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1.  Electrophysiological features in patients with sinus node dysfunction and vasovagal syncope 
Introduction
Syncope is a common presentation of sinus node dysfunction (SND). Some patients who receive a permanent pacemaker due to SND do not benefit from it and further diagnostic workup leads to the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope (VVS). The aim of the study was to identify electrophysiological criteria that can be used for identification of patients with SND and concurrent VVS.
Material and methods
Transoesophageal atrial pacing (TAP) was performed in 100 patients divided into four groups depending on symptoms and TAP results. Standard electrophysiological parameters of sinus node function and their variability were obtained in the basal state and after pharmacological autonomic blockade (AB).
Results
Patients with concurrent SND and VVS had a greater variability of sinoatrial conduction time assessed by Strauss’ method than patients without incidents of syncope (83.2 ±53.9 vs. 34.1 ±19.6, 47.8 ±33.6 and 32.1 ±22.99). Apart from abnormal sinus node recovery time and second pause, patients with SND had bigger basal state variability of these parameters. In patients with SND and concurrent vasovagal syncope the variability of sinus node recovery time (SNRT), corrected SNRT (cSNRT) and second pause (IIP) decreased after autonomic blockade.
Conclusions
Patients with concurrent SND and VVS have distinct electrophysiological features – greater sinoatrial conduction time (SACT) variability and the decrease of SNRT, cSNRT and IIP variability after AB. However, further studies in larger study groups are needed to validate our findings. Transoesophageal atrial pacing is a useful procedure in patients with syncope, especially when the coexistence of more than one cardiac cause is suspected.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2011.26607
PMCID: PMC3264987  PMID: 22328878
syncope; sinus node dysfunction; vasovagal syncope; transoesophageal atrial pacing; sinoatrial conduction time variability
2.  Right atrial appendage pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy – haemodynamic consequences of interatrial conduction delay 
The present case report describes a patient with an artificial mitral valve and dual chamber pacemaker implanted due to perioperative complete atrio-ventricular block. One year later an upgrade to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) combined with ICD function was performed due to significant progression of heart failure symptoms. Beneficial effects of CRT are demonstrated, but unfavourable haemodynamic consequences of right atrial appendage pacing are also underlined. Important interatrial conduction delay during atrial paced rhythm resulted in a significant time difference between optimal sensed and paced atrio-ventricular delay (AVD). This report provides a practical outline how to determine the interatrial delay and the sensed-paced AVD offset under echocardiography in patients treated with CRT.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2011.24146
PMCID: PMC3258784  PMID: 22291812
cardiac resynchronization therapy; atrio-ventricular delay; echocardiography; atrial pacing; heart failure
3.  Assessment of a single monomorphic ventricular ectopy from the right ventricular outflow tract in standard and high resolution electrocardiogram 
Introduction
High-resolution electrocardiography (ECG-CREM) is a method based on digital electrocardiography. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the Crem records the technique of vectorcardiography was used. In comparison the origin of the ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) could be estimated based on a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. The aim of the study was to assess the point of origin of the VPCs in ECG-CREM and correlate it with standard electrocardiography (ECG-Stand).
Material and methods
Our study included 26 patients (16 females, 10 males), aged 51-83 years (avg. 58.1 ±12.3), who presented with recurrent, during at least 6 months’ observation, VPCs. The point of origin of VPCs was compared in both methods.
Results
The performed analysis of collected ECG-Stand records revealed the presence of arrhythmogenic focal points in six different locations (1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9). However, we did not affirm their presence in points 2,4,6. They were most commonly located in RVOT zones 8 (30.7%), 9 (23.0%), 5 (23.0%), and most seldom in zones 1, 3, 7 (7.6% each). In the simultaneous record of ECG-CREM with a single VPC it was confirmed that the FPb zone was activated the most frequently (40.0%); the next in relation to frequency were SD and ST (20.0%). Less frequent VPCs have their origin in Crem zones SP, FPa and SB (6.6%).
Conclusions
Electrocardiogram of high signal resolution (ECG-CREM) might be useful in recognition of the origin of ventricular premature complexes from RVOT.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2010.17086
PMCID: PMC3298340  PMID: 22419930
ventricular ectopy; RVOT; standard ECG; high-resolution electrocardiography
4.  Morphogenetic aspects of the septomarginal trabecula in the human heart 
Introduction
The septomarginal trabecula is a constant element of the anatomy of the human heart, which connects the interventricular septum and the anterior wall of the right ventricle. Considering the diversity of opinions about the structure and numerous studies suggesting its important role in haemodynamics and conduction of electrical impulses in the heart, we decided to study this element in detail.
Material and methods
The research was conducted on 220 human hearts. Attention was mainly paid to the structure and topography of the trabecula. Its relation to the anterior papillary muscle was also a part of the study.
Results
The presence of this morphologically diverse element was confirmed in each of the studied hearts. In most cases the trabecula originated from the upper part of the interventricular septum, separating at an angle increasing proportionally to the number of branches of the crista supraventricularis as well as the number of secondary trabeculae. The criteria established for the study, which included the course of the trabecula in the lumen of the right ventricle and its relation to the anterior papillary muscle, let us distinguish 4 types of septomarginal trabecula (I, II, III, IV). The most common was type III, the undivided trabecula, tightly connecting with the anterior papillary muscle.
Conclusions
Based on the results of the following study we propose a hypothesis on the genesis of respective parts of the septomarginal trabecula and a plausible sequence of changes they undergo during human ontogenesis and phylogenesis of the primates.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2010.17089
PMCID: PMC3298343  PMID: 22419933
septomarginal trabecula; crista supraventricularis; morphology; human heart

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