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1.  The potential role of 'non-rheumatic’ therapies in rheumatic disease 
The relationship between inflammation and insulin resistance is complex and not fully understood. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, which is known to be associated with insulin resistance. In the previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Ormseth and colleagues report the results of an 8-week trial of pioglitazone, an agent commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, upon the DAS-28 (disease activity score using 28 joint counts). Modest improvements in the DAS-28 CRP (DAS-28 C-reactive protein) were shown, with no effect on DAS-28 ESR (DAS-28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Other variables that improved with pioglitazone were the CRP, IL-6, and patient-reported assessment of global health. The authors discuss the contribution of insulin resistance to the inflammation noted in rheumatoid arthritis.
PMCID: PMC3978671  PMID: 24229459
2.  The use of glucocorticoids in rheumatoid arthritis - no 'rational' approach yet 
The relationship between glucocorticoids and bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis is complex. Further study into the optimal dosing, timing and duration of glucocorticoid use in rheumatoid arthritis is necessary.
PMCID: PMC2911892  PMID: 20602811
5.  A new paradigm of quality of care in rheumatoid arthritis: how our new therapeutics have changed the game 
Demonstrating the effectiveness of expensive new rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapeutics is imperative to determine whether the quality of care has improved with the introduction of these agents. Our current RA quality measures are primarily process based, but they must become outcomes based to better demonstrate quality. New RA quality measures must be multidimensional, accounting for all of the important outcomes in RA: radiographic, functional status, and disease activity. To fully understand the potential benefits of new therapeutics in RA, outcome measures must be integrated with routine practice.
PMCID: PMC3979023  PMID: 24164739
6.  DMARD non-use in low-income, elderly rheumatoid arthritis patients: results of 86 structured interviews 
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have become the treatment standard for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although several general-population studies document that a large population of patients diagnosed with RA do not use DMARDs, little is known about this group. We explored the characteristics, experiences, and knowledge of a low-income, elderly RA population not currently using DMARDs, or receiving care from a rheumatologist.
We administered structured telephone interviews to participants enrolled in a large pharmacy benefits program for the elderly who had two diagnoses of RA ≥7 days apart and no DMARD prescriptions or rheumatologist visits in the prior year. The interview contained questions concerning each participant’s sociodemographic information, disease activity, DMARD experiences, and the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ). We described responses and compared prior users with never users.
A total of 86 people completed the interview. The mean age was 80 years and 89% were female. On average, disease duration was 20 years. Mean MHAQ score was 0.55 (SD = 0.55). Of 86 participants, 19 had previously used DMARDs, 10 of whom discontinued them because of side effects or safety concerns. Among 67 never-users, 35 (52.2%) reported that their physicians had never offered them DMARDs, 13 (19.4%) described fear of side effects, and 49 (73.1%) knew nothing about them. Prior-users reported experiencing more-severe RA symptoms than never-users.
We found that side effects or safety concerns were the primary cause for DMARD cessation among prior-users. Among never-users, most reported never discussing or being offered DMARDs, suggesting that an educational gap may deter patients with RA from using them.
PMCID: PMC3978473  PMID: 24472640
7.  Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey 
Numerous studies across different health systems have documented that many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not receive disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Relatively little is known about correlates of DMARD use and whether there are socioeconomic and demographic disparities. We examined DMARD use during 2001 to 2006 in the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS), a longitudinal US survey of randomly selected Medicare beneficiaries.
Participants in MCBS with RA were included in the analyses, and DMARD use was based on an in-home assessment of all medications. Variables included as potential correlates of DMARD use in weighted regression models included race/ethnicity, insurance, income, education, rheumatology visit, region, age, gender, comorbidity index, and calendar year.
The cohort consisted of 509 MCBS participants with a diagnosis code for RA. Their median age was 70 years, 72% were female, and 24% saw a rheumatologist. Rates of DMARD use ranged from 37% among those <75 years of age to 25% of those age 75 to 84 and 4% of those age 85 and older. The multivariable adjusted predictors of DMARD use include: visit with a rheumatologist in the prior year (odds ratio, OR, 7.74, 95% CI, 5.37, 11.1) and older patient age (compared with <75 years, ages 75 to 84, OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37, 0.92, and 85 and over, OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.31). In those without a rheumatology visit, lower income and older age were associated with a significantly reduced probability of DMARD use; no association of DMARD use with income or age was observed for subjects seen by rheumatologists. Race and ethnicity were not significantly associated with receipt of DMARDs.
Among individuals not seeing rheumatologists, lower income and older age were associated with a reduced probability of DMARD use.
PMCID: PMC3672709  PMID: 23506671
8.  Hydroxychloroquine improves insulin sensitivity in obese non-diabetic individuals 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(3):R135.
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a common disease modifying therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Prior research suggests that HCQ may reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with RA. To investigate the mechanism of this effect, we examined the effect of HCQ on insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β-cell secretion of insulin in non-diabetic, obese subjects.
We recruited 13 obese, non-diabetic subjects without systemic inflammatory conditions for an open-label longitudinal study of HCQ 6.5 mg per kilogram per day for six weeks. Subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at three time points: 0 weeks (pre-treatment with HCQ), 6 weeks (at the end of the HCQ treatment), and 12 weeks (6 weeks post HCQ-treatment). The Matsuda Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI), HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B were compared across time-points.
The mean age of the cohort was 49 years, 77% females and median body mass index was 36.1 kg/m2. After 6 weeks of HCQ therapy, ISI increased from a median (interquartile range) of 4.5 (2.3-7.8) to 8.9 (3.7-11.4) with a p-value of 0.040, and HOMA-IR decreased from a median of 2.1 (1.6-5.4) to 1.8 (1.02-2.1) with a p-value of 0.09. All these variables returned toward baseline at week 12.
HCQ use for 6 weeks in non diabetic obese subjects was associated with a significant increase in ISI and trends toward reduced insulin resistance and insulin secretion. These data suggest that HCQ, a common medication used to treat RA, possesses beneficial effects upon insulin sensitization. Further study of the insulin sensitizing effects of HCQ in patients with RA is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3446518  PMID: 22676348
9.  The relationship between hand osteoarthritis and serum leptin concentration in participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(3):R132.
Leptin has been suspected to contribute to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). However, this hypothesis has not been tested in large-scale hand OA cohorts. Our study aimed to determine whether there is a cross-sectional relationship between serum leptin levels and hand OA in a population-based sample of US adults.
We used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a national cross-sectional population-based survey, to study the relationship between hand OA and serum leptin concentration. We applied previously established classification criteria for hand OA. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Potential confounders included sex, body mass index, the presence of polyarticular OA, diabetes, and total cholesterol. We estimated unadjusted mean leptin concentration by hand OA status and by all confounders. We further developed a linear regression model to assess mean leptin levels, adjusted for appropriate confounders.
Of 2,477 subjects in the NHANES III sample that had a hand examination and did not have rheumatoid arthritis, 1,056 (42.6%) had a leptin measurement and were included in the analysis. Subjects with and without leptin measurement had similar demographic characteristics. We did not find any significant differences in mean serum leptin levels in subjects with symptomatic hand OA (7.38 ng/ml in males (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.31, 9.46) and 21.55 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 17.08, 26.02)), asymptomatic hand OA (6.69 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 5.19, 8.18) and 17.09 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 15.00, 19.18)), and no hand OA (8.22 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 7.47, 8.97) and 20.77 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 18.01, 23.53)) in the unadjusted analysis. In a multivariable linear regression model that included variables of hand OA status, age, race/ethnicity, and obesity status, we found no statistically significant association between serum leptin and hand OA status.
In this cross-sectional study of a large representative US cohort, we did not find any evidence to support the hypothesis that serum leptin is associated with hand OA.
PMCID: PMC3446514  PMID: 22651805
10.  Use of administrative claims data for comparative effectiveness research of rheumatoid arthritis treatments 
Observational studies, particularly those using large administrative claims databases, have become increasingly popular sources of comparative effectiveness or comparative safety research. Studies using claims data often face challenges and criticisms due to the lack of certain clinical information, such as lifestyle risk factors, disease severity, and questionable accuracy of disease diagnoses. A novel, claims-based algorithm to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of rheumatoid arthritis medications has been developed and its performance seems promising, although further validation is needed.
PMCID: PMC3308086  PMID: 21996148
11.  Sustained rheumatoid arthritis remission is uncommon in clinical practice 
Remission is an important goal of therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but data on duration of remission are lacking. Our objective was to describe the duration of remission in RA, assessed by different criteria.
We evaluated patients from the Brigham and Women's Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS) not in remission at baseline with at least 2 years of follow-up. Remission was assessed according to the Disease Activity Score 28-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP4), Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) scores, and the recently proposed American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria for remission. Analyses were performed by using Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
We identified 871 subjects with ≥2 years of follow-up. Of these subjects, 394 were in remission at one or more time-points and not in remission at baseline, according to at least one of the following criteria: DAS28-CRP < 2.6 (n = 309), DAS28-CRP < 2.3 (n = 275), SDAI (n = 168), CDAI (n = 170), and 2010 ACR/EULAR (n = 158). The median age for the 394 subjects at entrance to BRASS was 56 years; median disease duration was 8 years; 81% were female patients; and 72% were seropositive. Survival analysis performed separately for each remission criterion demonstrated that < 50% of subjects remained in remission 1 year later. Median remission survival time was 1 year. Kaplan-Meier curves of the various remission criteria did not significantly differ (P = 0.29 according to the log-rank test).
This study shows that in clinical practice, a minority of RA patients are in sustained remission.
PMCID: PMC3446437  PMID: 22429277
12.  Primary care physicians' perspectives towards managing rheumatoid arthritis: room for improvement 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2011;13(6):R189.
Many people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not receive care from a rheumatologist. We surveyed primary care physicians (PCPs) to better understand their attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding the optimal treatment of RA.
Randomly selected PCPs practicing in the US were surveyed. The survey encompassed their experience with RA, use of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and experience with rheumatology referrals. Logistic regression analyses described the responses and examined the correlation between physician variables and use of DMARDs.
E-mail invitations were opened by 1, 103 PCPs and completed by 267 (25%). Most respondents were men (68%) in practice for over 10 years (64%) who reported 6 or more RA patients under their care in the last year (71%). The majority reported some RA training after medical school (59%), but only one-third felt very confident managing this condition. Most (81%) reported prescribing DMARDs, but 37% do not initiate them, with only 9% reporting being very confident starting a DMARD. In unadjusted analyses, several respondent characteristics were strongly associated with not prescribing DMARDs, but none was significant after adjustment. Almost half (44%) of PCPs noted that patients report difficulty getting appointments with rheumatologists.
We found many PCPs are uncomfortable managing RA with DMARDs, despite common beliefs that their patients lack access to a rheumatologist. Lack of accessibility to rheumatologists and discomfort in prescribing DMARDs for patients with RA are potential barriers to optimal treatment.
PMCID: PMC3334638  PMID: 22098699
13.  Validation of rheumatoid arthritis diagnoses in health care utilization data 
Health care utilization databases have been increasingly used for studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the accuracy of RA diagnoses in these data has been inconsistent.
Using medical records and a standardized abstraction form, we examined the positive predictive value (PPV) of several algorithms to define RA diagnosis using claims data: A) at least two visits coded for RA (ICD-9, 714); B) at least three visits coded for RA; and C) at least two visits to a rheumatologist for RA. We also calculated the PPVs for the subgroups identified by these algorithms combined with pharmacy claims data for at least one disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) prescription.
We invited 9,482 Medicare beneficiaries with pharmacy benefits in Pennsylvania to participate; 2% responded and consented for review of their medical records. There was no difference in characteristics between respondents and non-respondents. Using 'RA diagnosis per rheumatologists' as the gold standard, the PPVs were 55.7% for at least two claims coded for RA, 65.5% for at least three claims for RA, and 66.7% for at least two rheumatology claims for RA. The PPVs of these algorithms in patients with at least one DMARD prescription increased to 86.2%-88.9%. When fulfillment of 4 or more of the ACR RA criteria was used as the gold standard, the PPVs of the algorithms combined with at least one DMARD prescriptions were 55.6%-60.7%.
To accurately identify RA patients in health care utilization databases, algorithms that include both diagnosis codes and DMARD prescriptions are recommended.
PMCID: PMC3241376  PMID: 21345216
14.  The relationship between cancer and rheumatoid arthritis: still a large research agenda 
The association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and malignancies has received increased attention in recent years. Reports suggesting that tumor necrosis factor blockers might elevate the risk of malignancy in RA patients have prompted researchers to look at the incidence of malignancies in all RA patients. In a recent issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Smitten and colleagues suggest that previous reports of a standardized incidence ratio close to one for malignancies in RA may reflect an increased risk for some site-specific malignancies and a reduced risk for others. Here we discuss these findings and suggest what issues could be addressed in future studies.
PMCID: PMC2483437  PMID: 18495048
15.  Pain persists in DAS28 rheumatoid arthritis remission but not in ACR/EULAR remission: a longitudinal observational study 
Disease remission has become a feasible goal for most rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients; however, patient-reported symptoms, such as pain, may persist despite remission. We assessed the prevalence of pain in RA patients in remission according to the Disease Activity Score (DAS28-CRP4) and the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) remission criteria.
Data were analyzed from RA patients in the Brigham Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study with data at baseline and 1 year. DAS28 remission was defined as DAS28-CRP4 <2.6. The ACR/EULAR remission criteria included (a) one or more swollen joints, (b) one or more tender joints, (c) C-reactive protein ≤1 mg/dl, and (d) patient global assessment score ≤1. Pain severity was measured by using the pain score from the Multi-Dimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ). The associations between baseline clinical predictors and MDHAQ pain at baseline and 1 year were assessed by using multivariable linear regression.
Among the 865 patients with data at baseline and 1 year, 157 (18.2%) met DAS28-CRP4 remission criteria at both time points. Thirty-seven (4.3%) met the ACR/EULAR remission criteria at baseline and 1 year. The prevalence of clinically significant pain (MDHAQ pain ≥4) at baseline ranged from 11.9% among patients meeting DAS28-CRP4 remission criteria to none among patients meeting ACR/EULAR remission criteria. Patient global assessment, MDHAQ function, MDHAQ fatigue, MDHAQ sleep, and arthritis self-efficacy were significantly associated with MDHAQ pain in cross-sectional (P ≤ 0.0005) and longitudinal analyses (P ≤ 0.03). Low swollen-joint counts were associated with high MDHAQ pain in longitudinal analyses (P = 0.02) but not cross-sectional analyses. Other measures of inflammatory disease activity and joint damage were not significantly associated with MDHAQ pain at baseline or at 1 year.
Clinically significant pain continues among a substantial proportion of patients in DAS28 remission but not among those in ACR/EULAR remission. Among patients in DAS28 remission, patient global assessment, disability, fatigue, sleep problems, and self-efficacy are strongly associated with pain severity at baseline and 1 year, whereas inflammatory disease activity and joint damage are not significantly associated with elevated pain severity at either baseline or 1 year.
PMCID: PMC3218896  PMID: 21651807
16.  Risk of osteoporotic fracture in a large population-based cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2010;12(4):R154.
Although osteoporosis has been reported to be more common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), little is known whether the risk of osteoporotic fractures in these patients differs by age, sex, and anatomic site.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a health care utilization database. Incidence rates (IRs) and rate ratios (RRs) of osteoporotic fractures with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models compared the risk of osteoporotic fracture at typical sites between RA and non-RA patients.
During a median 1.63-year follow-up, 872 (1.9%) of 47,034 RA patients experienced a fracture. The IR for osteoporotic fracture at typical sites among RA patients was 9.6 per 1,000 person-years, 1.5 times higher than the rate of non-RA patients. The IR was highest for hip fracture (3.4 per 1,000 person-years) in RA. The IRs across all age groups were higher for women than men and increased with older age in both groups. The RRs were elevated in RA patients across all common sites of osteoporotic fracture: hip (1.62, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.84), wrist (1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.32), pelvis (2.02, 95% CI 1.77 to 2.30), and humerus (1.51, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.84). After confounding adjustment, a modest increase in risk for fracture was noted with RA (hazard ratio 1.26, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.38).
Our study showed an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures for RA patients across all age groups, sex and various anatomic sites, compared with non-RA patients.
PMCID: PMC2945054  PMID: 20682035
17.  Bisphosphonates and risk of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis 
Bisphosphonates are the most commonly used drugs for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although a recent FDA review of the results of clinical trials reported no clear link between bisphosphonates and serious or non-serious atrial fibrillation (AF), some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between AF and bisphosphonates.
We conducted a meta-analysis of non-experimental studies to evaluate the risk of AF associated with bisphosphonates. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE using a combination of the Medical Subject Headings and keywords. Our search was limited to English language articles. The pooled estimates of odds ratios (OR) as a measure of effect size were calculated using a random effects model.
Seven eligible studies with 266,761 patients were identified: three cohort, three case-control, and one self-controlled case series. Bisphosphonate exposure was not associated with an increased risk of AF [pooled multivariate OR 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.16] after adjusting for known risk factors. Moderate heterogeneity was noted (I-squared score = 62.8%). Stratified analyses by study design, cohort versus case-control studies, yielded similar results. Egger's and Begg's tests did not suggest an evidence of publication bias (P = 0.90, 1.00 respectively). No clear asymmetry was observed in the funnel plot analysis. Few studies compared risk between bisphosphonates or by dosing.
Our study did not find an association between bisphosphonate exposure and AF. This finding is consistent with the FDA's statement.
PMCID: PMC2875664  PMID: 20170505
18.  The relationship between disease activity, sleep, psychiatric distress and pain sensitivity in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2009;11(5):R160.
Despite recent advances in anti-inflammatory therapy, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients continue to rate pain as a priority. The etiology of RA pain is likely multifactorial, including both inflammatory and non-inflammatory components. In this study, we examine the association between disease activity, sleep, psychiatric distress and pain sensitivity in RA.
Fifty-nine female RA patients completed questionnaires and underwent pressure pain threshold testing to assess hyperalgesia/allodynia at joint and non-joint sites. Blood samples were taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). The association between disease activity, sleep problems, psychiatric distress and pain threshold was assessed using Pearson/Spearman correlations and multivariable linear regression. Disease activity levels, sleep problems and psychiatric distress were compared between RA patients with fibromyalgia and RA patients without fibromyalgia.
In unadjusted analyses, CRP was not correlated with pain threshold, but tender joint count was inversely correlated with pain threshold at all sites (P ≤ 0.004). Sleep problems were associated with low pain threshold at all sites (P ≤ 0.0008). Psychiatric distress was associated with low pain threshold at the wrist and thumbnail (P ≤ 0.006). In multivariable linear regression models, CRP was inversely associated with wrist pain threshold (P = 0.003). Sleep problems were inversely associated with pain threshold at all sites (P ≤ 0.01), but psychiatric distress was not. Despite differences in pain threshold, CRP levels and sleep problems between RA patients with fibromyalgia and those without fibromyalgia, associations between these variables did not change when patients with fibromyalgia were excluded.
Multivariable models are essential in analyses of pain. Among RA patients, inflammation is associated with heightened pain sensitivity at joints. In contrast, poor sleep is associated with diffuse pain sensitivity, as noted in central pain conditions such as fibromyalgia. Future studies examining pain sensitivity at joint and non-joint sites may identify patients with different underlying pain mechanisms and suggest alternative approaches to treating RA pain.
PMCID: PMC2787262  PMID: 19874580
19.  Development of a health care utilisation data-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity: a preliminary study 
Health care utilisation ('claims') databases contain information about millions of patients and are an important source of information for a variety of study types. However, they typically do not contain information about disease severity. The goal of the present study was to develop a health care claims index for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) severity using a previously developed medical records-based index for RA severity (RA medical records-based index of severity [RARBIS]).
The study population consisted of 120 patients from the Veteran's Administration (VA) Health System. We previously demonstrated the construct validity of the RARBIS and established its convergent validity with the Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Potential claims-based indicators were entered into a linear regression model as independent variables and the RARBIS as the dependent variable. The claims-based index for RA severity (CIRAS) was created using the coefficients from models with the highest coefficient of determination (R2) values selected by automated modelling procedures. To compare our claims-based index with our medical records-based index, we examined the correlation between the CIRAS and the RARBIS using Spearman non-parametric tests.
The forward selection models yielded the highest model R2 for both the RARBIS with medications (R2 = 0.31) and the RARBIS without medications (R2 = 0.26). Components of the CIRAS included tests for inflammatory markers, number of chemistry panels and platelet counts ordered, rheumatoid factor, the number of rehabilitation and rheumatology visits, and Felty's syndrome diagnosis. The CIRAS demonstrated moderate correlations with the RARBIS with medication and the RARBIS without medication sub-scales.
We developed the CIRAS that showed moderate correlations with a previously validated records-based index of severity. The CIRAS may serve as a potentially important tool in adjusting for RA severity in pharmacoepidemiology studies of RA treatment and complications using health care utilisation data.
PMCID: PMC2575609  PMID: 18717997
20.  The validity of a rheumatoid arthritis medical records-based index of severity compared with the DAS28 
The objective of this work was to assess the convergent validity of a previously developed rheumatoid arthritis medical records-based index of severity (RARBIS) by comparing it with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). This study was conducted in subjects within the Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS). We selected 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the BRASS with DAS28 scores equally distributed in four quartiles. The medical records were reviewed to calculate the RARBIS, which includes indicators from the following categories: prior surgical history, radiologic and laboratory findings, clinical and functional status, and extra-articular manifestations. The Spearman correlation between the RARBIS and the DAS28 was assessed in the total study population and in relevant subgroups. We re-weighted on subscales and recalculated the RARBIS score. This was performed based on findings of correlations between the DAS28 and subscales; and also the result from a multiple linear regression with the DAS28 (as a dependent variable) and five subscales (as independent variables). The mean RARBIS was 4.36 (range 0–11). Among the total study cohort, the RARBIS was moderately correlated with the DAS28 (r = 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.56). In subgroup analyses, including age, gender, rheumatoid factor status, and disease duration, we found no statistically significant differences in the correlations. After re-weighting, the correlation between the RARBIS and the DAS28 was somewhat improved (r = 0.48, 95% CI 0.31–0.62). In conclusion, the RARBIS correlated moderately well with the DAS28 in this population. The RARBIS has both face and convergent validity for patients with RA and relevant subgroups and may have application for medical records studies in patients with RA.
PMCID: PMC1526615  PMID: 16542499

Results 1-20 (20)