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1.  MIG (CXCL9), IP-10 (CXCL10) and I-TAC (CXCL11) concentrations after nasal allergen challenge in patients with allergic rhinitis 
Introduction
The role of monokine induced by interferon-γ (IFN-γ, MIG/CXCL9), IFN-γ-inducible protein (IP-10/CXCL10), and IFN-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC/CXCL11) in allergic inflammation has not been explored in detail in vivo. The aim of the study was to examine the changes in concentrations of MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11 in nasal lavages collected from healthy and allergic subjects during nasal allergen challenge.
Material and methods
Subjects allergic to grass pollen and healthy controls were included. Nasal allergen challenge preceded by placebo administration was performed outside the pollen season. Nasal lavages were collected before and 30 min after application of the placebo and 30 min after allergen administration. Concentrations of chemokines were determined using ELISA.
Results
We observed significantly higher concentrations of IP-10/CXCL10 in allergic patients compared to the healthy subjects before (354.49 ±329.24 vs. 164.62 ±175.94 pg/ml; p = 0.036), 30 min after placebo (420.3 ±421.28 vs. 246.88 ±353.24 pg/ml; p = 0.021) and 30 min after allergen administration (403.28 ±359.29 vs. 162.68 ±148.69 pg/ml; p = 0.025). IP-10/CXCL10 levels did not change 30 min after allergen provocation. In contrast, MIG/CXCL9 levels were similar in both groups before and after placebo. However, a significant rise in MIG/CXCL9 concentration was noted in allergic patients 30 min after the allergen (138.88 ±109.59 vs. 395.8 ±301.2 pg/ml; p = 0.00026). I-TAC/CXCL11 concentrations increased after placebo as well as the allergen in both groups.
Conclusions
IP-10/CXCL10 concentrations are elevated in nasal lavages from allergic patients and this chemokine may play a role in chronic allergic inflammation. MIG/CXCL9 levels increase rapidly after allergen application, which may suggest its role in the early allergic response. Results on I-TAC/CXCL11 concentrations remain inconclusive.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.37198
PMCID: PMC3832822  PMID: 24273568
IP-10; MIG; I-TAC; allergic inflammation; rhinitis
2.  Exhaled breath 8-isoprostane as a marker of asthma severity 
Introduction
Oxidative stress is a non-specific feature of airway inflammation in asthmatics. 8-Isoprostane (8-IP), a prostaglandin-F2α isomer, is a relatively new marker of oxidative stress and may be measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with asthma. This research study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of EBC 8-IP as a marker of severity and control of severe adult asthma.
Material and methods
Twenty-seven severe, never-smoking asthmatics were studied. According to positive or negative reversibility testing, this group was subdivided into reversible and irreversible asthma groups. All participants were observed for 8 weeks during which they completed daily diary observations including day and night symptoms, number of awakenings, peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, daily rescue medication usage and oral steroids consumption. They attended the clinic 3 times and on these occasions spirometry assessments, EBC collection and asthma control tests (ACT) were done. Two control groups were included: 11 healthy never-smokers and 16 newly diagnosed and never-treated, non-smoking mild asthmatics.
Results
There were no statistically significant differences between severe asthma and healthy control or never-treated asthma groups in concentrations of EBC 8-IP (median and interquartile range: 4.67; 2.50-27.92 vs. 6.93; 2.5-12.98 vs. 3.80; 2.50-10.73, respectively). No correlations were found between EBC 8-IP and asthma control parameters, such as ACT results, night and day symptoms, consumption of rescue medication, percentage of days free of oral steroids, PEF diurnal variation, lung function test results, forced expiratory volume in the 1 s reversibility, and markers of systemic inflammation.
Conclusions
Our study results suggest that EBC 8-IP measurements are not useful for asthma monitoring.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28639
PMCID: PMC3400897  PMID: 22852009
8-isoprostane; exhaled breath condensate; oxidative stress; severe asthma
3.  Exhaled eicosanoids and biomarkers of oxidative stress in exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Introduction
Eicosanoids and oxidants play an important role in inflammation, but their role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is uncertain. In this study we hypothesized that levels of exhaled leukotrienes, prostaglandins and biomarkers of oxidative stress are increased in infectious exacerbations of COPD and that they decrease after antibiotic therapy.
Material and methods
Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (LTs), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), prostaglandin E4, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 8-isoprostane were measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in 16 COPD patients with infectious exacerbations (mean age 64 ±12 years, 13 male) on day 1, during antibiotic therapy (days 2-4), 2-4 days after therapy and at a follow-up visit when stable (21-28 days after therapy).
Results
There was a significant fall in concentration of cys-LTs, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane at visit 3 compared to day 1 (cys-LTs: 196.5 ±38.4 pg/ml vs. 50.1 ±8.2 pg/ml, p < 0.002; LTB4: 153.6 ±25.5 pg/ml vs. 71.9 ±11.3 pg/ml, p < 0.05; 8-isoprostane: 121.4 ±14.6 pg/ml vs. 56.1 ±5.2 pg/ml, p < 0.03, respectively). Exhaled H2O2 was higher on day 1 compared to that at visits 2 and 3 (0.74 ±0.046 µM vs. 0.52 ±0.028 µM and 0.35 ±0.029 µM, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). Exhaled PGE2 levels did not change during exacerbations of COPD. Exhaled eicosanoids and H2O2 in EBC measured at the follow-up visit (stable COPD) were significantly higher compared to those from healthy subjects.
Conclusions
We conclude that eicosanoids and oxidants are increased in infectious exacerbations of COPD. They are also elevated in the airways of stable COPD patients compared to healthy subjects.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.28555
PMCID: PMC3361040  PMID: 22662001
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; exhaled eicosanoids; 8-isoprostane; exhaled breath condensate
4.  Asthma control, quality of life and successful sputum induction 
Introduction
Induced sputum is widely used in clinical practice and scientific studies. This technique has become enormously useful in assessment of airway inflammation. However, some asthmatics are unable to expectorate sputum of sufficient quality and quantity necessary for further processing, therefore not providing reliable results. This research study aimed to examine whether asthma control and asthma quality of life influence the results of sputum induction.
Material and methods
Fourty-seven adult subjects, current non-smokers with symptomatic asthma, were studied. All participants underwent clinical assessment, skin prick testing, spirometry and sputum induction. Before sputum induction, subjects were asked to fill in the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ) and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ).
Results
Twenty-nine (62%) subjects produced sputum eligible for processing. This group had a significantly lower ACQ score (0.83 ±0.65 vs. 1.37 ±0.77; p = 0.02), higher MiniAQLQ total score (5.67 ±0.99 vs. 4.86 ±1.07; p = 0.011), higher MiniAQLQ symptoms domain score (5.54 ±1.13 vs. 4.63 ±1.24; p = 0.013) and higher MiniAQLQ activity limitations domain score (6.08 ±0.92 vs. 5.07 ±1.37; p= 0.014). The noted differences between groups of patients were not only statistically but were clinically important.
Conclusions
The study results suggest that successful sputum induction may be expected in patients with better asthma control and better quality of life.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2011.25559
PMCID: PMC3258803  PMID: 22291829
asthma control; quality of life; induced sputum; airway inflammation

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