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1.  Soluble ST2 protein in chronic heart failure is independent of traditional factors 
Introduction
ST2 protein is the interleukin 33 (IL-33) receptor, whose serum level depends on the biomechanical strain of cardiac myocytes. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between soluble ST2 (sST2) level and traditional factors in patients with chronic heart failure.
Material and methods
Sixty-six patients (mean age 62 years, 75% males) in stable NYHA class I-III with left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% were included in the study. Clinical, biochemical, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and angiographic data were analysed. Patients were divided into groups depending on sST2 median: > 0.28 ng/ml (n = 31) vs. ≤ 0.28 ng/ml (n = 35). sST2 was measured using a quantitative ELISA kit. In order to define factors associated with sST2 levels uni- and multivariate regression analysis was performed.
Results
There was no relationship between sST2 levels and age (p = 0.67), body mass index (p = 0.19), hsTnT (p = 0.7) or other analysed parameters (all p > 0.05), except for N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). A significant positive correlation between sST2 and NT-proBNP was found (p = 0.013, R = 0.395). Multivariate analysis revealed that the stage of coronary artery disease and NT-proBNP were independent factors associated with sST2 concentration (p = 0.04). Intriguing is the fact that the fewer the sclerotic changes present in arteries, the higher was the sST2 level (β = –0.381, p = 0.04).
Conclusions
sST2 protein is independent of traditional factors which usually affect levels of NT-proBNP. In chronic heart failure, sST2 protein may be of greater importance in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy than in ischaemic aetiology, which seems to be associated with the molecular mechanism (biomechanical strain) related to sST2.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.33344
PMCID: PMC3598130  PMID: 23515651
ST2; chronic heart failure; biomarkers
3.  Genetic variability and the risk of myocardial infarction in Poles under 45 years of age 
Introduction
Myocardial infarction is caused by the obstruction of an artery in places of atherosclerosis plaque rupture. Endothelial cells during their activation express chemoattractant and adhesion molecules whereas infiltrating inflammatory cells produce enzymes, predisposing a lesion to rupture.
Material and methods
We investigated the correlation between polymorphisms in the human genes E-selectin (Ser128Arg), ICAM1 (K469E), OLR1 (K167N), MMP1 (1G/2G) and MMP3 (−1612 5A/6A) and the risk of MI in young Poles under 45 years. There was no significant difference in the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the studied genes E-selectin (Ser128Arg), ICAM1 (K469E), OLR1 (K167N) and MMP3 (−1612 5A/6A) between patients with MI and controls.
Results
The analysis of the association of the 1G2G polymorphism with the risk of myocardial infarction indicated an odds ratio (OR) of 5.68 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.60 to 12.36). Other factors associated with myocardial infarction were: smoking (OR 4.12; 95% CI 1.63–10.44), male sex (OR 16.02; 95% CI 5.90–43.46), hypercholesterolaemia (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.29–5.83) and arterial hypertension (OR 4.56; 95% CI 1.66–14.47).
Conclusions
We found that only MMP1 1G/2G polymorphism is associated with myocardial infarction in the Polish population of individuals younger than 45 years. Clinical factors seemed to play a greater role in the analysed group.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2010.13887
PMCID: PMC3281334  PMID: 22371740
gene polymorphism; coronary artery disease; atherosclerosis

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