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1.  Antisense mediated exon skipping therapy for duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) 
Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA  2011;2(1):6-15.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD) that result in the absence of essential muscle protein dystrophin. Among many different approaches for DMD treatment, exon skipping, mediated by antisense oligonucleotides, is one of the most promising methods for restoration of dystrophin expression. This approach has been tested extensively targeting different exons in numerous models both in vitro and in vivo. During the past 10 years, there has been a considerable progress by using DMD animal models involving three types of antisense oligonucleotides (2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate (2OME-PS), phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO)) and peptide nucleic acid (PNA).
doi:10.4161/adna.2.1.15425
PMCID: PMC3116580  PMID: 21686247
antisense; DMD; exon skipping; in vivo; splicing modulation; therapy

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