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1.  Tissue factor as a proinflammatory agent 
Arthritis Research  2002;4(3):190-195.
Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein and the main triggering element of blood coagulation. TF expression on monocytes and endothelial cells is induced by exposure to endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor, and IL-1 and is considered to appear in consequence of inflammation. In order to assess the proinflammatory capacity of TF itself, the recombinant extracellular domain of TF was injected intra-articularly into healthy mice. To characterize the role of immune cells in the TF-induced arthritis, mice deprived of lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes were used. Histomorphological analysis of the joints with respect to inflammatory cell infiltration, pannus formation and erosion formation revealed development of arthritis in 80% of animals injected with TF. In most of the cases synovial proliferation was accompanied by pannus formation and cartilage destruction. Inflammatory cell infiltrate consisted of CD4-Mac1+ macrophages. Depletion of monocytes was, however, not enough to abolish inflammation. Indeed, combined deficiency of monocytes and lymphocytes was required to prevent inflammation following the injection of TF. We observed that TF induced chemokine production (MIP-1╬▒ and RANTES), but did not induce a proliferative response nor cytokine release by mouse spleen cells. TF has strong inflammatogenic properties mediated predominantly by monocytes and their release of chemokines. Our study shows that TF can simultaneously trigger the immune and coagulation systems.
PMCID: PMC111021  PMID: 12010569
arthritis; inflammation; monocyte; tissue factor
2.  Leptin in septic arthritis: decreased levels during infection and amelioration of disease activity upon its administration 
Arthritis Research  2001;3(6):389-394.
Weight loss is typically found during severe infections, e.g. septic arthritis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of leptin, regulator of food intake and energy expenditure, for the development of Staphylococcus aureus-triggered arthritis. Leptin production was found to be decreased during murine S. aureus-induced arthritis. Treatment with recombinant leptin neither restored the basal leptin levels nor affected the weight loss during the disease, but it significantly decreased the severity of septic arthritis. Exogenous leptin did not affect the staphylococcal load as measured in blood, joints and kidneys. Preceding the effects on joint manifestations, serum levels of interleukin-6 decreased in leptin-treated mice. In conclusion, the treatment with recombinant leptin reduced both the severity of joint manifestations in S.aureus-induced arthritis and the inflammatory response, as measured by serum IL-6 levels, without affecting the survival of bacteria in vivo.
PMCID: PMC64851  PMID: 11714394
arthritis; interleukin-6; leptin; Staphylococcus aureus
3.  Staphylococcal peptidoglycans induce arthritis 
Arthritis Research  2001;3(6):375-380.
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens in septic arthritis. To analyse the arthritogenic properties of staphylococcal peptidoglycan (PGN), highly purified PGN from S. aureus was intra-articularly injected into murine joints. The results demonstrate that PGN will trigger arthritis in a dose-dependent manner. A single injection of this compound leads to massive infiltration of predominantly macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells with occasional signs of cartilage and/or bone destruction, lasting for at least 14 days. Further studies showed that this condition is mediated by the combined impact of acquired and innate immune systems. Our results indicate that PGN exerts a central role in joint inflammation triggered by S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC64849  PMID: 11714392
arthritis; peptidoglycan; Staphylococcus aureus
4.  Synovial cytokine mRNA expression during arthritis triggered by CpG motifs of bacterial DNA 
Arthritis Research  2000;3(1):48-53.
Our results show that cytokines derived from macrophages play an important role in pathogenesis of arthritis triggered by CpG oligodinucleotide (CpG ODN). IL-12 is in this respect an important immunomodulator during the development of joint inflammation.
PMCID: PMC17824  PMID: 11178126
arthritis; CpG dinucleotides; cytokine; IL-12 knockout

Results 1-4 (4)