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1.  The AgNORs count in predicting long-term survival in serous ovarian cancer 
Introduction
The value of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) to predict survival in patients with ovarian cancer has not been clearly explained yet. The aim of study was to assess the value of analysis of the mean number of AgNORs per nucleus (mAgNOR) and mean percentage of nuclei with five or more AgNORs per nucleus (pAgNOR) in the prediction of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with serous ovarian cancer.
Material and methods
The study examined 52 patients treated for serous ovarian cancer with a follow-up period of 2-143 months. After silver staining paraffin specimens from primary surgery, mAgNOR and pAgNOR in cancer cells were counted and analyzed. Age, grading, radicality of surgery and FIGO staging were analyzed as covariates.
Results
Mean mAgNOR equaled 4.4 ±0.9 and pAgNOR equaled 42.2 ±20.8%. Both mAgNOR and pAgNOR were the lowest in G1 tumors. The mAgNOR and pAgNOR were lower in stage I than stage IV cancers. The DFS and OS rates were respectively 15.4% and 21.2%. In univariate analysis FIGO staging, grading, and pAgNOR were associated with worse prognosis, while radicality of surgery remained a significant protective factor in terms of DFS. Higher FIGO staging and older age worsened OS. In multivariate analysis FIGO staging remained significantly associated with both DFS (HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.05-3.71) and OS (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.00-3.10), while age affected OS rates (HR 1.78; 95% CI 1.04-2.95).
Conclusions
mAgNOR and pAgNOR are useful markers of cellular kinetics. Prospective studies in larger populations are needed to confirm these results in terms of AgNORs’ effects on survival.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.36753
PMCID: PMC3953966  PMID: 24701219
nucleolar organizer regions; argyrophilic; serous ovarian cancer; prognostic factors; survival
2.  Assessment of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region area/nucleus ratio in ovarian serous epithelial adenomas, borderline tumors and cancers 
Introduction
There is a need to assess the value of the novel potentially useful biomarkers in ovarian tumors. The aim of study was to assess the value of sAgNOR analysis in ovarian serous epithelial tumors.
Material and methods
The analysis was performed in ovaries from 113 patients treated operatively due to serous ovarian tumors (30 adenomas, 14 borderline tumors and 69 cancers). After silver staining of paraffin specimens from surgery, sAgNOR in tumor cells was analyzed. Additionally, the value of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region area/nucleus ratio (sAgNOR) in the prediction of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in 52 patients with serous ovarian cancer with complete follow-ups in November 2009 was evaluated. Age, grading, radicality of surgery and FIGO staging were analyzed as additional factors.
Results
sAgNOR in adenomas, borderline tumors and cancers was in the following ranges: (0.73 ±0.23) × 106, (0.81 ±0.18) × 106 and (0.96 ±0.33) × 106 [AgNOR/cm2] respectively. In cancers from G1 to G3 sAgNOR was (1.02 ±0.32) × 106 (G1), (0.98 ±0.37) × 106 (G2) and (0.82 ±0.24) × 106 (G3) [AgNOR/cm2] respectively. In univariate analysis, but not in multivariate analysis, staging negatively correlated with better DFS and OS. sAgNOR, age of patients, grading and radicality of surgery were not associated with DFS or OS in either univariate or multivariate analysis.
Conclusions
sAgNOR analysis is not sufficient to precisely characterize cellular kinetics in serous ovarian tumors, and the analysis of sAgNOR, mAgNOR and pAgNOR should be performed commonly. The prognostic significance of sAgNOR in patients with serous ovarian cancer was not proven.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.33066
PMCID: PMC3598139  PMID: 23515230
nucleolar organizer regions; argyrophilic; ovarian tumors; serous
3.  The comparison of common cancer types and the coincidence of concomitant chronic diseases between palliative home care patients in Lodz Voivodeship and the general Polish population 
Introduction
The continued growth in the number of elderly with cancer and age-related chronic diseases will cause in Poland an increase in demand for palliative care. The aim of the study was to identify chronic comorbidities and cancer types in palliative home care patients and to compare their incidence with the general Polish population.
Material and methods
The data was obtained from 543 patients who received palliative home care between 2005-2009. The occurrence of the most common chronic conditions such as arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic pulmonary diseases and central nervous system diseases were analysed together with the cancer types.
Results
The study group included 259 women (47.7%) and 284 men (52.3%) aged 25-91 years old. The most common primary neoplasm locations for men were lung (28.2% vs. 21.4% in general population) and colorectal cancer (18.7% vs. 11.4% in general population), and in women breast (19.7% vs. 22.8% in general population) and colorectal cancer (17.4% vs. 9.2% in general population). The incidence of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and chronic pulmonary diseases was significantly different in comparison to the general populations (47.0% vs. 11.3%; 20.3% vs. 6.8%; 16.6% vs. 27.5%, respectively). The mean number of concomitant diseases was 1.6 for women and 1.8 for men vs. 1.7 and 1.2 in the general Polish population respectively.
Conclusions
The majority of the patients had concomitant disease, with cardiovascular diseases being most common. The most common primary neoplasm diagnoses in palliative home care patients were lung and colorectal cancer, which corresponds to the cancer prevalence in the general population.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.29406
PMCID: PMC3400916  PMID: 22852006
advanced cancer; palliative care; comorbidities; elderly
6.  Long-term survival of endometrioid endometrial cancer patients 
Introduction
To establish risk factors for onset and progression of endometrioid endometrial cancer still remains the aim of scientists. The aim of the study was to determine disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in women with endometrioid endometrial cancer.
Material and methods
A retrospective review of 142 patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer after surgery treated with adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy in the Regional Cancer Centre in Lodz between 2002 and 2004 was performed. Clinical and pathological data were correlated with clinical outcome and survival.
Results
In 3 patients (2.1%) clinical progression was diagnosed during the treatment. In 23 patients (16.7%) after primary remission, relapse was diagnosed 2-56 months after treatment. DFS and OS were 81.7% and 83.1% respectively. Better DFS significantly correlated with larger number of pregnancies (> 1), stage I of the disease and optimal surgery. Lower stage of disease, pelvic lymph node dissection, optimal surgery and depth of myometrial infiltration ≤ 50% were independent prognostic factors for better OS.
Conclusions
The results of our study provided significant evidence that early detection of endometrioid endometrial cancer enables optimal surgery. It reduces the indications for adjuvant therapy in stage I of the disease, and makes the prognosis significantly better. Other clinical and pathological factors such as numerous pregnancies, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and depth of myometrial infiltration, although important, are of less significance. Further prospective, randomized studies are necessary to prove the role of these factors.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2010.19305
PMCID: PMC3302708  PMID: 22427770
endometrioid endometrial cancer; prognostic factors; disease-free survival; overall survival
7.  The analysis of prognostic factors affecting post-radiation acute reaction after conformal radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer 
Introduction
The aim was to evaluate the risk of acute side effects in the lung after 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An attempt was made to single out clinical factors and factors related to treatment technique which may induce acute post-radiation pneumonitis.
Material and methods
The analysis concerned 34 consecutive patients who underwent radical radiation therapy for NSCLC. Intensity of early toxicity was evaluated using modified RTOG/EORTC toxicity score. The endpoint for this analysis was the occurrence of radiation pneumonitis of grade 2 or higher. Factors related to treatment techniques were included in the statistical analysis.
Results
Fifty-three percent of patients included in the study suffered from acute post-radiation pneumonitis. The results of the study revealed the existence of lung tissue sensitivity to low doses of ionizing radiation. The multivariate analysis showed that total lung volume receiving a low dose of 10 Gy increased the risk of post-radiation pneumonitis (p = 0.01).
Conclusions
Acute post-radiation pneumonitis was a relevant clinical problem in patients who underwent radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. The lung volume receiving a dose of 10 Gy was the most important dosimetric factor which influenced the post-radiation acute pneumonitis.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2010.17092
PMCID: PMC3298346  PMID: 22419936
NSCLC; conformal radiotherapy; post-radiation pneumonitis

Results 1-7 (7)