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1.  Blockade of collagen-induced arthritis post-onset by antibody to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF): requirement for GM-CSF in the effector phase of disease 
Arthritis Research  2001;3(5):293-298.
There is mounting evidence for a role of the growth factor granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in inflammatory disease, including arthritis. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of treatment of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) with a neutralizing mAb to GM-CSF. DBA/1 mice were immunized for the development of CIA and treated at different times, and with different doses, with neutralizing mAb to GM-CSF or isotype control mAb. Anti-GM-CSF mAb treatment prior to the onset of arthritis, at the time of antigen challenge, was effective at ameliorating the ensuing disease. Modulation of arthritis was seen predominantly as a reduction in overall disease severity, both in terms of the number of limbs affected per mouse and the clinical score of affected limbs. Importantly, anti-GM-CSF mAb treatment ameliorated existing disease, seen both as a reduction in the number of initially affected limbs progressing and lower numbers of additional limbs becoming affected. By histology, both inflammation and cartilage destruction were reduced in anti-GM-CSF-treated mice, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-a and IL-1? were also reduced in joint tissue washouts of these mice. Neither humoral nor cellular immunity to type II collagen, however, was affected by anti-GM-CSF mAb treatment. These results suggest that the major effect of GM-CSF in CIA is on mediating the effector phase of the inflammatory reaction to type II collagen. The results also highlight the essential role of GM-CSF in the ongoing development of inflammation and arthritis in CIA, with possible therapeutic implications for rheumatoid arthritis.
PMCID: PMC64841  PMID: 11549370
antibodies; inflammatory mediators; in vivo animal models; rheumatoid arthritis
2.  Inflammatory microcrystals induce murine macrophage survival and DNA synthesis 
Arthritis Research  2001;3(4):242-246.
The interaction of particulates with resident macrophages is a consistent feature in certain forms of crystal-induced inflammation, for example, in synovial tissues, lung, and the peritoneum. The mitogenic activity of basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals on synovial fibroblasts has been considered relevant to the synovial hyperplasia observed in crystal-induced arthritis. The aim of the study was to determine whether microcrystals such as these could enhance macrophage survival and induce DNA synthesis, thus indicating that they may contribute to the tissue hyperplasia.
Murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages were treated in vitro with microcrystals, the cell numbers were monitored over time, and DNA synthesis was measured as the incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine (TdR). We report here that BCP, monosodium urate, talc, and, to a lesser extent, CPPD crystals promote macrophage survival and DNA synthesis; the latter response is particularly striking in the presence of low concentrations of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF, CSF-1). Enhanced macrophage survival or proliferation may contribute to the synovial hyperplasia noted in crystal-associated arthropathies, as well as to talc-induced inflammation and granuloma formation. The crystals studied join the list of particulates having these effects on macrophages, indicating the generality of this type of response.
PMCID: PMC34113  PMID: 11438042
crystals; DNA synthesis; macrophages; survival

Results 1-2 (2)