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1.  A Comparison of Anthropometric and Training Characteristics between Female and Male Half-Marathoners and the Relationship to Race Time 
Purpose
Lower limb skin-fold thicknesses have been differentially associated with sex in elite runners. Front thigh and medial calf skin-fold appear to be related to 1,500m and 10,000m time in men but 400m time in women. The aim of the present study was to compare anthropometric and training characteristics in recreational female and male half-marathoners.
Methods
The association between both anthropometry and training characteristics and race time was investigated in 83 female and 147 male recreational half marathoners using bi- and multi-variate analyses.
Results
In men, body fat percentage (β=0.6), running speed during training (β=-3.7), and body mass index (β=1.9) were related to half-marathon race time after multi-variate analysis. After exclusion of body mass index, r2 decreased from 0.51 to 0.49, but body fat percentage (β=0.8) and running speed during training (β=-4.1) remained predictive. In women, body fat percentage (β=0.75) and speed during training (β=-6.5) were related to race time (r2=0.73). For women, the exclusion of body mass index had no consequence on the predictive variables for half-marathon race time.
Conclusion
To summarize, in both female and male recreational half-marathoners, both body fat percentage and running speed during training sessions were related to half-marathon race times when corrected with co-variates after multi-variate regression analyses.
PMCID: PMC4009083  PMID: 24868427
Body Fat; Running Speed; Body Mass Index
2.  Physiological Responses and Performance Analysis Difference between Official and Simulated Karate Combat Conditions 
Purpose
This study aimed to compare physiological responses and time-motion analysis between official and simulated karate combat.
Methods
Ten high-level karatekas participated in this study, which included official and simulated karate combat.
Results
Karatekas used more upper-limb attack techniques during official combat compared to simulated ones (6±3 vs 3±1; P=0.05, respectively). For official and simulated karate matches, the numbers of high-intensity actions (i.e. offensive and defensive fighting activity) were 14±6 and 18±5, respectively (P>0.05), lasting from <1s to 5s each. Total fighting activity phase was lower during official compared to simulated matches (21.0±8.2s vs 30.4±9.9s, P<0.01, respectively). Effort (10.0±2.8s) to rest (11.9±2.7s) ratio (E:R) was 1:1 and high-intensity actions (1.6±0.3s) to rest (11.9±2.7s) ratio was higher than 1:7 during simulated combat. During official karate match, the activity and rest duration were 10.0±3.4s and 16.2±4.1s, respectively (E:R ratio 1:1.5), while high-intensity actions were 1.5±0.3s, resulting in an E:R ratio of 1:11. Blood lactate concentration was higher during official (11.14±1.82 mmol.l-1) compared to simulated karate combat (7.80±2.66 mmol.l-1) (P<0.05). Subjective perceived exertion differed significantly between official and simulated combat (14±2 vs. 12±2; P<0.05, respectively). The majority of karatekas’ perceived exertion was higher in the lower limb muscle groups irrespective of the karate combat condition.
Conclusion
Official and simulated matches differ considerably, therefore coaches should create new strategies during training sessions to achieve the same effort and pause profile of competitive matches and/or that athletes should be submitted to frequent competitions to adapt themselves to the profile of this event.
PMCID: PMC4009084  PMID: 24868428
Karate; Combat Sport; Time-motion Analysis; Physiological Responses
3.  Neuromuscular and Metabolic Responses to Three Different Resistance Exercise Methods 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of resistance exercise with three different methods on integrated electromyography (IEMG) and metabolic responses in recreational athletes.
Methods
Twenty four males (mean 23.59±0.87 years) were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. Participants performed knee extension exercises: Slow (SL: 3-3, 3s for each concentric and eccentric action with 50% of 1 RM), Normal (NH: 1-1, 1 s for each concentric and eccentric action 80% of 1 RM) and Traditional (TH: 2-4, 2s for concentric and 4s for eccentric action with 80% of 1 RM). Plasma lactate, glucose and triglyceride concentration and IEMG was measured before and immediately after performing four sets of resistance exercise.
Results
Each method significantly decreased IEMG (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between groups. Lactate was increased following TH and NH more than SL method (P<0.05). Each method significantly increased plasma glucose (P<0.05). Work considering time under tension (workTUT) was higher (P<0.05) during TH method than the other methods and during SL it was higher than NH method (P<0.05). Volume load was higher (P<0.05) during NH than the other two methods and during TH it was higher than SL method (P<0.05).
Conclusion
These results indicate that exercise intensity during the resistance exercise is important for the enhancement of lactate responses, but the slow resistance exercise method could induce acute neuromuscular response as much as high intensity methods. It seems that this method will be advantageous for those who want to increase acute neuromuscular changes with low exercise intensity and volume.
PMCID: PMC4009085  PMID: 24868429
Lactate; Recruitment; Motor Unit; Resistance Exercise; Metabolic Stress Response
4.  Association of Ambient Air Quality with Pulmonary Function of Youngster Footballers 
Purpose
Air pollution has remained a major health concern in Kolkata. The present study was carried out to analyze the association between the levels of air pollutants and pulmonary function of youngster footballers living in two different air pollutant zones of Kolkata, West Bengal.
Methods
Air pollution data of the two ambient air quality-monitoring stations located at Rabindrabharati and Victoria Memorial was collected for the period from January 2012 to March 2012. Study was conducted on two hundred and twenty boys of the age range 14-16 years living within 3km radius of the two monitoring stations. Sample consisted of 60 footballers (30 from Rabindrabharati and 30 from Victoria Memorial) and 160 sedentary boys (80 from Rabindrabharati and 80 from Victoria Memorial). They were investigated for their spirometric lung functions by the method and technique recommended by American Thoracic Society. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and independent samples T test was conducted to compare between two groups.
Results
Results revealed that particulate matter (PM10), oxides of sulfur (SO2) concentrations were significantly higher in Rabindrabharati zone, whereas no significant differences were noted in oxides of nitrogen (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations though values were higher at Rabindrabharati than Victoria Memorial. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced mid expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were significantly lower both in footballers (P<0.05) and sedentary boys (P<0.01) of Rabindrabharati zone.
Conclusion
Exposure to high air pollutant concentration might be associated with reduced pulmonary function in both sedentary and trained boys in spite of the fact that regular participation in training program may improve pulmonary function.
PMCID: PMC4009086  PMID: 24868430
Air Pollution; Pulmonary Function Test; Forced Vital Capacity; Footballers
5.  Physical Activity during a Prolonged Congested Period in a Top-Class European Football Team 
Purpose
The aim of the present study was to examine the variation in physical activity of elite soccer players within successive prolonged periods of fixture congestion over 5 months of competition during the competitive season 2011-2012.
Methods
Sixteen international players, classified into 6 positions (central defenders: CD; full-backs: FB; central defensive midfielders: CDM; wide midfielders: WM; central attacking midfielders: CAM; forwards: FW), were examined during the French First League, French Cup, and UEFA Champion's League matches. The total distance covered at light (<12 km.h−1), sustained-cruising (>18-21 km.h−1), high (>21-23 km.h−1), very high (>23-25 km.h−1), sub-maximal (>25-27 km.h−1), and maximal (>27 km.h−1) intensity running (IR) were measured and analysed using a semi-automatic match analysis system (Amisco Pro™).
Results
No differences were observed between congested and non-congested periods (two vs. one match a week, respectively) for the total distance covered at all the speed thresholds over 18 km.h−1, with no variation in physical fitness over the 5 studied months. Specifically to the playing positions, regardless of the congestion periods, FB and WM covered more distance than CDM over 21km.h−1; FB, WM and FW covered similar distances for all running intensities; and CD and CDM covered shorter distance during non-congested compared to congested periods (P<0.05) at light-IR.
Conclusion
The present study reveals that prolonged congested match fixture did not affect the high-intensity physical activity of top-class soccer players during official games during a 5 months fixture period.
PMCID: PMC4009087  PMID: 24868431
Fitness Training; Soccer; High-Intensity Running; Motion Analysis; Work Rate; Match Congestion
6.  Surface Electromyography Assessments of the Vastus medialis and Rectus femoris Muscles and Creatine Kinase after Eccentric Contraction Following Glutamine Supplementation 
Purpose
L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in human muscle and plays an important role in protein synthesis and can reduce the levels of inflammation biomarkers and creatine kinase (CK) after training sessions. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) develops after intense exercise and is associated with an inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamine supplementation on surface electromyography activity of the vastus medialis muscle (VMM) and rectus femoris muscle (RFM) and levels of creatine kinase after an eccentric contraction.
Methods
Seventeen healthy men (age: 22.35±2.27yr; body mass: 69.91± 9.78kg; height: 177.08±4.32cm) were randomly assigned to experimental (n=9) and control groups (n=8) in a double-blind manner. In both groups, subjects were given L-glutamine supplementation (0.1g.kg-1) or placebo three times a week for 4 weeks. Median frequency (MDF) and mean power frequency (MPF) for VMM and RFM muscles and also CK measurements were performed before, 24h and 48 h after a resistance training session. The resistance training included 6 sets of eccentric leg extensions to exhaustion with 75% of 1RM.
Results
There was no significant difference between groups for MDF or MPF in VMM and RFM. The difference of CK level between the groups was also not significant.
Conclusion
The results of this study indicate that glutamine supplementation has no positive effect on muscle injury markers after a resistance training session.
PMCID: PMC4009088  PMID: 24868432
Mean Power Frequency; Median Frequency; Creatine Kinase; Eccentric Exercise
7.  Post-Plyometric Exercise Hypotension and Heart Rate in Normotensive Individuals: Influence of Exercise Intensity 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(4):235-240.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high, moderate and low intensity plyometric exercise on the post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate responses.
Methods
Ten healthy normotensive men (age, 21.1±0.9 years; height, 175.8±6 cm; and body mass, 69.1±13.6 kg) volunteered to participate in this study and were evaluated for three non-consecutive days in depth jump exercise from 20-cm box (low intensity [LI]), 40-cm box (moderate intensity [MI]) and 60-cm box (high intensity [HI]) for 5 sets of 20 repetitions. After each exercise session, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every 10 min for a period of 90 min.
Results
No significant differences were observed among post-exercise SBP, DBP and HR when the protocols (LI, MI and HI) were compared. The LI and HI protocols showed greater reduction in SBP at 40th-70th min of post-exercise (~9%), whereas the LI and MI protocols indicated greater reduction in DBP at 10th-50th min of post exercise (~10%). In addition, the change in the DBP for HI was not significant and the increases in the HR were similar for all intensities.
Conclusion
It can be concluded that a plyometric exercise (PE) can reduce SBP and DBP post-exercise and therefore we can say that PE has significant effects for reducing BP and HR or post-exercise hypotension.
PMCID: PMC3977206  PMID: 24799997
Plyometric; Systolic Blood Pressure; Diastolic Blood Pressure; Heart Rate
8.  Positive Effect of the Use of Accelerometry on Lifestyle Awareness of Overweight Hypertensive Patients 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(4):241-248.
Purpose
Sedentary habits are strongly associated with increase of cardiovascular risk factors. The present study aimed to verify the role of accelerometry in identifying sedentary behavior, and the possible short term positive effect of this intervention on some anthropometric variables in a group of patients with cardiovascular risks factors.
Methods
To quantify daily Spontaneous Motor Activity (SMA) levels and identify sedentary behavior, an accelerometer was employed, in addition to a simple questionnaire, in a group of overweight, hypertensive subjects. A personalized unsupervised 3 month long physical exercise program was planned. After this time, acceleroometry was again undertaken to analyze the impact of the intervention on some life style parameters, including the number of the steps taken daily, and Physical Activity Level (PAL). In addition, body water balance, weight, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were also evaluated.
Results
Assessment of physical activity by accelerometry identifies sedentary behaviors in a larger number of individuals. After three months of regular unsupervised aerobic exercise, PAL improved from 1.56 ±0.1 to 1.68±0.2 with P<0.005, weight (kg) reduced from 85.13 ± 20 to 83.10 ± 19 (P<0.05), BMI from 29.58 to 28.7 (P<0.05).
Conclusion
Accelerometry allows to objectify PAL, and can be used to monitor improvement of variables strongly related to cardiovascular risk.
PMCID: PMC3977207  PMID: 24799998
Lifestyle; Accelerometer; Exercise as Prescription Therapy; Body Composition
9.  Naproxen Twice Daily Versus as Needed (PRN) Dosing: Efficacy and Tolerability for Treatment of Acute Ankle Sprain, a Randomized Clinical Trial 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(4):249-255.
Purpose
This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of naproxen 500 mg twice daily (BID) versus naproxen 500 mg as needed (PRN) for treatment of ankle sprain.
Methods
In this seven-day, randomized, parallel group trial, 135 patients with ankle sprain occurring less than 48 hours prior to the first dose of study medication were randomized to receive naproxen 500 mg BID (67 patients) and naproxen 500 mg as needed (PRN) (68 patients). The ankle pain was assessed at rest and on full weight bearing using Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) from 0 (no pain) to 10 (the worst imaginable pain). Ankle swelling was assessed as a 4-point scale ranging from 0 (no swelling) to 3 (severe swelling) rated by the investigator. The primary efficacy end point was the patient's assessment of ankle pain via NRS and the degree of swelling on day seven.
Results
Results showed a significant decrease in pain on weight bearing, pain at rest and the extent of swelling (P<0.001) in both groups, but there was no substantial difference between the two groups (P>0.05) after seven days. Assessing the safety profile of the two different dosing, 13.3% of the naproxen BID group and 6.7% of the as needed group had adverse events, showing that the as needed regimen was safer (P<0.001).
Conclusion
Results showed that naproxen as needed may reduce the pain and edema of the sprained ankle with no significant difference compared to the BID regimen, while it possesses better safety profile and lower total drug use.
PMCID: PMC3977208  PMID: 24799999
Ankle Sprain; Naproxen; Pain; Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents
10.  Gender Difference of Aerobic Contribution to Surface Performances in Finswimming: Analysis Using the Critical Velocity Method 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(4):256-262.
Purpose
Finswimming is a speed competition sport practiced on the surface or underwater, by using monofins or two fins. In surface events (SF), competitors should surface within 15 m after the start and any turns. The aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in the aerobic contribution to SF performances in finswimming, using the critical velocity (CV) concept in the analysis.
Methods
The participants were sixteen monofin swimmers (eight males and eight females; 24±6 years). During a two-day period, participants performed maximal effort swimming at five test distances (100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m), and mean swimming velocity (V) of each distance was calculated. CV was calculated as the slope of the regression line between time and distance in the 400 and 800 m SF tests.
Results
Although CV was significantly correlated with V800 m and V1500 m for males, it was significantly correlated with V200 m, V400 m, V800 m and V1500 m for females.
Conclusion
The present results suggest that although the aerobic performance might contribute to SF performance for events from medium distance (i.e. 200m) to long distance (i.e. 1500m) in female participants, it might contribute to the long distance SF performances in male participants.
PMCID: PMC3977209  PMID: 24800000
Finswimming; Monofin Swimming; Critical Velocity; Surface; Aerobic Contribution; Gender Difference
11.  Physiological and Perceived Exertion Responses during International Karate Kumite Competition 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(4):263-271.
Purpose
Investigate the physiological responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in elite karate athletes and examine the relationship between a subjective method (Session-RPE) and two objective heart-rate (HR)-based methods to quantify training-load (TL) during international karate competition.
Methods
Eleven karatekas took part in this study, but only data from seven athletes who completed three matches in an international tournament were used (four men and three women). The duration of combat was 3 min for men and 2 min for women, with 33.6±7.6 min for the first interval period (match 1–2) and 14.5±3.1 min for the second interval period (match 2–3). HR was continuously recorded during each combat. Blood lactate [La-] and (RPE) were measured just before the first match and immediately after each match.
Results
Means total fights time, HR, %HRmax, [La-], and session-RPE were 4.7±1.6 min, 182±9 bpm, 91±3%, 9.02±2.12 mmol.L-1 and 4.2±1.2, respectively. No significant differences in %HRmax, [La-], and RPE were noticed across combats. Significant correlations were observed between RPE and both resting HR (r=0.60; P=0.004) and mean HR (r=0.64; P=0.02), session-RPE and Banister training-impulse (TRIMP) (r=0.84; P<0.001) and Edwards TL (r=0.77; P<0.01).
Conclusion
International karate competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses and high [La-]. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate the zone between 90 and 100% HRmax. Karate coaches could use the RPE-method to follow competitor's competition loads and consider it in their technical and tactical training.
PMCID: PMC3977210  PMID: 24800001
Martial Arts; Heart Rate; Blood Lactate; Rating of Perceived Exertion
12.  Agreement Analysis among Measures of Thinness and Obesity Assessment in Iranian School Children and Adolescents 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(4):272-280.
Purpose
This study investigated the agreement of four anthropometric-based measurements including weight-for-height (WH), body mass index-for-age (BMI), mid-upper arm circumference-for-age (MUAC) and triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (TST) to identify underweight and overweight children and adolescents.
Methods
Two data sets were used in this research. The first one was a multistage random sample of 2397 healthy school children in pre-pubertal stage in Shiraz. The second data set consisted of 487 healthy students in pubertal stage and 558 students in post-pubertal stage. The parametric LMS method was used to construct reference centiles curves for each measure. The Kappa statistic was applied to examine the pairwise agreement of the four indices for detecting thinness and obesity.
Results
Generally, the pairwise agreement of adiposity measures was higher for identifying obesity than thinness. There was an excellent agreement between WH and BMI for detecting both thin and obese children in almost all subgroups (P<0.001). MUAC had an excellent agreement with BMI in pre-pubertal individuals (P<0.001). However, TST had a weak agreement with the other three indices for detecting thinness and weak to good agreement for classification of obesity.
Conclusion
The performance of the four anthropometric-based measurements varied by sex and maturity level. MUAC as a simple and low-cost screening tool can also be used as an alternative to BMI for obesity assessment among pre-pubertal groups.
PMCID: PMC3977211  PMID: 24800002
Anthropometry; Body Composition; Obesity; Adolescents; Children; Agreement Analysis
13.  Right Ventricle Chamber of Young Trained Athletes: Morphology and Function 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(4):281-288.
Purpose
The study of the right ventricular (RV) chamber has been recently improved by use of the 3D method. In young asymptomatic trained athletes, RV is not routinely investigated if not in suspected disease. This study is designed to test if the 3D method compared to 2D, adds information to study of RV morphology and function, in the early stages of myocardial remodeling of a group of young athletes.
Methods
The RV chamber function was assessed in 25 young trained athletes (20 soccer and 5 basketball) aged 20±3 yrs and compared to 20 sedentary controls by 2D-AC and 3D-RV methods (TomTec), measuring RV diastolic (RVDV) and systolic (RVSV) volumes or ejection fraction (EF).
Results
3D RV volumes were slightly higher in athletes than the 2D volumes in presence of lower EF values, but not significantly higher than in sedentary. Significant differences were conversely found comparing 3D systolic and diastolic RV volumes and 2D-AC volumes within each group with higher values in athletes (RVDV: P=0.001 for athletes and P<0.001 for sedentary, and RVSV: P<0.04 for athletes and P<0.001 for sedentary).
Conclusion
Although the found EF values were substantially similar, the morphological assessment of the initial modifications of this chamber of the young “athlete's heart”, results seem to be more accurate using the 3D method than 2D. The clinical implication of this aspect could be of interest in case of difficulty in drawing a clear diagnosis of any RV chamber disease in young athletes.
PMCID: PMC3977212  PMID: 24800003
Right Ventricle; 3D Function Analysis; Young Athletes
14.  Evaluation of Relationship between Trunk Muscle Endurance and Static Balance in Male Students 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(4):289-294.
Purpose
Fatigue of trunk muscle contributes to spinal instability over strenuous and prolonged physical tasks and therefore may lead to injury, however from a performance perspective, relation between endurance efficient core muscles and optimal balance control has not been well-known. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of trunk muscle endurance and static balance.
Methods
Fifty male students inhabitant of Tehran university dormitory (age 23.9±2.4, height 173.0±4.5 weight 70.7±6.3) took part in the study. Trunk muscle endurance was assessed using Sørensen test of trunk extensor endurance, trunk flexor endurance test, side bridge endurance test and static balance was measured using single-limb stance test. A multiple linear regression analysis was applied to test if the trunk muscle endurance measures significantly predicted the static balance.
Results
There were positive correlations between static balance level and trunk flexor, extensor and lateral endurance measures (Pearson correlation test, r=0.80 and P<0.001; r=0.71 and P<0.001; r=0.84 and P<0.001, respectively). According to multiple regression analysis for variables predicting static balance, the linear combination of trunk muscle endurance measures was significantly related to the static balance (F (3,46) = 66.60, P<0.001). Endurance of trunk flexor, extensor and lateral muscles were significantly associated with the static balance level. The regression model which included these factors had the sample multiple correlation coefficient of 0.902, indicating that approximately 81% of the variance of the static balance is explained by the model.
Conclusion
There is a significant relationship between trunk muscle endurance and static balance.
PMCID: PMC3977213  PMID: 24800004
Static Balance; Trunk Muscle Endurance; Sorensen Test; Trunk Flexor Endurance Test; Side Bridge Endurance Test; Single-Limb Stance Test
15.  Possibility of Delay in the Super-Compensation Phase due to Aging in Jump Practice 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(4):295-300.
Purpose
To investigate the possibility of a delay in the super-compensation phase due to aging in jump practice.
Methods
This study evaluated records in three phases (approximately every five years) of a man who had been participating in Masters Athletics for over 20 years. After correcting for air temperature, which would influence the distance on a standing five-step jump using simple regression analysis, the performance curve of the super-compensation phase was calculated at each phase by curvilinear estimation to assess the relationship between the training interval and distance on the standing five-step jump.
Results
A peak distance on the standing five-step jump was achieved after a training interval of 60 hours in the first phase; 75 hours in the second phase; and 88 hours in the third phase. That is, the peak distance tended to delay with aging.
Conclusion
It may be suggested that the super-compensation period would be delayed by aging in jump practice. We would like master athletes to refer this result and improve their performance.
PMCID: PMC3977214  PMID: 24800005
Master Athlete; Athletic Training; Triple Jump; Curvilinear Estimation; Exercise
16.  Comparative Study of Aerobic Performance Between Football and Judo Groups in Prepubertal Boys 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(3):165-174.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to compare the impact of the practice of football and judo on lung function and aerobic performance of prepubertal boys.
Methods
A total of ninety six prepubertal boys were studied. They assessed a measure of body composition using the skin folds method. They performed lung plethysmography at rest, followed by an incremental exercise test.
Results
There was no significant difference in baseline spirometry between all groups (P>0.05). The maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] and the VO2 at the ventilatory threshold [VT] were similar between all groups (P>0.05). The maximal minute ventilation [VEmax] of judokas was significantly higher than footballers (P<0.01) and similar at the [VT]. The Heart rate [HR] at [VT] of footballers and judokas was similar and significantly higher than control group (P<0.01). VO2max was significantly related to LM and negatively associated with FM. At the [VT] there was a significant relationship between P[VT] and LM and mainly with VE to VO2 [VT], P[VT] and HR[VT] in all groups.
Conclusion
Training in football and judo does not affect lung volumes and capacities, VO2max and VO2 at the [VT].
PMCID: PMC3880659  PMID: 24427474
Aerobic Performance; Ventilatory Threshold; Football; Judo; Spirometry; Prepubertal Boys
17.  Narita Target Heart Rate Equation Underestimates the Predicted Adequate Exercise Level in Sedentary Young Boys 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(3):175-180.
Purpose
Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys.
Methods
Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuous respiratory gas measurements according to the Craig method. The anaerobic threshold (AT) of the participants then was calculated using the Narita target heart rate equation.
Results
Hopkin's spreadsheet to obtain confidence limit and the chance of the true difference between gas measurements and Narita target heart rate equation revealed that the Narita equation most likely underestimates the measured anaerobic threshold in sedentary young boys (168.76±15 vs. 130.08±14.36) (Difference ±90% confidence limit: 38.1±18). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a poor agreement between the criterion method and Narita equation (ICC= 0.03).
Conclusion
According to the results, the Narita equation underestimates the measured AT. It seems that the Narita equation is a good predictor of aerobic not AT which can be investigated in the future studies.
PMCID: PMC3880660  PMID: 24427475
Anaerobic Threshold; Aerobic Threshold; Training Intensity; Heart Rate Performance Curve (HRPC)
18.  The Effects of Ingestion of Sugarcane Juice and Commercial Sports Drinks on Cycling Performance of Athletes in Comparison to Plain Water 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(3):181-189.
Purpose
Sugarcane juice (ScJ) is a natural drink popular in most tropical Asian regions. However, research on its effect in enhancing sports performance is limited. The present investigation was to study the effect of sugarcane juice on exercise metabolism and sport performance of athletes in comparison to a commercially available sports drinks.
Methods
Fifteen male athletes (18-25 yrs) were asked to cycle until volitional exhaustion at 70% VO2 max on three different trials viz. plain water (PW), sports drink (SpD) and ScJ. In each trial 3ml/kg/BW of 6 % of carbohydrate (CHO) fluid was given at every 20 min interval of exercise and a blood sample was taken to measure the hematological parameters. During recovery 200 ml of 9% CHO fluid was given and blood sample was drawn at 5, 10, 15 min of recovery.
Results
Ingestion of sugarcane juice showed significant increase (P<0.05) in blood glucose levels during and after exercise compared to SpD and PW. However, no significant difference was found between PW, SpD and ScJ for total exercise time, heart rate, blood lactate and plasma volume.
Conclusion
ScJ may be equally effective as SpD and PW during exercise in a comfortable environment (<30°C) and a more effective rehydration drink than SpD and PW in post exercise as it enhances muscle glycogen resynthesis.
PMCID: PMC3880661  PMID: 24427476
Sugarcane Juice; Exercise Performance; Fluids; Natural Drink
19.  Attributes of Dental Trauma in a School Population with Active Sports Involvement 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(3):190-194.
Purpose
Dental trauma has become an important aspect of dental public health. The primary requisite before actively dealing with such problems is to describe the extent, distribution, and variables associated with the specific condition. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and role of socioeconomic status and anatomic risk factors in traumatic dental injuries (TDI) to permanent anterior teeth in 10 to 16 year old Sainik (Army) school, children in India.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data was collected through a survey form and clinical examination. The permanent anterior teeth of four hundred and forty six male school children were examined for TDI. The socio-economic status, lip coverage and overjet were recorded. Statistical significance for the association between occurrence of TDI and the various risk factors was carried out.
Results
The prevalence of TDI to permanent anterior teeth was 23.8%. A large number of injuries occurred during participation in sports. Inadequate lip coverage and a large maxillary overjet were identified as important predictors for dental trauma.
Conclusion
A high prevalence of dental trauma was observed in the study population suggestive of low awareness regarding the cause, effects and prevention of the condition.
PMCID: PMC3880662  PMID: 24427477
Traumatic Dental Injuries; Overjet; Lip Competence; Anterior Teeth Trauma; Socioeconomic Status
20.  Altered Peak Knee Valgus during Jump-Landing among Various Directions in Basketball and Volleyball Athletes 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(3):195-200.
Purpose
Excessive knee valgus during landing tasks is a contributing factor to knee injuries. Most studies have examined lower extremity biomechanics during the forward direction of a jump-landing task. Athletes perform many movements in the air and land in multi-directions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the peak knee valgus angle (PKVA) during one leg jump-landing in various directions.
Methods
Eighteen male basketball and volleyball athletes participated in the study. Participants performed one leg jump-landing tests from a 30 cm height platform in four directions. Knee valgus motion was measured using Vicon™ motion system. The data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA.
Results
Direction significantly (P<0.001) influenced the PKVA during landing. Significantly higher PKVA was observed for the lateral (8.8°±4.7°) direction as compared to forward (5.8°±4.6°) direction (P<0.05). The PKVA in 30° diagonal (7.5°±4.6°) and 60° diagonal (7.7°±5.7°) directions was higher than in the forward direction (P<0.05).
Conclusion
One leg jump-landing in lateral and diagonal directions results in a higher PKVA compared to landing in a forward direction and could lead to a higher risk of knee injury.
PMCID: PMC3880663  PMID: 24427478
Jump-Landing; Knee Valgus Angle; Basketball and Volleyball; Risk of Knee Injury
21.  Martial Arts Training Attenuates Arterial Stiffness in Middle Aged Adults 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(3):201-207.
Purpose
Arterial stiffness increases with age and is related to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Poor trunk flexibility has been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged subjects. The purpose of our research study was to measure arterial stiffness and flexibility in healthy middle-aged martial artists compared to age and gender matched healthy sedentary controls.
Methods
Ten martial artists (54.0 ± 2.0 years), who practice Soo Bahk Do (SBD), a Korean martial art, and ten sedentary subjects (54.7 ± 1.8 years) for a total of twenty subjects took part in this cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all subjects using pulse wave velocity (PWV), a recognized index of arterial stiffness. Flexibility of the trunk and hamstring were also measured. The independent variables were the martial artists and matched sedentary controls. The dependent variables were PWV and flexibility.
Results
There were significant differences, between the SBD practitioners and sedentary controls, in PWV (P = 0.004), in trunk flexibility (P= 0.002), and in hamstring length (P= 0.003).
Conclusion
The middle-aged martial artists were more flexible in their trunk and hamstrings and had less arterial stiffness compared to the healthy sedentary controls. The flexibility component of martial art training or flexibility exercises in general may be considered as a possible intervention to reduce the effects of aging on arterial stiffness.
PMCID: PMC3880664  PMID: 24427479
Compliance; Flexibility; Karate; Sedentary; Elasticity
22.  Changes of Serum Retinol Binding Protein 4 Levels Following 8 Weeks Moderate Aerobic Exercise 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(3):208-212.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise on serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels in female athletes.
Methods
Twenty female karate athletics were randomly assigned to one of the exercise group (n = 10) or control group (n = 10). The training group performed endurance training 3 days a week for 8 weeks at an intensity corresponding to 50-60% individual maximum oxygen consumption for 45 min.
Results
Body mass and body mass index increased (P < 0.05) after 8 weeks aerobic exercise compared to the control group. For waist to hip ratio (WHR), body fat percentage and maximal oxygen consumption there were no significant differences between the exercise group and the control group. There were virtually no changes in body fat percentage, fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance and RBP4 levels after 8 weeks training.
Conclusion
Serum RBP4 level was not affected by 8-week moderate aerobic exercise in female athletes.
PMCID: PMC3880665  PMID: 24427480
RBP4; Aerobic Exercise; Female Athletes; Insulin Resistance
23.  Physiological Responses of General vs. Specific Aerobic Endurance Exercises in Soccer 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(3):213-220.
Purpose
The study aimed to compare the physiological and perceptual responses of two high intensity intermittent aerobic exercises (HIIE), i.e. the 15s/15s exercise and an exercise on the Hoff track (HTE).
Methods
In this within-subject repeated measures study, seven high-level soccer players (Age: 24.1± 4.5yr; Height: 175± 0.04cm; Body mass: 67.9± 9.0kg;% Body fat: 14.2± 2.4%) performed the two exercises with same total duration (25 minutes) in a randomized order: 1) a 15s/15s protocol at 120% of maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and 2) HTE. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured continuously throughout both exercises. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured 15 min after the end of each exercise. Blood lactate concentration ([La]) was measured at rest before each exercise, between and at the end of each set.
Results
The mean VO2 during HTE was significantly higher than 15s/15s exercise (39.3±2.3 vs. 36.8±1.9 mL/min/kg, P<0.05. The total O2 consumed was significantly higher (P<0.05) during HTE (66.8±7.6 L) than during the 15s/15s (62.3±8.6 L). Blood lactate [La] after the first set of HTE was significantly higher than the 15s/15s (12.5±2.0 vs. 10.6±2.0 mmol/L, P<0.05). However, RPE provided by players suggested that the 15s/15s was more intense than the HTE (13±1.8 vs. 11.7±1.4, P<0.05).
Conclusion
Our results demonstrate that VO2 and [La] were higher during HTE than during the 15s/15s when matched with duration. However, HTE was perceived less intense than 15s/15s. Thus, the use of HTE appears as an effective alternative for fitness coaches to develop aerobic endurance in soccer players.
PMCID: PMC3880666  PMID: 24427481
Football; Interval-Training; Aerobic Fitness; Rating of Perceived Exertion
24.  Comparison of Dynamic Balance in Collegiate Field Hockey and Football Players Using Star Excursion Balance Test 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(3):221-229.
Purpose
The preliminary study aimed to compare dynamic balance between collegiate athletes competing or training in football and hockey using star excursion balance test.
Methods
A total thirty university level players, football (n = 15) and field hockey (n = 15) were participated in the study. Dynamic balance was assessed by using star excursion balance test. The testing grid consists of 8 lines each 120 cm in length extending from a common point at 45° increments. The subjects were instructed to maintain a stable single leg stance with the test leg with shoes off and to reach for maximal distance with the other leg in each of the 8 directions. A pencil was used to point and read the distance to which each subject's foot reached. The normalized leg reach distances in each direction were summed for both limbs and the total sum of the mean of summed normalized distances of both limbs were calculated.
Results
There was no significant difference in all the directions of star excursion balance test scores in both the groups. Additionally, composite reach distances of both groups also found non-significant (P=0.5). However, the posterior (P=0.05) and lateral (P=0.03) normalized reach distances were significantly more in field hockey players.
Conclusion
Field hockey players and football players did not differ in terms of dynamic balance.
PMCID: PMC3880667  PMID: 24427482
Field Hockey; Football; Postural Balance; Star Excursion Balance Test
25.  Relationship between Aerobic Capacity and Yo-Yo IR1 Performance in Brazilian Professional Futsal Players 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2013;4(3):230-234.
Purpose
To evaluate the relationship between aerobic and intermittent capacities in a team of professional futsal players.
Methods
Fifteen futsal players from Brazilian first division (age: 25.9±5.1 yrs; height: 1.77±0.04 m, body mass: 74.37±6.02 kg) performed in random order a ramp test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) at the start of the season for determination of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak running speed (Speak), and intermittent running ability.
Results
Mean VO2max was of 57.25±6.35 ml·kg-1min-1 with a Speak of 17.69±1.88 km·h-1. Yo-Yo IR1 performance was of 1,226±282 m. There was no correlation between VO2max and Yo-Yo performance while Speak and Yo-Yo IR1 performance were correlated (r=0.641; P=0.007).
Conclusion
From the current results, it may be suggested that both continuous and intermittent physical evaluations are necessary for obtaining a complete fitness profile of futsal players. The low Yo-Yo IR1 performance of Brazilian futsal players when compared to other elite team sport athletes warrants further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3880668  PMID: 24427483
Performance; Team Sports; Monitoring; Anaerobic Capacity; High-Intensity Actions

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