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1.  Neuroimmune-vascular cells and their pathological disorders 
PMCID: PMC3258799  PMID: 22291815
2.  The trigemino-cardiac reflex: a view to the future 
PMCID: PMC3278959  PMID: 22371736
3.  Behind the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases 
PMCID: PMC3258779  PMID: 22291788
7.  Solid variant of serous cystadenoma of the pancreas 
We describe a case of a solid variant of serous cystadenoma of the pancreas. The preoperative examination results led to a diagnosis of a nonfunctional pancreatic islet cell tumour, and the patient underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. The tumour was diagnosed as a solid variant of serous cystadenoma by histopathological examination. Solid variant of serous cystadenoma of the pancreas is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. More cases must be accumulated and investigated to obtain clues for accurate diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3258726  PMID: 22291781
solid serous cystadenoma; pancreas; pancreatic tumour
17.  Coarctation of the aorta 
PMCID: PMC3309430  PMID: 22457668
19.  Right atrial appendage pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy – haemodynamic consequences of interatrial conduction delay 
The present case report describes a patient with an artificial mitral valve and dual chamber pacemaker implanted due to perioperative complete atrio-ventricular block. One year later an upgrade to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) combined with ICD function was performed due to significant progression of heart failure symptoms. Beneficial effects of CRT are demonstrated, but unfavourable haemodynamic consequences of right atrial appendage pacing are also underlined. Important interatrial conduction delay during atrial paced rhythm resulted in a significant time difference between optimal sensed and paced atrio-ventricular delay (AVD). This report provides a practical outline how to determine the interatrial delay and the sensed-paced AVD offset under echocardiography in patients treated with CRT.
PMCID: PMC3258784  PMID: 22291812
cardiac resynchronization therapy; atrio-ventricular delay; echocardiography; atrial pacing; heart failure
20.  Ezetimibe, cardiovascular risk and atherogenic dyslipidaemia 
Ezetimibe is a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor with an excellent side-effect profile, able to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 15-25% from baseline in monotherapy and on top of statins and fibrates. Yet, it seems that ezetimibe produces quantitative rather than qualitative changes in LDL, with small net effects on atherogenic dyslipidaemia. This is supported by findings from the Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE) study on atherosclerosis progression, where the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia did not affect the mean change in carotid intima-media thickness, although a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol levels was observed. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study has further shown that combination treatment with simvastatin significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels in patients with aortic stenosis, but did not affect the primary end point of aortic valve and cardiovascular events, although a significant reduction in the risk of ischaemic events was reported. Formal cardiovascular outcome trials are underway and these will provide additional insights into the long-term effects of ezetimibe on clinical events as well as on atherogenic dyslipidaemia, beyond LDL cholesterol levels.
PMCID: PMC3258692  PMID: 22291726
ezetimibe; cardiovascular risk; atherosclerosis; dyslipidaemia
21.  A glimpse into the early origins of medieval anatomy through the oldest conserved human dissection (Western Europe, 13th c. A.D.) 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2013;10(2):366-373.
Medieval autopsy practice is very poorly known in Western Europe, due to a lack of both descriptive medico-surgical texts and conserved dissected human remains. This period is currently considered the dark ages according to a common belief of systematic opposition of Christian religious authorities to the opening of human cadavers.
Material and methods
The identification in a private collection of an autopsied human individual dated from the 13th century A.D. is an opportunity for better knowledge of such practice in this chrono-cultural context, i.e. the early origins of occidental dissections. A complete forensic anthropological procedure was carried out, completed by radiological and elemental analyses.
The complete procedure of this body opening and internal organs exploration is explained, and compared with historical data about forensic and anatomical autopsies from this period. During the analysis, a red substance filling all arterial cavities, made of mercury sulfide (cinnabar) mixed with vegetal oil (oleic and palmitic acids) was identified; it was presumably used to highlight vascularization by coloring in red such vessels, and help in the preservation of the body.
Of particular interest for the description of early medical and anatomical knowledge, this “human preparation” is the oldest known yet, and is particularly important for the fields of history of medicine, surgery and anatomical practice.
PMCID: PMC4042035  PMID: 24904674
forensic anthropology; medical anatomy; status of body; death; cadaver; medical ethics; paleopathology; history of medicine
22.  Effects of natural honey on polymicrobial culture of various human pathogens 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;10(2):246-250.
Honey has a wide range of antimicrobial activity. All previous studies have considered honey's effect on a single microbe. The present study investigated activity of honey towards a high dose of single or polymicrobial culture.
Material and methods
10 µl specimens of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) were cultured in 10 ml of 10-100% (wt/v) honey diluted in broth. Six types of polymicrobial microbial cultures were prepared by culturing the isolates with each other onto broth (control) and broth containing various concentrations of honey (10-100% wt/v). Microbial growth was assessed on solid plate media after 24 h incubation.
Honey (30-70%) prevents growth of 10 µl specimens of all the isolates. Greater reduction in growth of E. coli was observed when cultured with S. aureus. Culturing of S. aureus with S. pyogenes, C. albicans, or E. coli increased its sensitivity to honey. S. aureus and S. pyogenes increased sensitivity of C. albicans to honey while E. coli and C. albicans decreased sensitivity of S. pyogenes.
It might be concluded that honey prevents and inhibits growth of single and polymicrobial pathogenic cultures. Polymicrobial culture affects growth of the isolates and increases their sensitivity to honey.
PMCID: PMC4042029  PMID: 24904656
honey; Candida albicans; Streptococcus pyogenes; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli
23.  Effect of glucocorticoids on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in the adult male albino rat – histological, morphometric and electron microscopy study 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;10(2):381-388.
Indomethacin is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which is capable of producing injury to gastric mucosa. To prevent of NSAID-induced gastropathy, it is important to evaluate the risk factors. One of them is steroid. The aim is to study time dependent effects of glucocorticoids (GC) on indomethacin induced gastric ulcer.
Material and methods
Forty-nine albino rats were used. They were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was subgroup I (rats were given indomethacin and were sacrificed 1 day after drug intake), subgroup II (rats were given indomethacin + dexamethasone and were sacrificed 1 day after drug intake), subgroup III (rats were given indomethacin + dexamethasone and were sacrificed 3 days after drug intake) and subgroup IV (rats were given indomethacin + dexamethasone and were sacrificed 7 days day after drug intake). Histological, scanning electron microscopy and morphometric studies were used.
Indomethacin induced gastric ulceration with shredding of the superficial epithelial cells. The fundic glands were dilated in the subgroups II, III, IV. The surface epithelial cells were shredded and the ulcer sizes were big in subgroup IV. All subgroups exhibited abnormal surface epithelial cells within the gastric ulcer area.
Indomethacin is capable of producing injury to gastrointestinal mucosa. With prolonged use of GC the surface epithelial cells became more affected and the ulcer sizes became bigger. Concomitant use of both medications will delay the healing of the indomethacin induced gastric ulcer and induce more gastric complication.
PMCID: PMC4042030  PMID: 24904676
indomethacin; glucocorticoids; gastric ulcer
24.  Comparison of the GenoType® MTBC Molecular Genetic Assay with culture methods in the diagnosis of tuberculosis 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;10(2):315-318.
Clinical samples from 433 patients pre-diagnosed with tuberculosis in Konya, Turkey, were investigated prospectively to compare the GenoType® MTBC test (GenoType® MTBC) with conventional “gold standard” culture methods.
Material and methods
Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) and Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT)-960 culture methods and GenoType® MTBC were performed together.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) detection rates were 16.2% by culture methods, 15.4% by GenoType® MTBC, and 6% by acid-fast bacilli microscopy. The LJ or MGIT-960 with GenoType® MTBC detected M. tuberculosis in 12 samples each that were negative according to the other culture method alone. Among 70 M. tuberculosis-positive samples, detection rates were 37% (26/70) by microscopy and 82.8% (58/70) by LJ and MGIT-960, but 95.7% (67/70) by GenoType® MTBC.
GenoType® MTBC may be used as a beneficial adjunct test to culture methods for the detection of M. tuberculosis.
PMCID: PMC4042031  PMID: 24904667
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; genotype; culture
25.  Assessment of the response to gluten-free diet in an Iraqi population with coeliac disease. A histological and serological follow-up study 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2012;10(2):294-299.
Coeliac disease (CD) is a common diagnosis among children and adults in Iraq; however, removal of gluten from the diet is essential for patients with CD. The aim of this study, the first such study in Iraq, was to assess the serological and histological recovery profiles of coeliac patients, in both children and adults groups after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD) for at least 1 year ± 1 month.
Material and methods
The study group comprised 78 proved coeliac patients (46 children and 32 adults, median age: 15 years, range: 1–66 years) who all agreed to undergo endoscopy in addition to serological assessment before and after treatment. The duodenal biopsies were interpreted histologically according to modified Marsh criteria and the sera were tested for anti-gliadin antibody (AGA), endomysium antibody (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG).
Complete histological remission was seen in 29 (63.1%) of 46 treated children CD patients, while only 5 (10.9%) showed Marsh IIIa changes compared with 11 (24%) before GFD. Similarly none of the 32 adults after GFD showed Marsh IIIb and Marsh IIIc compared with 46.9% and 28.1% before treatment respectively (p = 001). Meanwhile, there was strongly significant reduction in AGA, EMA, and tTG antibodies levels (p = 0.00001) following GFD.
Repeating the duodenal biopsy 1 year ±1 month after diagnosis and starting a GFD supports the routine measurement of using histological findings as a gold standard test to confirm recovery of Iraqi CD patients along with using known coeliac serology antibodies.
PMCID: PMC4042032  PMID: 24904663
coeliac disease; gluten-free diet; anti-gliadin antibodies; endomysial antibody; anti-tissue-transglutaminase antibodies

Results 1-25 (743)