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1.  The socio-economic distribution of health-related occupational stressors among wage-earners in a Post-Fordist labour market 
Archives of Public Health  2010;68(1):14-29.
Unequal exposure to occupational stressors is a central pathway towards socio-economic health inequalities in working populations. This paper assesses the differential exposure of such stressors within the population of Flemish wage-earners. Our focus is on differences in gender, age, skill levels, occupational and social class positions.
The analyses are based on the "Flemish Quality of Labour Monitor 2004" (Vlaamse Werkbaarheidsmonitor 2004), a cross-sectional representative sample (N = 11,099) of 16- to 65-year-old wage-earners, living in Flanders. The investigated health-related working conditions are: high quantitative, emotional and physical demands, frequent repetitive movements, atypical work schedules, frequent overtime work and schedule changes, low job autonomy, task variation and superior-support, high job insecurity and exposure to bullying. The distribution of the working conditions is assessed by means of standard logistic regression analyses. Also gender specific analyses are performed.
At least two clusters of health-related occupational stressors can be identified. On the one hand, high physical demands, atypical schedules, low control over the work environment and high job insecurity are more common in manual, unskilled and subordinate workers. On the other hand, high quantitative and emotional demands, as well as schedule unpredictability are characteristic of higher skilled, professional and managerial employees.
Since little empirical information on the socio-economic distribution of various health-related occupational stressors is available for Flanders, our results are important for obtaining more insight into the pathways linking occupational health risks to socio-economic health inequalities in the Flemish wage-earning population.
PMCID: PMC3436701
Age distribution; Belgium; gender; health inequality; occupational health; occupational groups; social class; socio-economic factors
2.  Measurement equivalence of the CES-D 8 in the general population in Belgium: a gender perspective 
Archives of Public Health  2009;67(1):15-29.
International research consistently finds gender differences in depression, but do women genuinely experience more complaints or are the findings contaminated by group-specific elements unrelated to depression but affecting its measurement? The study of gender differences in depression depends on the measurement quality of the instrument used to evaluate depression. In the present study we test the measurement equivalence of a shorter version of a commonly used instrument in mental health research, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D), using data from the Belgian sample of the third round of the European Social Survey (N = 1794). Evidence for measurement invariance can be established within the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis framework. This method allows us to evaluate a nested hierarchy of hypotheses to test different levels of cross-group measurement invariance: configural, metric, scalar and residual invariance, and clarifies under what conditions meaningful comparisons between the male and female respondents can be made. The best fitting factor model is then used to estimate the 'true' prevalence of depressive symptoms for both groups. In our study measurement equivalence is established at all levels, indicating that the current depression scale allows defensible quantitative gender comparisons. Our data also confirm the epidemiological finding that women report more complaints of depression than men.
PMCID: PMC3436693
Depression; factor analysis; gender; validation; psychometrics

Results 1-2 (2)