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10.  Coarctation of the aorta 
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.27274
PMCID: PMC3309430  PMID: 22457668
11.  Effects of natural honey on polymicrobial culture of various human pathogens 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;10(2):246-250.
Introduction
Honey has a wide range of antimicrobial activity. All previous studies have considered honey's effect on a single microbe. The present study investigated activity of honey towards a high dose of single or polymicrobial culture.
Material and methods
10 µl specimens of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) were cultured in 10 ml of 10-100% (wt/v) honey diluted in broth. Six types of polymicrobial microbial cultures were prepared by culturing the isolates with each other onto broth (control) and broth containing various concentrations of honey (10-100% wt/v). Microbial growth was assessed on solid plate media after 24 h incubation.
Results
Honey (30-70%) prevents growth of 10 µl specimens of all the isolates. Greater reduction in growth of E. coli was observed when cultured with S. aureus. Culturing of S. aureus with S. pyogenes, C. albicans, or E. coli increased its sensitivity to honey. S. aureus and S. pyogenes increased sensitivity of C. albicans to honey while E. coli and C. albicans decreased sensitivity of S. pyogenes.
Conclusions
It might be concluded that honey prevents and inhibits growth of single and polymicrobial pathogenic cultures. Polymicrobial culture affects growth of the isolates and increases their sensitivity to honey.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28603
PMCID: PMC4042029  PMID: 24904656
honey; Candida albicans; Streptococcus pyogenes; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli
12.  Effect of glucocorticoids on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in the adult male albino rat – histological, morphometric and electron microscopy study 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;10(2):381-388.
Introduction
Indomethacin is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which is capable of producing injury to gastric mucosa. To prevent of NSAID-induced gastropathy, it is important to evaluate the risk factors. One of them is steroid. The aim is to study time dependent effects of glucocorticoids (GC) on indomethacin induced gastric ulcer.
Material and methods
Forty-nine albino rats were used. They were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was subgroup I (rats were given indomethacin and were sacrificed 1 day after drug intake), subgroup II (rats were given indomethacin + dexamethasone and were sacrificed 1 day after drug intake), subgroup III (rats were given indomethacin + dexamethasone and were sacrificed 3 days after drug intake) and subgroup IV (rats were given indomethacin + dexamethasone and were sacrificed 7 days day after drug intake). Histological, scanning electron microscopy and morphometric studies were used.
Results
Indomethacin induced gastric ulceration with shredding of the superficial epithelial cells. The fundic glands were dilated in the subgroups II, III, IV. The surface epithelial cells were shredded and the ulcer sizes were big in subgroup IV. All subgroups exhibited abnormal surface epithelial cells within the gastric ulcer area.
Conclusions
Indomethacin is capable of producing injury to gastrointestinal mucosa. With prolonged use of GC the surface epithelial cells became more affected and the ulcer sizes became bigger. Concomitant use of both medications will delay the healing of the indomethacin induced gastric ulcer and induce more gastric complication.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28807
PMCID: PMC4042030  PMID: 24904676
indomethacin; glucocorticoids; gastric ulcer
13.  Comparison of the GenoType® MTBC Molecular Genetic Assay with culture methods in the diagnosis of tuberculosis 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;10(2):315-318.
Introduction
Clinical samples from 433 patients pre-diagnosed with tuberculosis in Konya, Turkey, were investigated prospectively to compare the GenoType® MTBC test (GenoType® MTBC) with conventional “gold standard” culture methods.
Material and methods
Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) and Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT)-960 culture methods and GenoType® MTBC were performed together.
Results
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) detection rates were 16.2% by culture methods, 15.4% by GenoType® MTBC, and 6% by acid-fast bacilli microscopy. The LJ or MGIT-960 with GenoType® MTBC detected M. tuberculosis in 12 samples each that were negative according to the other culture method alone. Among 70 M. tuberculosis-positive samples, detection rates were 37% (26/70) by microscopy and 82.8% (58/70) by LJ and MGIT-960, but 95.7% (67/70) by GenoType® MTBC.
Conclusions
GenoType® MTBC may be used as a beneficial adjunct test to culture methods for the detection of M. tuberculosis.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.29216
PMCID: PMC4042031  PMID: 24904667
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; genotype; culture
14.  Assessment of the response to gluten-free diet in an Iraqi population with coeliac disease. A histological and serological follow-up study 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;10(2):294-299.
Introduction
Coeliac disease (CD) is a common diagnosis among children and adults in Iraq; however, removal of gluten from the diet is essential for patients with CD. The aim of this study, the first such study in Iraq, was to assess the serological and histological recovery profiles of coeliac patients, in both children and adults groups after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD) for at least 1 year ± 1 month.
Material and methods
The study group comprised 78 proved coeliac patients (46 children and 32 adults, median age: 15 years, range: 1–66 years) who all agreed to undergo endoscopy in addition to serological assessment before and after treatment. The duodenal biopsies were interpreted histologically according to modified Marsh criteria and the sera were tested for anti-gliadin antibody (AGA), endomysium antibody (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG).
Results
Complete histological remission was seen in 29 (63.1%) of 46 treated children CD patients, while only 5 (10.9%) showed Marsh IIIa changes compared with 11 (24%) before GFD. Similarly none of the 32 adults after GFD showed Marsh IIIb and Marsh IIIc compared with 46.9% and 28.1% before treatment respectively (p = 001). Meanwhile, there was strongly significant reduction in AGA, EMA, and tTG antibodies levels (p = 0.00001) following GFD.
Conclusions
Repeating the duodenal biopsy 1 year ±1 month after diagnosis and starting a GFD supports the routine measurement of using histological findings as a gold standard test to confirm recovery of Iraqi CD patients along with using known coeliac serology antibodies.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.31297
PMCID: PMC4042032  PMID: 24904663
coeliac disease; gluten-free diet; anti-gliadin antibodies; endomysial antibody; anti-tissue-transglutaminase antibodies
15.  Electrophysiological effect of rotigaptide in rabbits with heart failure 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;10(2):374-380.
Introduction
Rotigaptide is a new anti-arrhythmic peptide, which has recently been found to increase junctional conductance and prevent ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects and mechanisms of rotigaptide on the vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias in rabbits with heart failure (HF).
Material and methods
Chronic volume-pressure overload was used to induce HF. After rotigaptide infusion, an electrophysiological study was performed to record monophasic action potential (MAP), determine the effective refractory period (ERP) and ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT), and assess the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia. Finally, real-time PCR was used to detect the changes of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression.
Results
HF rabbits exhibited significant down-regulation of Cx43 mRNA, increase of effective refractory period (ERP) and decrease of VFT (p < 0.05, respectively). These changes resulted in an increase of vulnerability to ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF). Rotigaptide administration shortened ERP (113.3 ±8.6 ms vs. 131.7 ±12.5 ms, p < 0.05), restored VFT (15.0 ±2.0 V vs. 6.3 ±1.4 V, p < 0.05), and decreased the vulnerability to VT/VF. However, short-term rotigaptide treatment had no significant effect on MAP duration (MAP duration at 90% repolarization: 169.3 ±6.0 ms vs. 172.7 ±6.2 ms, p > 0.05) or connexin 43 mRNA expression (p > 0.05).
Conclusions
Rotigaptide decreases the ERP, elevates VFT, and reduces the vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias without changing Cx43 expression in rabbits with HF. It may be a promising antiarrhythmic drug for preventing ventricular arrhythmia in HF.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.31385
PMCID: PMC4042033  PMID: 24904675
rotigaptide; heart failure; connexin 43; ventricular arrhythmias
16.  Colorectal cancer mortality in Poland – analysis of regional variation 
Introduction
In 1999 in Poland 7,139 people died of colon cancer, while in 2008 this number rose to 9,915. Among malignant tumours, colorectal cancer is the second most commonly occurring one, frequently leading to death. The main reason for this is the fact that in 50% of patients with this cancer the illness is diagnosed at an advanced stage already. The risk increases significantly after 60 years of age. The aim of study was analysing the mortality of patients with colorectal cancer over 10 years in Poland (1999-2008), in both men and women from all provinces in the country.
Material and methods
The basis for the study was the number of deaths caused by colorectal cancer taking into account sex. Statistical data were drawn from the National Cancer Registry.
Results
In 1999 in Poland 3,706 men and 3,433 women died of colorectal cancer, while in 2008 the number of deaths stood at 5,385 and 4,530 respectively. In the years 1999-2008, colorectal cancer mortality rates among men were approximately 1.5 times higher than among women, and the majority of provinces demonstrate an upward trend. Among women the differences in the values of the coefficients are less clear.
Conclusions
Early detection of cancer could significantly reduce mortality among patients with colon cancer. Screening for colorectal cancer and colonoscopy are tests that should permanently become a part of preventive measures aimed at detecting disease and teaching risk factors, particularly in males and people over 60 years of age.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28596
PMCID: PMC3953960  PMID: 24701216
colorectal cancer; mortality; Poland
17.  Adenovirus-mediated transfer of VEGF into marrow stromal cells combined with PLGA/TCP scaffold increases vascularization and promotes bone repair in vivo  
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;10(1):174-181.
Introduction
Large osseous defect remains a serious clinical problem due to the lack of sufficient blood supply and it has been proposed that this situation can be relieved by accelerating the formation of new vessels in the process of bone defect repair. The aim of this study was to develop a new type of artificial bone by transferring the VEGF gene into marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and seeding them into a porous scaffold.
Material and methods
An adenovirus vector was employed to transfer the VEGF gene into MSCs and expression of the exogenous gene was confirmed by ELISA. Next the transduced cells were seeded into a collagen I modified PLGA/TCP scaffold. The constructed new complex artificial bone was then assessed for biocompatibility in vitro and blood vessel formation and bone formation in vivo.
Results
We found that adenovirus mediated VEGF gene transfer into MSCs sustained VEGF expression in MSCs for 3 weeks. Porous scaffold PLGA/TCP made by rapid prototyping technology exhibited improved biocompatibility resulting from crosslinking with collagen I. Furthermore, the in vivo study showed that large amounts of blood vessels were detected histologically 1 week after artificial bone implantation, and significant bone formation was detected 8 weeks after implantation.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that gene transfer of VEGF into MSCs combined with PLGA/TCP scaffold enhances bone repair in vivo by promoting vascularization.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.30950
PMCID: PMC3953961  PMID: 24701231
vascular endothelial growth factor; gene transfer; artificial bone; poly-(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/tricalcium phosphate
18.  Expression analysis of intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2) in the context of classical cardiovascular risk factors in acute coronary syndrome patients 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;9(6):1035-1039.
Introduction
Cardiopulmonary diseases are the most common cause of hospitalization and death. Often the basic problem is endothelial dysfunction leading to elevated expression of adhesion proteins as well as increased adhesion and aggregation of blood cells. The goal of the study was to assess expression level of intercellular adhesive molecule-2 (ICAM-2) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Material and methods
The obtained data were analysed in the context of the occurrence of classical cardiovascular risk factors. The two studied groups consisted of 60 ACS patients and 20 healthy individuals who both were qualified based on electrocardiography (ECG), transthoracic echocardiography and biochemical tests. The ACS patients additionally had coronary angiography performed. The number of ICAM-2 gene mRNA molecules was evaluated on the basis of QRT-PCR reaction kinetics. To compare the results the Mann-Whitney U test was used. Results were judged statistically significant if p < 0.05.
Results
Analysis of the results showed a significantly higher number of ICAM-2 gene mRNA copies in ACS patients compared to healthy subjects (140920 ±105207 and 15023 ±14325, respectively). Furthermore, our results indicate a correlation between obesity (p = 0.012) and positive burdening family history (p = 0.041) and increased ICAM-2 levels in patients with ACS.
Conclusions
Increased ICAM-2 gene expression in ACS patients is probably symptomatic of endothelium dysfunction and may be responsible for intensified adhesion and aggregation processes as well as for appearance of acute coronary syndrome. These results indicate a correlation between obesity and burdening family history on the one hand, and increased ICAM-2 levels in patients with ACS, on the other.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28808
PMCID: PMC3902700  PMID: 24482647
adhesion molecule; aggregation; obesity
19.  Hospital pharmacists’ knowledge about and attitude toward HIV/AIDS and patients living with HIV/AIDS in Kedah, Malaysia 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;9(6):1117-1124.
Introduction
The current study aims to explore the knowledge, attitude, and perception of hospital pharmacists towards HIV/AIDS and patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the state of Kedah, Malaysia.
Material and methods
This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the hospital pharmacists in three government hospitals in Kedah, using a self-administered 43-item questionnaire. Data analysis was done using non-parametric and multinomial regression.
Results
A total of 75 respondents participated in this study, resulting in a response rate of 60.8%. The majority were found to be well aware of the causes of HIV/AIDS. However, about 34 (45.3%) believed erroneously that HIV/AIDS cannot be transmitted through tattooing or body piercing. Nearly 25 (33.3%) of the respondents believed that preventing the use of intravenous drugs may not be effective to prevent HIV/AIDS and endorsed social isolation as a measure to prevent HIV/AIDS. The majority (66.6%) had negative attitudes and about 20% held extremely negative attitudes. Findings from regression modelling revealed that hospital (–2 log likelihood = 215.182, χ2 = 18.060, Df = 8, p = 0.021) and gender (–2 log likelihood = 213.643, χ2 = 16.521, Df = 8, p = 0.035) were more likely to affect the attitudes of respondents.
Conclusions
Overall, more than one third of the respondents were found to have negative attitudes towards PLWHA. Gender, job experience, and hospitals with more HIV/AIDS patient visits were the main factors affecting attitudes.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.30953
PMCID: PMC3902701  PMID: 24482660
hospital pharmacist; knowledge; attitude; human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; transmission
20.  Effects of captopril on factors affecting gastric mucosal integrity in aspirin-induced gastric lesions in Sprague-Dawley rats 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;9(6):1132-1137.
Introduction
Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, which is used as an antihypertensive agent and has shown antioxidant properties. This study aims at determining the effects of captopril on factors affecting gastric mucosal integrity in aspirin-induced gastric lesions.
Material and methods
Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley (200-250 g) rats that were given aspirin (40 mg/100 g body weight) were divided into three groups: the control, captopril (1 mg/100 g body weight daily) and ranitidine (2.5 mg/100 g body weight twice daily) groups. Ranitidine and captopril were given orally for 28 days. Rats in all groups were sacrificed and the parameters measured.
Results
Captopril reduced gastric acidity, and increased gastric glutathione (GSH) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) significantly in comparison to the control group. Captopril also reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and gastric lesions insignificantly compared to the control group. Ranitidine healed the lesions significantly compared to the control group. There was no difference between ranitidine and captopril on the severity of lesions, gastric acidity, MDA and GSH. Captopril increased PGE2 compared to ranitidine (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
Captopril has desirable effects on the factors affecting gastric mucosal integrity (acidity, PGE2 and GSH) and is comparable to ranitidine in ulcer healing.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.31252
PMCID: PMC3902702  PMID: 24482662
captopril; ranitidine; aspirin; gastric lesions
21.  Evaluation and identification of damaged single nucleotide polymorphisms in COL1A1 gene involved in osteoporosis 
Introduction
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are biomarkers for exploring the genetic basis of many complex human diseases. The prediction of SNPs is promising in modern genetic analysis but it is still a great challenge to identify the functional SNPs in a disease-related gene. The computational approach has overcome this challenge and an increase in the successful rate of genetic association studies and reduced cost of genotyping have been achieved. The objective of this study is to identify deleterious non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) associated with the COL1A1 gene.
Material and methods
The SNPs were retrieved from the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database (dbSNP). Using I-Mutant, protein stability change was calculated. The potentially functional nsSNPs and their effect on proteins were predicted by PolyPhen and SIFT respectively. FASTSNP was used for estimation of risk score.
Results
Our analysis revealed 247 SNPs as non-synonymous, out of which 5 nsSNPs were found to be least stable by I-Mutant 2.0 with a DDG value of > –1.0. Four nsSNPs, namely rs17853657, rs17857117, rs57377812 and rs1059454, showed a highly deleterious tolerance index score of 0.00 with a change in their physicochemical properties by the SIFT server. Seven nsSNPs, namely rs1059454, rs8179178, rs17853657, rs17857117, rs72656340, rs72656344 and rs72656351, were found to be probably damaging with a PSIC score difference between 2.0 and 3.5 by the PolyPhen server. Three nsSNPs, namely rs1059454, rs17853657 and rs17857117, were found to be highly polymorphic with a risk score of 3-4 with a possible effect of non-conservative change and splicing regulation by FASTSNP.
Conclusions
Three nsSNPs, namely rs1059454, rs17853657 and rs17857117, are potential functional polymorphisms that are likely to have a functional impact on the COL1A1 gene.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28598
PMCID: PMC3832808  PMID: 24273577
in silico analysis; dbSNP; SIFT; PolyPhen
22.  A survey of patient behaviours and beliefs regarding antibiotic self-medication for respiratory tract infections in Poland 
Introduction
Self-medication can contribute to the inappropriate use of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections (RTI). This phenomenon has not been well described, particularly in Poland. The aim of our study was to describe the prevalence of antibiotic self-medication for RTI, to explore factors influencing antibiotic use without prescription, and to determine the available sources of such antibiotics.
Material and methods
A self-administered questionnaire completed by patients presenting to family medicine clinics at Lodz and Wroclaw from 1st March to 15th May 2010.
Results
A total of 891 patients in ten clinics completed the survey (response rate, 89.1%). Overall, 41.4% (n = 369) of patients reported self-medication with an antibiotic for RTI. The most common reason for antibiotic self-medication was a belief that antibiotics treat the majority of infections, including influenza and influenza-like illnesses (43.9%; n = 162). The predominant sources of antibiotics for self-medication were antibiotics from previous prescriptions stored by the patient at home (73.7%, n = 272), those received from a pharmacy without prescription (13.5%; n = 50), or from family members and friends (12.7%; n = 47).
Conclusions
Antibiotic self-medication for RTI was common in this population. This may be due to the belief that the antibiotics treat the majority of infections. A recommendation to either ask patients to return unused antibiotics to the physician's office or to dispense antibiotics in the exact amount which is necessary for an individual course, as well as the targeted education of pharmacy personnel and the general population, appear to be justified.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.29217
PMCID: PMC3832809  PMID: 24273569
antibiotics; self-treatment; respiratory tract infections; available sources of antibiotics
23.  Calcium-phosphate metabolism parameters and erythrocyte Ca2+ concentration in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients with normal renal function 
Introduction
The aim of this study was to assess calcium-phosphate metabolism of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with a special consideration to the following serum parameters: calcium (Ca2+), inorganic phosphate (Pi), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and intracellular erythrocyte calcium ([Ca2+]i) concentrations.
Material and methods
The study included 49 adult ADPKD patients (19 males, 30 females) aged 36 ±11 years with normal renal function and no diagnosis of diabetes as well as 50 healthy controls (22 males, 28 females) matched for age and gender. Serum concentrations of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions and Pi were determined with an indirect ion-selective method, while Ca2+ concentration was measured with a direct ion-selective method. The PTH was detected using a radioimmunometric method. [Ca2+]i concentration was determined with the Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent dye Fura-2 method.
Results
In the ADPKD group, when compared to controls, the following concentrations were significantly higher: serum Ca2+ (1.18 ±0.06 mmol/l vs. 1.15 ±0.06 mmol/l, p = 0.0085), [Ca2+]i (146.9 ±110.0 nmol/l vs. 96.5 ±52.7 nmol/l, p = 0.0075), serum Na+ (139.4 ±2.7 mmol/l vs. 138.5 ±2.1 mmol/l, p = 0.060, borderline significance), and PTH (15.5 ±6.8 pg/ml vs. 13.6 ±5.3 pg/ml, p = 0.066, borderline significance), while serum Mg2+ was significantly lower (0.81 ±0.09 mmol/l vs. 0.85 ±0.05 mmol/l, p = 0.021). In the ADPKD group we observed significant negative correlations of PTH with Ca2+ serum concentrations (Rs = –0.32, p = 0.025) and with estimated glomerular filtration rate (Rs = –0.31, p = 0.033).
Conclusions
The erythrocyte Ca2+ concentration is elevated in ADPKD patients with normal renal function. It may result from a dysfunction of mutated polycystins which can affect various aspects of electrolyte metabolism.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.30834
PMCID: PMC3832810  PMID: 24273566
calcium; magnesium; inorganic phosphate; parathormone; polycystins
24.  Heart rate variability in overactive bladder experimental model 
Introduction
Two main pathophysiological concepts of overactive bladder (OAB) are postulated: the neurogenic and myogenic theories. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is also involved in OAB pathophysiology. The purpose of our study was to estimate ANS activity by heart rate variability (HRV) assessment in two OAB experimental models evoked by cyclophosphamide administration: acute (AOAB) and chronic (COAB) overactive ones.
Material and methods
In the AOAB model, an i.p. dose of cyclophosphamide was administered (200 mg/kg body weight) while the COAB model received 4 times the i.p. administration of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg body weight). In each subject, after urethane anaesthesia (1.2 g/kg body weight), 20-minute ECG recordings (PowerLab) were performed with subsequent HRV analysis.
Results
Most of the differences in time domain analysis parameters were insignificant, except those concerning SDNN and rMSSD (p < 0.05). In frequency analysis, a power decrease of all standard spectral components was revealed in both OAB groups. In AOAB, TP (1.43 ±1.21 vs. 7.92 ±6.22 in control; p < 0.05) and VLF (0.95 ±1.08 vs. 6.97 ±5.99 in control; p < 0.05) showed significant power decrease, whereas the COAB group was mostly characterized by LF (0.09 ±0.15 vs. 0.34 ±0.33 in control; p < 0.05) and HF (0.25 ±0.29 vs. 0.60 ±0.41 in control; p < 0.05) decrease.
Conclusions
The ANS disturbances, found as standard spectral parameter abnormalities, were demonstrated in both AOAB and COAB. When this finding is analysed, together with the lack of statistically significant differences in normalized nLF and nHF powers, the VLF changes seem to play an essential role, probably reflecting the progression in bladder inflammatory changes.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.30946
PMCID: PMC3832811  PMID: 24273581
overactive bladder; autonomic nervous system; heart rate variability
25.  Expression of pulmonary aquaporin 1 is dramatically upregulated in mice with pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin 
Introduction
Pulmonary fibrosis occurs due to fibroblast proliferation and collagen production in the lung and begins with alveolar inflammatory edema. Aquaporins (AQPs) play pivotal roles in lung fluid transport. In this study we establish the experimental model for pulmonary fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice to investigate expressions of AQP1 and AQP5 in lung tissue.
Material and methods
Mice in model groups were treated intratracheally with bleomycin with the dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. The mice were sacrificed at 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks respectively. The left upper lungs were harvested for histopathologic H-E and Masson's staining. The mRNAs of AQP1 and AQP5 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and the proteins of AQP1 and AQP5 were analyzed by western blotting.
Results
Real-time PCR showed that AQP1 mRNA in bleomycin 1 w, 2 w, and 3 w groups increased by 377%, 880% and 823% respectively compared to that in the control group (p < 0.01). Western blotting showed that the expression of AQP1 protein in bleomycin 1 w, 2 w, and 3 w groups increased by 53%, 144%, and 141%, respectively (p < 0.05). AQP5 mRNA in bleomycin 1 w and 2 w group decreased by 78% and 66%, respectively (p < 0.05). In bleomycin 2 w and 3 w groups it decreased by 69% and 80% (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
The expression of AQP1 dramatically increased in pulmonary fibrosis. AQP1 plays an important role in the progress of pulmonary fibrosis.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.31011
PMCID: PMC3832812  PMID: 24273579
aquaporin 1; aquaporin 5; pulmonary fibrosis; bleomycin

Results 1-25 (214)