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1.  Risk factor reduction in progression of angiographic coronary artery disease 
Introduction
To investigate differences between outpatients with progressive and nonprogressive coronary artery disease (CAD) measured by coronary angiography.
Material and methods
Chart reviews were performed in patients in an outpatient cardiology practice having ≥ 2 coronary angiographies ≥ 1 year apart. Progressive CAD was defined as 1) new non-obstructive or obstructive CAD in a previously disease-free vessel; or 2) new obstruction in a previously non-obstructive vessel. Coronary risk factors, comorbidities, cardiovascular events, medication use, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood pressure were used for analysis.
Results
The study included 183 patients, mean age 71 years. Mean follow-up duration was 11 years. Mean follow-up between coronary angiographies was 58 months. Of 183 patients, 108 (59%) had progressive CAD, and 75 (41%) had nonprogressive CAD. The use of statins, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and aspirin was not significantly different in patient with progressive CAD or nonprogressive CAD Mean arterial pressure was higher in patients with progressive CAD than in patients with nonprogressive CAD (97±13 mm Hg vs. 92±12 mm Hg) (p<0.05). Serum LDL-C was insignificantly higher in patients with progressive CAD (94±40 mg/dl) than in patients with nonprogressive CAD (81±34 mg/dl) (p=0.09).
Conclusions
Our data suggest that in addition to using appropriate medical therapy, control of blood pressure and serum LDL-C level may reduce progression of CAD.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.29399
PMCID: PMC3400910  PMID: 22851998
coronary artery disease; blood pressure; cholesterol
2.  The impact of statin therapy on long-term cardiovascular outcomes in an outpatient cardiology practice 
Introduction
Statins reduce coronary events in patients with coronary artery disease.
Material and methods
Chart reviews were performed in 305 patients (217 men and 88 women, mean age 74 years) not treated with statins during the first year of being seen in an outpatient cardiology practice but subsequently treated with statins. Based on the starting date of statins use, the long-term outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABGs) before and after statin use were compared.
Results
Mean follow-up was 65 months before statins use and 66 months after statins use. Myocardial infarction occurred in 31 of 305 patients (10%) before statins, and in 13 of 305 patients (4%) after statins (p < 0.01). Percutaneous coronary intervention had been performed in 66 of 305 patients (22%) before statins and was performed in 41 of 305 patients (13%) after statins (p < 0.01). Coronary artery bypass graft surgery had been performed in 56 of 305 patients (18%) before statins and in 20 of 305 patients (7%) after statins (p < 0.001). Stepwise logistic regression showed statins use was an independent risk factor for MI (odds ratio = 0.0207, 95% CI, 0.0082-0.0522, p < 0.0001), PCI (odds ratio = 0.0109, 95% CI, 0.0038-0.0315, p < 0.0001) and CABGs (odds ratio = 0.0177, 95% CI = 0.0072-0.0431, p < 0.0001)
Conclusions
Statins use in an outpatient cardiology practice reduces the incidence of MI, PCI, and CABGs.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.27281
PMCID: PMC3309437  PMID: 22457675
statins; myocardial infarction; coronary revascularization
3.  Reduction in atherosclerotic events: a retrospective study in an outpatient cardiology practice 
Introduction
Although atherosclerotic disease cannot be cured, risk of recurrent events can be reduced by application of evidence-based treatment protocols involving aspirin, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statin medications. We studied atherosclerotic event rates in a patient population treated before and after the development of aggressive risk factor reduction treatment protocols.
Material and methods
We performed a retrospective chart review of patients presenting for follow-up treatment of coronary artery disease in a community cardiology practice, comparing atherosclerotic event rates and medication usage in a 2-year treatment period prior to 2002 and a 2-year period in 2005-2008. Care was provided in both the early and later eras by 7 board-certified cardiologists in a suburban cardiology practice. Medication usage was compared in both treatment eras. The primary outcome was a composite event rate of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular events, and coronary interventions.
Results
Three hundred and fifty-seven patients were studied, with a follow-up duration of 12.1 (±3.5) years. There were 132 composite events in 104 patients (29.1%) in the early era compared to 40 events in 33 patients (9.2%) in the later era (p < 0.0001). From the early to the later eras, there was an increase in use of β-blockers (66% to 83%, p < 0.0001), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (34% to 80%, p < 0.0001), and statins (40% to 90%, p < 0.0001).
Conclusions
Application of aggressive evidence-based medication protocols for treatment of atherosclerosis is associated with a significant decrease in atherosclerotic events or need for coronary intervention.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.27282
PMCID: PMC3309438  PMID: 22457676
atherosclerosis; myocardial infarction; cerebrovascular events; cardiovascular drugs
4.  Incidence of appropriate cardioverter-defibrillator shocks and mortality in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators with ischemic cardiomyopathy versus nonischemic cardiomyopathy at 33-month follow-up 
Introduction
The aim of the study was to investigate at long-term follow-up the incidence of appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks and of all-cause mortality in patients with ICDs with ischemic cardiomyopathy versus nonischemic cardiomyopathy.
Material and methods
ICDs were implanted in 485 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and in 299 patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy, all of whom had coronary angiography. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Follow-up was 965 days in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy versus 1039 days in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (p not significant). The ICDs were interrogated every 3 months to see if shocks occurred.
Results
Appropriate ICD shocks occurred in 179 of 485 patients (37%) with ischemic cardiomyopathy and in 93 of 299 patients (31%) with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (p not significant). All-cause mortality occurred in 162 of 485 patients (33%) with ischemic cardiomyopathy and in 70 of 299 patients (23%) with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (p = 0.002).
Conclusions
The incidence of appropriate ICD shocks was not significantly different at 33-month follow-up in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy versus nonischemic cardiomyopathy. However, patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy had a significantly higher incidence of all-cause mortality than patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (p = 0.002).
doi:10.5114/aoms.2010.19299
PMCID: PMC3302702  PMID: 22427764
ischemic cardiomyopathy; nonischemic cardiomyopathy; cardioverter-defibrillator shocks
5.  Prevalence of transthoracic echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage 
Introduction
This study investigated the prevalence of transthoracic echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke (IS), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in sinus rhythm.
Material and methods
The patients included 120 with IS, 30 with SAH, and 41 with ICH. All diagnoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging or brain computed tomography. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were taken at the time stroke was diagnosed. All echocardiograms were interpreted by an experienced echocardiographer.
Results
Of 120 IS patients, 1 (1%) had a left ventricular (LV) thrombus, 1 (1%) had mitral valve vegetations, 30 (25%) had LV hypertrophy, 26 (22%) had abnormal LV ejection fraction, 4 (3%) had mitral valve prolapse, 33 (28%) had mitral annular calcium (MAC), 40 (33%) had aortic valve calcium (AVC), 3 (3%) had a bioprosthetic aortic valve, 10 (8%) had aortic stenosis (AS), 6 (5%) had atrial septal aneurysm, 2 (2%) had patent foramen ovale, and 40 (33%) had no abnormalities. Of 30 SAH patients, 5 (17%) had LV hypertrophy, 1 (3%) had abnormal LV ejection fraction, 1 (3%) had AS, 4 (13%) had MAC, 5 (17%) had AVC, and 20 (67%) had no abnormalities. Of 41 ICH patients, 9 (22%) had LVH, 1 (2%) had abnormal LV ejection fraction, 1 (3%) had AS, 6 (15%) had MAC, 8 (20%) had AVC, and 22 (54%) had no abnormalities.
Conclusions
Transthoracic echocardiographic abnormalities are more prevalent in patients with IS than in patients with SAH or ICH.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2010.13505
PMCID: PMC3278941  PMID: 22371718
echocardiography; ischemic stroke; subarachnoid hemorrhage; intracerebral hemorrhage

Results 1-5 (5)