: 23342220
Bone Biomarkers; Tibial Fat Free Dry Weight; Jumping Exercise; Rats
16.  The Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained Athletes 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):233-238.
Purpose
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes.
Methods
Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test.
Results
HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (Ppeak and Pmean) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (P<0.05). The relative increases were 4.1 ± 3.6 and 4.0 ± 3.7 W·kg−1 for Ppeak and Pmean respectively. These findings demonstrated the beneficial effect of music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances.
Conclusions
As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs’ muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises.
PMCID: PMC3525819  PMID: 23342221
Anaerobic Threshold; Warm-up Exercise; Wingate test; Music
17.  Effect of Short-Term Maximal Exercise on Biochemical Markers of Muscle Damage, Total Antioxidant Status, and Homocysteine Levels in Football Players 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):239-246.
Purpose
Prolonged physical exercise results in transient elevations of biochemical markers of muscular damage. This study examined the effect of short-term maximal exercise on these markers, homocysteine levels (Hcy), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in trained subjects.
Methods
Eighteen male football players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5-min before and 3-min after a 30-s Wingate test.
Results
The results indicated that plasma biochemical markers of muscle injury increased significantly after the Wingate test (P<0.05). Moreover, significant increase of white blood Cells and their main subpopulations (i.e. monocytes, neutrophiles, and lymphocytes) (P<0.001) has been observed. Likewise, uric acid, total bilirubin, and TAS increased significantly after exercise (P<0.05). However, Hcy levels were unaffected by the Wingate test (for 3-min post-exercise measurement).
Conclusions
Short-term maximal exercise (e.g. 30-s Wingate test) is of sufficient intensity and duration to increase markers of muscle damage, and TAS; but not Hcy levels. Increases in the selected enzymes probably come primarily from muscle damage, rather than liver damage. Moreover, increase of TAS confirms the Wingate test induced oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC3525820  PMID: 23342222
Muscles; Injury; Exercise; Homocysteine; Antioxidants; Wingate Test
18.  Does Muscle Mass Affect Running Times in Male Long-distance Master Runners? 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):247-256.
Purpose
The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between skeletal muscle mass, body fat and training characteristics with running times in master athletes (age > 35 years) in half-marathon, marathon and ultra-marathon.
Methods
We compared skeletal muscle mass, body fat and training characteristics in master half-marathoners (n=103), master marathoners (n=91) and master ultra-marathoners (n=155) and investigated associations between body composition and training characteristics with race times using bi- and multi-variate analyses.
Results
After multi-variate analysis, body fat was related to half-marathon (β=0.9, P=0.0003), marathon (β=2.2, P<0.0001), and ultra-marathon (β=10.5, P<0.0001) race times. In master half-marathoners (β=-4.3, P<0.0001) and master marathoners (β=-11.9, P<0.0001), speed during training was related to race times. In master ultra-marathoners, however, weekly running kilometers (β=-1.6, P<0.0001) were related to running times.
Conclusions
To summarize, body fat and training characteristics, not skeletal muscle mass, were associated with running times in master half-marathoners, master marathoners, and master ultra-marathoners. Master half-marathoners and master marathoners rather rely on a high running speed during training whereas master ultra-marathoners rely on a high running volume during training. The common opinion that skeletal muscle mass affects running performance in master runners needs to be questioned.
PMCID: PMC3525821  PMID: 23342223
Body Fat; Skinfold Thickness; Anthropometry; Running; Sports
19.  Body Composition and Dietary Intake of Elite Cross-country Skiers Members of the Greek National Team 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):257-266.
Purpose
To assess the anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake of the Greek national cross-country skiing team.
Methods
Thirty-three athletes (10 females aged 20 ± 5 years; 23 males aged 20 ± 6 years old) participated in the study. All athletes were members of the Greek national ski team, and they had been selected to take part in the Winter Olympics, World Ski Championships, European Ski Championships or other international events, according to their performance. Body composition was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and skinfold thickness. The athletes recorded their physical activity and dietary intake for 3 training days, and on a competition day.
Results
The female skiers had 14.2±1.9% body fat, the men 11.0±1.5% body fat. Female athletes consumed a diet of 1988±319 Kcal during training days and 2011±330 Kcal during competition days. Male athletes consumed 2255±790 Kcal and 2125±639 Kcal respectively. These values are below those recommended for highly active people. During the training period, carbohydrate, fat and protein contributed to 44.5±7.1%, 39.2±5.3% and 16.1±3.7% of the total energy intake (EI) respectively for the males, and to 52.8±5.6%, 33.0±3.7% and 14.3±2.5% of the EI of the women. Between training and competition days, men demonstrated an increased carbohydrate and reduced fat consumption when competing (P<0.001 for both). Women, on the other hand, consumed more carbohydrate and less protein during competition days (P<0.05 for both). Protein intake was within the recommended range for both males and females, but fat exceeded the recommended values and was consumed at the expense of carbohydrate. Vitamins B12, D, E and K, biotin, folate, Ca, Mg, K, I were inadequately consumed (below the RDA) by both women and men, while the women also exhibited inadequate intakes of iron and the men of manganese.
Conclusions
The inadequate energy and nutrient intake in the Greek national cross-country ski team could put the athletes at risk of nutritional deficiencies, and possibly compromise their athletic performance.
PMCID: PMC3525822  PMID: 23342224
Athletes; Body Fat; Cross-country Skiing; Nutrients; Diet
20.  Reliability of 1-Repetition Maximum Estimation for Upper and Lower Body Muscular Strength Measurement in Untrained Middle Aged Type 2 Diabetic Patients 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):267-273.
Purpose
The 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) test is the gold standard test for evaluating maximal dynamic strength of groups of muscles. However, safety of actual 1-RM testing is questionable in clinical situations such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), where an estimated 1-RM test is preferred. It is unclear if acceptable test retest reliability exists for the estimated 1-RM test in middle aged T2D patients. This study examined the reliability of the estimated 1-RM strength test in untrained middle aged T2D subjects.
Methods
Twenty five untrained diabetic males (n=19) and females (n=6) aged 40.7+0.4 years participated in the study. Participants undertook the first estimated 1-RM test for five exercises namely supine bench press, leg press, lateral pull, leg extension and seated biceps curls. A familiarisation session was provided three to five days before the first test. 1-RM was estimated for all participants by Brzycki 1-RM prediction equation. Another identical 1-RM estimation procedure occurred one week after first test. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), paired t-test, standard error of measurement (SEM), Bland-Altman plots, and estimation of 95% CI were used to assess reliability.
Results
Test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC2,1=0.98-0.99) for all measurements with the highest for leg extension (ICC2,1=0.99). The SEM was lowest for lateral pull and leg extension exercises. Paired t-tests showed non-significant differences between the means of 2 sessions across three of five exercises.
Conclusions
The study findings suggest that estimation of 1-RM is reliable for upper and lower body muscular strength measurement in untrained middle aged T2D patients.
PMCID: PMC3525823  PMID: 23342225
Reliability; Prediction; Type 2 Diabetes; 1-Repetition Maximum; Exercise
21.  Effects of Prefabricated Ankle Orthoses on Postural Stability in Basketball Players with Chronic Ankle Instability 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):274-278.
Purpose
Ankle sprain is one of the most common injuries among athletes and instability and injury to this joint is responsible for long time loss of physical and recreational activity. Also, it can impose high costs to sport teams. Prevention of this injury is an important concern of practice and rehabilitation. One way of reducing the possibility of ankle joint injury is using an ankle orthosis. The present study aimed at inspecting the effects of two ankle orthoses on dynamic and semi-dynamic postural stability in athletes with chronic ankle instability (CAI).
Methods
Twenty basketball players with CAI and fifteen non-injured athletes volunteered to participate in this study. Biodex Balance System was used to assess the participants’ postural stability in bilateral position at level 8 and level 2. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed in order to examine the effects of ankle orthoses. Statistical significance level was determined at P< 0.05.
Results
Statistical analyses revealed the significant effect of ankle supports on dynamic and semi-dynamic postural stability in the two groups and results indicated there wasn't significant difference between groups.
Conclusions
According to our results the orthoses improved both dynamic and semi-dynamic postural stability. Therefore, orthoses can prevent injury and its reoccurrence.
PMCID: PMC3525824  PMID: 23342226
Postural Balance; Ankle; Joint Instability; Basketball; Orthoses
22.  Resistance Training and Vibration Improve Muscle Strength and Functional Capacity in Female Patients with Multiple Sclerosis 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):279-284.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eight-week progressive resistance training and vibration program on strength and ambulatory function in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
Methods
Twenty-Four female MS patients with the following demographics: age 27-45 years, and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) 2-4, participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The exercise group (n = 12) trained according to a progressive program, mainly consisting of resistance training and vibration, three times a week for eight weeks and compared with subjects in the control group (n = 12) that received no intervention. Subjects completed one set of 5-12 reps at%50-70 maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). After 5-10 minutes rest, six postures on plate vibration were done. Isotonic MVC of knee extensors, abduction of the scapula and downward rotation of the scapular girdle muscle groups were predicted by using the Brzycki formula. Right leg balance (RLB), left leg balance (LLB), and walking speed (10-Meter Walk Test) were assessed before and after the training program. Descriptive statistics and Co-variance were used for analyzing data.
Results
After eight weeks of training the exercise group showed significant increase in MVC of Knee extensors (32.3%), Abduction of the scapula (24.7%) and Downward Rotation Scapular (39.1%) muscle groups, RLB (33.5%), LLB (9.5%), and decrease in 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) (9.3%), (P<0.05).
Conclusions
The results of this study indicated this type of training can cause improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis.
PMCID: PMC3525825  PMID: 23342227
Multiple Sclerosis; Resistance Training; Whole Body Vibration
23.  Fatalities Among Iranian High-altitude Outdoor Enthusiasts: Causes and Mechanisms 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):285-290.
Purpose
This study was performed to determine the possible causes and mechanisms of fatalities among Iranian mountaineers during climbing.
Methods
By contacting several sources, deceased mountaineers were identified. Data about the causes and mechanism of death was retrospectively obtained using a standard questionnaire for each case.
Results
A total of 29 deaths were identified from March 2006 to June 2010. Deceased subjects had a mean age of 39 years (SD: 12.8, Range: 20-67). Falling was the most common accident leading to death of outdoor enthusiasts (n = 14, 48%). Asphyxia (n = 6, 24%) was the most common cause of death among the subjects, followed by heart attack, internal bleeding, cerebral hemorrhage and hypothermia (17%, 17%, 17% and 10%, respectively).
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that education of medical service providers of the climbing groups on facing victims in high altitude areas, where they have limited resources, can be particularly helpful. In addition, a national program to educate mountaineers might help to reduce fatalities.
PMCID: PMC3525826  PMID: 23342228
Mortality; Altitude; Mountaineering; Risk Factors
24.  Pelvic Incidence and Lumbar Spine Instability Correlations in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):291-296.
Purpose
Many factors such as lumbar instability and spinopelvic alignment are associated with low back pain. Our purpose was to analyze the pelvic incidence - one of spinopelvic alignment parameters- and spine instability correlations in patients with chronic low back pain.
Methods
Fifty-two patients suffering from chronic low back pain entered this case control study. Lateral spine radiography was taken from patients. pelvic incidence and L3, L4 and L5‘s vertebral body width were measured for all patients, and lumbar instability was evaluated in 3 different levels: L5-S1, L4-L5 and L3-L4.
Results
Thirty-two patients having lumbar instability formed group A and 20 patients without lumbar spine instability allocated to group B. Average age, mean weight, height, body mass index and mean vertebral width of both groups did not differ meaningfully. Pelvic incidence‘s mean amounts set to 53.9 in group B and 57.7 in group A without any significant difference; but pelvic incidence was significantly lower in patients with lumbar instability of L5-S1 origin (P=0.01).
Conclusions
Overall, pelvic incidence did not differ between two groups. However, separate evaluation of each level revealed lumbar instability of L5-S1 segment to be associated with lower pelvic incidence.
PMCID: PMC3525827  PMID: 23342229
Lumbar Vertebrae; Postural Balance; Low Back Pain; Spine; Pelvic Region
25.  Behavior and Knowledge of Iranian Professional Athletes towards Smoking 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(4):297-300.
Purpose
This study aimed to assess the rate of tobacco consumption among professional athletes in Iran and assessing their knowledge and attitude in this regard.
Methods
A total of 738 athletes from 10 different types of sports were evaluated. Athletes were all members of the priority leagues. After obtaining consent from the Physical Education Organization and coordination with the related federations, athletes were asked to fill out the standard questionnaire.
Results
All understudy subjects were males. The mean age was 28.4±2.7 yrs. The mean age of initiation of sport in these subjects was reported to be 12.3±4.01 yrs. A total of 178 (24.6%) subjects had experienced cigarette smoking and 308 (42.3%) had experienced hookah smoking. Sixty four subjects (9%) were current smokers. The mean score of knowledge about hazards of smoking was 5.6±0.9 among those who had experienced smoking. This score was 7.9±0.5 among those with no smoking experience (P=0.04).
Conclusions
Rate of smoking among professional athletes is lower than general population average. So participation in organized sports may be a protective factor against tobacco use in people.
PMCID: PMC3525828  PMID: 23342230
Tobacco Smoking; Athletes; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice

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