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4.  How much sleep apnea is too much? 
doi:10.1186/ar2690
PMCID: PMC2745770  PMID: 19664182
10.  Citrullinated proteins: sparks that may ignite the fire in rheumatoid arthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2004;6(3):107-111.
Antibodies directed to citrullinated proteins (e.g. anti-CCP [cyclic citrullinated peptide] antibodies) are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These antibodies are produced at the site of inflammation in RA, and therefore citrullinated antigens are also expected to be present in the inflamed synovium. We discuss literature showing that the presence of citrullinated proteins in the synovium is not specific for RA. The RA-specific antibodies are therefore most likely the result of an abnormal immune response that specifically occurs in RA patients. It was recently shown that presence of anti-CCP antibodies precedes the onset of clinical symptoms of RA by years. It thus appears that it may take years for initial events that cause the generation of anti-CCP antibodies to develop into full-blown disease.
doi:10.1186/ar1184
PMCID: PMC416453  PMID: 15142259
anti-CCP autoantibodies; citrullination; peptidylarginine deiminase; rheumatoid arthritis
11.  Trabecular bone loss in collagen antibody-induced arthritis 
Introduction
Postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of developing osteoporosis due to chronic inflammation and estrogen deprivation. Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), an experimental polyarthritis model representing the effector phase of arthritis, is mainly mediated by the innate immune system. Compared to the widely used collagen-induced arthritis model, CAIA is conveniently short and can be used in C57BL/6 mice, enabling studies with knock-out mice. However, the impact on bone of the CAIA model in C57BL/6 mice has not previously been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if CAIA can be used to study postmenopausal arthritis-induced osteoporosis.
Methods
CAIA was induced by administration of collagen-type II antibodies and lipopolysaccharide to ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice. Control mice received lipopolysaccharide, but no antibodies. Nine days later, femurs were collected for high-resolution micro-CT and histomorphometry. Serum was used to assess cartilage breakdown and levels of complement. Frequencies of immune cell subsets from bone marrow and lymph nodes were analyzed by flow cytometery.
Results
Trabecular bone mass was decreased and associated with increased number of osteoclasts per bone surface in the CAIA model. Also, the frequency of interleukin-17+ cells in lymph nodes was increased in CAIA.
Conclusion
The present study show that CAIA, a short reproducible arthritis model that is compatible with C57BL/6 mice, is associated with increased number of osteoclasts and trabecular bone loss.
doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0703-5
PMCID: PMC4514982  PMID: 26209517
12.  An external validation study reporting poor correlation between the claims-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity and the disease activity score 
Introduction
We conducted an external validation study to examine the correlation of a previously published claims-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity (CIRAS) with disease activity score in 28 joints calculated by using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) and the multi-dimensional health assessment questionnaire (MD-HAQ) physical function score.
Methods
Patients enrolled in the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS) and Medicare were identified and their data from these two sources were linked. For each patient, DAS28-CRP measurement and MD-HAQ physical function scores were extracted from BRASS, and CIRAS was calculated from Medicare claims for the period of 365 days prior to the DAS28-CRP measurement. Pearson correlation coefficient between CIRAS and DAS28-CRP as well as MD-HAQ physical function scores were calculated. Furthermore, we considered several additional pharmacy and medical claims-derived variables as predictors for DAS28-CRP in a multivariable linear regression model in order to assess improvement in the performance of the original CIRAS algorithm.
Results
In total, 315 patients with enrollment in both BRASS and Medicare were included in this study. The majority (81%) of the cohort was female, and the mean age was 70 years. The correlation between CIRAS and DAS28-CRP was low (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.07, P = 0.24). The correlation between the calculated CIRAS and MD-HAQ physical function scores was also found to be low (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08, P = 0.17). The linear regression model containing additional claims-derived variables yielded model R2 of 0.23, suggesting limited ability of this model to explain variation in DAS28-CRP.
Conclusions
In a cohort of Medicare-enrolled patients with established RA, CIRAS showed low correlation with DAS28-CRP as well as MD-HAQ physical function scores. Claims-based algorithms for disease activity should be rigorously tested in distinct populations in order to establish their generalizability before widespread adoption.
doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0599-0
PMCID: PMC4394559  PMID: 25880932
14.  Targeting subchondral bone in osteoporotic osteoarthritis 
The identification of well-defined phenotypes along the course of the disease may open new avenues for personalized management in osteoarthritis (OA). In vivo research carried out in various animal models as well as epidemiological and clinical data support the existence of a particular phenotype – osteoporotic OA. In fact, subchondral bone has become a potential therapeutic target in OA. Depending on the ratio between formation and resorption, subchondral bone remodeling can culminate in either a sclerotic or an osteoporotic phenotype. Patients with osteoporotic OA may thus achieve clinical and structural benefit from treatment with bone-targeted interventions.
doi:10.1186/s13075-014-0494-0
PMCID: PMC4337185  PMID: 25664969
15.  How citrullination invaded rheumatoid arthritis research 
Citrullination and the immune response to citrullinated proteins have been fundamental for the early recognition of rheumatoid arthritis by serological tests and a better understanding of its pathophysiology. In the first years after the initial publications, the focus was on the antibodies directed to citrullinated proteins. It is now realized that citrullinating enzymes and citrullinated proteins may have important roles in the maintenance of the inflammatory processes in the joints. There is also accumulating evidence for a direct role of citrullination in tissue destruction in the rheumatoid synovium. Here we will discuss the development and importance of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis as well as recent findings implicating citrullination in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis.
doi:10.1186/ar4458
PMCID: PMC4061769  PMID: 24472574
18.  Efficacy of anakinra in gouty arthritis: a retrospective study of 40 cases 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2013;15(5):R123.
Introduction
Gout is a common arthritis that occurs particularly in patients who frequently have associated comorbidities that limit the use of conventional therapies. The main mechanism of crystal-induced inflammation is interleukin-1 production by activation of the inflammasome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of anakinra in gouty patients.
Methods
We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of patients receiving anakinra for gouty arthritis. We reviewed the response to treatment, adverse events and relapses.
Results
We examined data for 40 gouty patients (32 men; mean age 60.0 ± 13.9 years) receiving anakinra. Mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 8.7 years. All patients showed contraindications to and/or failure of at least two conventional therapies. Most (36; 90%) demonstrated good response to anakinra. Median pain on a 100-mm visual analog scale was rapidly decreased (73.5 (70.0 to 80.0) to 25.0 (20.0 to 32.5) mm, P <0.0001), as was median C-reactive protein (CRP) level (130.5 (55.8 to 238.8) to 16.0 (5.0 to 29.5) mg/l, P <0.0001). After a median follow-up of 7.0 (2.0 to 13.0) months, relapse occurred in 13 patients after a median delay of 15.0 (10.0 to 70.0) days. Seven infectious events, mainly with long-term use of anakinra, were noted.
Conclusions
Anakinra may be efficient in gouty arthritis, is relatively well tolerated with short-term use, and could be a relevant option in managing gouty arthritis when conventional therapies are ineffective or contraindicated. Its long-term use could be limited by infectious complications.
doi:10.1186/ar4303
PMCID: PMC3978950  PMID: 24432362
gout; IL-1; anakinra; arthritis
22.  Induction of superficial zone protein (SZP)/lubricin/PRG 4 in muscle-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells by transforming growth factor-β1 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 
Introduction
Articular cartilage (AC) is an avascular tissue with precise polarity and organization. The three distinct zones are: surface, middle and deep. The production and accumulation of the superficial zone protein (SZP), also known as lubricin, by the surface zone is a characteristic feature of AC. To date, there is a wealth of evidence showing differentiation of AC from mesenchymal stem cells. Most studies that described chondrogenic differentiation did not focus on AC with characteristic surface marker SZP/lubricin. The present investigation was initiated to determine the induction of SZP/lubricin in skeletal muscle-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MDMSCs) by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7).
Methods
MDMSCs were cultured as a monolayer at a density of 1 × 105 cells/well in 12-well tissue culture plates. Cell cultures were treated for 3, 7 and 10 days with TGF-β1 and BMP-7. The medium was analyzed for SZP. The cells were used to isolate RNA for RT-PCR assays for SZP expression.
Results
The SZP/lubricin increased in a time-dependent manner on Days 3, 7 and 10 in the medium. As early as Day 3, there was a three-fold increase in response to 3 ng/ml of TGF-β1 and 300 ng/ml of BMP-7. This was confirmed by immunochemical localization of SZP as early as Day 3 after treatment with TGF-β1. The expression of SZP mRNA was enhanced by TGF-β1.
Conclusions
The present investigation demonstrated the efficient and reproducible induction of SZP/lubricin accumulation by TGF-β1 and BMP-7 in skeletal MDMSCs. Optimization of the experimental conditions may permit the utility of MDMSCs in generating surface zone-like cells with phenotypic markers of AC and, therefore, constitute a promising cell source for tissue engineering approaches of superficial zone cartilage.
doi:10.1186/ar3793
PMCID: PMC3446445  PMID: 22490392
24.  Association of the D repeat polymorphism in the ASPN gene with developmental dysplasia of the hip: a case-control study in Han Chinese 
Introduction
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common skeletal disease, which is characterized by abnormal seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Genetic factors play a considerable role in the etiology of DDH. Asporin (ASPN) is an ECM protein which can bind to TGF-β1 and sequentially inhibit TGF-β/Smad signaling. A functional aspartic acid (D) repeat polymorphism of ASPN was first described as an osteoarthritis-associated polymorphism. As TGF-β is well known as an important regulator in the development of skeletal components, ASPN may also be involved in the etiology of DDH. Our objective is to evaluate whether the D repeat polymorphism of ASPN is associated with DDH in Han Chinese.
Methods
The D repeat polymorphism was genotyped in 370 DDH patients and 445 control subjects, and the allelic association of the D repeat was examined.
Results
From D11 to D18, eight alleles were identified. D13 allele is the most common allele both in control and DDH groups, the frequencies are 67.3% and 58.1% respectively. In the DDH group, a significantly higher frequency of the D14 allele and significantly lower frequency of D13 was observed. The association of D14 and D13 was found in both females and males after stratification by gender. There was no significant difference in any other alleles we examined.
Conclusions
Our results show an obvious association between the D repeat polymorphism of ASPN and DDH. It indicates that ASPN is an important regulator in the etiology of DDH.
doi:10.1186/ar3252
PMCID: PMC3241371  PMID: 21329514
25.  Immediate determination of ACPA and rheumatoid factor - a novel point of care test for detection of anti-MCV antibodies and rheumatoid factor using a lateral-flow immunoassay 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2010;12(3):R120.
Introduction
Autoantibodies against mutated and citrullinated vimentin (MCV) represent a novel diagnostic marker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, an increased sensitivity for anti-MCV compared to autoantibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP2) was shown in cohorts of patients with early RA and established disease.
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a point of care test (POCT) for detection of anti-MCV antibodies immediately at the first visit or at the bed side.
Methods
A lateral-flow immunoassay was developed for simultaneous detection of anti-MCV antibodies and rheumatoid factor (RF-IgG) and evaluated in a prospective setting. Analyses were performed from whole blood samples of patients with seropositive RA (n = 108), seronegative RA as well as other rheumatic disorders (n = 122), and healthy blood donors (n = 200) and compared to detection via ELISA.
Results
Using the POCT, anti-MCV antibodies were detected in 54.6% and RF-IgG in 56.5% of patients with RA. Specificity was 99.1% for anti-MCV antibodies and 91.2% for RF-IgG. Compared to ELISA's results, POCT sensitivity was 69.3% for anti-MCV and 55.6% for RF-IgG, specificity was 99.7% and 97.2%, respectively.
Conclusions
This POCT for detection of anti-MCV antibodies and RF-IgG provides high specificity for the diagnosis of RA and is useful in clinical practice due to its simplicity and its reliable performance. This test can greatly improve a timely management of RA and may help in screening patients with suspected RA in non-specialized settings prompting early referrals.
doi:10.1186/ar3057
PMCID: PMC2911914  PMID: 20569500

Results 1-25 (2845)