Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-12 (12)

Clipboard (0)
Year of Publication
1.  Shared biological risks that influence brain and behaviour 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2012;97(12):1011-1012.
PMCID: PMC3512429  PMID: 23109091
Child Psychiatry; Genetics
2.  Metabolic Abnormalities and Body Composition of HIV-infected South African Children on Ritonavir-Boosted Lopinavir-based or Nevirapine-based Antiretroviral Therapy: A Comparative Study 
Archives of disease in childhood  2012;98(4):258-264.
Few studies have assessed metabolic and body composition alterations in young perinatally HIV-infected African children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared metabolic profiles and regional fat of children on a combination of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (lopinavir/ritonavir), lamivudine, and stavudine to those switched to nevirapine, lamivudine, and stavudine.
This study evaluated metabolic and body composition outcomes in 156 HIV-infected children completing a randomized trial that assessed the continued use of lopinavir/ritonavir-based or switch to NVP-based ART in Johannesburg, South Africa (2005–2010). Fasting total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides were measured. Total and regional body fat (BF) were estimated by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). A clinical assessment for lipodystrophy was conducted. Modified intent-to-treat analyses were conducted.
156 children (mean age 5.1±0.8 years, mean duration of treatment 4.2±0.7 years, mean time since randomization 3.4±0.7 years) were enrolled. 85 were randomized to the lopinavir/ritonavir- and 71 to the nevirapine-group. The lopinavir/ritonavir-group had lower mean HDL (1.3±0.4 vs. 1.5±0.4 mmol/L, p<0.001) and higher mean TC (4.4±1.0 vs. 4.1±0.8 mmol/L, p=0.097), LDL (2.6±0.9 vs. 2.3±0.7mmol/L, p=0.018), and triglycerides (1.1±0.4 vs. 0.8±0.3 mmol/L, p<0.001). The lopinavir/ritonavir-group had more total BF by mean skinfold sum (43±11.1 vs. 39±10.1 mm, p=0.031) and BF% by BIA (17.0±7.0 vs. 14.1±8.0%, p=0.022). Thirteen (8.4%) met criteria for lipodystrophy.
Unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and triglycerides, and differences in fat are detectable in young HIV-infected South African children receiving lopinavir/ritonavir-based vs. those switched to nevirapine-based regimens. Interventions to mitigate these alterations are warranted to reduce long-term cardiovascular disease risk.
PMCID: PMC4533934  PMID: 23220209
HIV; Antiretroviral Therapies; Body Composition; Lipids
3.  Season of Birth in a Nationwide Cohort of Coeliac Disease Patients 
Background and objective
Genetic factors alone cannot explain the risk of developing coeliac disease (CD). Children born in summer months are likely to be weaned and introduced to gluten during winter when viral infections are more frequent. Earlier studies on birth season and CD are limited in sample size and results are contradictory.
Case-control study. We used biopsy reports from all 28 Swedish pathology departments to identify individuals with CD, defined as small intestinal villous atrophy (n=29,096). The government agency Statistics Sweden then identified 144,522 controls matched for gender, age, calendar year and county. Through conditional logistic regression we examined the association between summer birth (March-August) and later CD diagnosis (outcome measure).
Some 54.10% of individuals with CD vs. 52.75% of controls were born in the summer months. Summer birth was hence associated with a small increased risk of later CD (Odds ratio: 1.06; 95%CI=1.03–1.08; p<0.0001). Stratifying CD patients according to age at diagnosis, we found the highest OR in those diagnosed before age 2 years (OR=1.17; 95%CI=1.10–1.26), while summer birth was not associated with a CD diagnosis in later childhood (age 2–18 years: OR=1.02; 95%CI=0.97–1.08), but had a marginal effect on the risk of CD in adulthood (age ≥18years: OR=1.04; 95%CI=1.01–1.07).
In this study, summer birth was associated with an increased risk of later CD, but the excess risk was small, and general infectious disease exposure early in life is unlikely to be a major cause of CD.
PMCID: PMC3560933  PMID: 23172784
celiac; coeliac; epidemiology; risk factors; seasons; viral infection
4.  Delivery by caesarean section and risk of obesity in preschool age children: a prospective cohort study 
Archives of disease in childhood  2012;97(7):610-616.
To examine whether delivery by caesarean section is a risk factor for childhood obesity.
Prospective pre-birth cohort study (Project Viva).
Eight outpatient multi-specialty practices based in the Boston, Massachusetts area.
We recruited women during early pregnancy between 1999 and 2002, and followed their children after birth. We included 1255 children with body composition measured at 3 years of age.
Main outcome measures
Body mass index (BMI) z-score, obesity (BMI for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile), and sum of triceps + subscapular skinfold thicknesses, at 3 years of age.
284 children (22.6 percent) were delivered by caesarean section. At age 3, 15.7% of children delivered by caesarean section were obese, compared with 7.5% of children born vaginally. In multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusting for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, birth weight, and other covariates, birth by caesarean section was associated with a higher odds of obesity at age 3 (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.36 to 3.23), higher mean BMI z-score (0.20 units, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.33), and higher sum of triceps + subscapular skinfold thicknesses (0.94 mm, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.51).
Infants delivered by caesarean section may be at increased risk of childhood obesity. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to explore mechanisms underlying this association.
PMCID: PMC3784307  PMID: 22623615
5.  Predicting mortality for paediatric inpatients where malaria is uncommon 
Archives of disease in childhood  2012;97(10):889-894.
As the proportion of children living low malaria transmission areas in sub-Saharan Africa increases, approaches for identifying non-malarial severe illness need to be evaluated to improve child outcomes.
As a prospective cohort study, we identified febrile paediatric inpatients, recorded data using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) criteria, and collected diagnostic specimens.
Tertiary referral centre, northern Tanzania.
Of 466 participants with known outcome, median age was 1.4 years (range 2 months–13.0 years), 200 (42.9%) were female, 11 (2.4%) had malaria and 34 (7.3%) died. Inpatient death was associated with: Capillary refill >3 s (OR 9.0, 95% CI 3.0 to 26.7), inability to breastfeed or drink (OR 8.9, 95% CI 4.0 to 19.6), stiff neck (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8 to 17.6), lethargy (OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.5 to 10.6), skin pinch >2 s (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 12.3), respiratory difficulty (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.9 to 8.2), generalised lymphadenopathy (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 8.3) and oral candidiasis (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 8.3). BCS <5 (OR 27.2, p<0.001) and severe wasting (OR 6.9, p<0.001) were independently associated with inpatient death.
In a low malaria transmission setting, IMCI criteria performed well for predicting inpatient death from non-malarial illness. Laboratory results were not as useful in predicting death, underscoring the importance of clinical examination in assessing prognosis. Healthcare workers should consider local malaria epidemiology as malaria over-diagnosis in children may delay potentially life-saving interventions in areas where malaria is uncommon.
PMCID: PMC3508729  PMID: 22872067
6.  Continuous EEG monitoring in Kenyan children with non-traumatic coma 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2012;97(4):343-349.
The aim of this study was to describe the EEG and clinical profile of seizures in children with non-traumatic coma, compare seizure detection by clinical observations with that by continuous EEG, and relate EEG features to outcome.
This prospective observational study was conducted at the paediatric high dependency unit of Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Children aged 9 months to 13 years presenting with acute coma were monitored by EEG for 72 h or until they regained consciousness or died. Poor outcome was defined as death or gross motor deficits at discharge.
82 children (median age 2.8 (IQR 2.0–3.9) years) were recruited. An initial medium EEG amplitude (100–300 mV) was associated with less risk of poor outcome compared to low amplitude (≤100 mV) (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7; p<0.01). 363 seizures in 28 (34%) children were observed: 240 (66%) were electrographic and 112 (31%) electroclinical. In 16 (20%) children, electrographic seizures were the only seizure types detected. The majority (63%) of electroclinical seizures had focal clinical features but appeared as generalised (79%) or focal with secondary generalisation (14%) on EEG. Occurrence of any seizure or status epilepticus during monitoring was associated with poor outcome (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 8.7; p=0.02 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 15.3; p<0.01, respectively).
Initial EEG background amplitude is prognostic in paediatric non-traumatic coma. Clinical observations do not detect two out of three seizures. Seizures and status epilepticus after admission are associated with poor outcome.
PMCID: PMC3329232  PMID: 22328741
7.  Marketing breast milk substitutes: problems and perils throughout the world 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2012;97(6):529-532.
On 21 May 1981 the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes (hereafter referred to as the Code) was passed by 118 votes to 1, the US casting the sole negative vote. The Code arose out of concern that the dramatic increase in mortality, malnutrition and diarrhoea in very young infants in the developing world was associated with aggressive marketing of formula. The Code prohibited any advertising of baby formula, bottles or teats and gifts to mothers or ‘bribery’ of health workers. Despite successes, it has been weakened over the years by the seemingly inexhaustible resources of the global pharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the long and tortuous history of the Code through the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the HIV pandemic and the rare instances when substitute feeding is clearly essential. Currently, suboptimal breastfeeding is associated with over a million deaths each year and 10% of the global disease burden in children. All health workers need to recognise inappropriate advertising of formula, to report violations of the Code and to support efforts to promote breastfeeding: the most effective way of preventing child mortality throughout the world.
PMCID: PMC3371222  PMID: 22419779
8.  Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children: an observational study within a randomised trial 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2012;97(8):685-691.
Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants.
2320 LBW newborns were visited at 2, 6 and 12 months of age to assess nutritional and vaccination status. The authors examined survival until the 6-month visit for children who were DTP vaccinated and DTP unvaccinated at the 2-month visit.
Two-thirds of the children had received DTP at 2 months and 50 deaths occurred between the 2-month and 6-month visits. DTP vaccinated children had a better anthropometric status for all indices than DTP unvaccinated children. Small mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was the strongest predictor of mortality. The death rate ratio (DRR) for DTP vaccinated versus DTP unvaccinated children differed significantly for girls (DRR 2.45; 95% CI 0.93 to 6.45) and boys (DRR 0.53; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.20) (p=0.018, homogeneity test). Adjusting for MUAC, the overall effect for DTP vaccinated children was 2.62 (95% CI 1.34 to 5.09); DRR was 5.68 (95% CI 1.83 to 17.7) for girls and 1.29 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.97) for boys (p=0.023, homogeneity test). While anthropometric indices were a strong predictor of mortality among boys, there was little or no association for girls.
Surprisingly, even though the children with the best nutritional status were vaccinated early, early DTP vaccination was associated with increased mortality for girls.
PMCID: PMC3409557  PMID: 22331681
9.  Prospects for eradication of meningococcal disease 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2012;97(11):993-998.
Meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia remain a serious global health threat. This review focuses on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease following the recent implementation of effective vaccines and the potential utility of a vaccine against serogroup B meningococcus.
PMCID: PMC3512348  PMID: 22984187
Epidemiology; Intensive Care; Mortality; Infectious Diseases
10.  Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2012;97(12):1019-1026.
To determine risk factors for childhood overweight that can be identified during the first year of life to facilitate early identification and targeted intervention.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Search strategy
Electronic database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and CAB Abstracts.
Eligibility criteria
Prospective observational studies following up children from birth for at least 2 years.
Thirty prospective studies were identified. Significant and strong independent associations with childhood overweight were identified for maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, high infant birth weight and rapid weight gain during the first year of life. Meta-analysis comparing breastfed with non-breastfed infants found a 15% decrease (95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; I2=73.3%; n=10) in the odds of childhood overweight. For children of mothers smoking during pregnancy there was a 47% increase (95% CI 1.26 to 1.73; I2=47.5%; n=7) in the odds of childhood overweight. There was some evidence associating early introduction of solid foods and childhood overweight. There was conflicting evidence for duration of breastfeeding, socioeconomic status at birth, parity and maternal marital status at birth. No association with childhood overweight was found for maternal age or education at birth, maternal depression or infant ethnicity. There was inconclusive evidence for delivery type, gestational weight gain, maternal postpartum weight loss and ‘fussy’ infant temperament due to the limited number of studies.
Several risk factors for both overweight and obesity in childhood are identifiable during infancy. Future research needs to focus on whether it is clinically feasible for healthcare professionals to identify infants at greatest risk.
PMCID: PMC3512440  PMID: 23109090
Infant Feeding; General Paediatrics
11.  Drug use and upper gastrointestinal complications in children: a case–control study 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2012;98(3):218-221.
To evaluate the risk of upper gastrointestinal complications (UGIC) associated with drug use in the paediatric population.
This study is part of a large Italian prospective multicentre study. The study population included children hospitalised for acute conditions through the emergency departments of eight clinical centres. Patients admitted for UGIC (defined as endoscopically confirmed gastroduodenal lesions or clinically defined haematemesis or melena) comprised the case series; children hospitalised for neurological disorders formed the control group. Information on drug and vaccine exposure was collected through parental interview during the children's hospitalisation. Logistic regression was used to estimate ORs for the occurrence of UGIC associated with drug use adjusted for age, clinical centre and concomitant use of any drug.
486 children hospitalised for UGIC and 1930 for neurological disorders were enrolled between November 1999 and November 2010. Drug use was higher in cases than in controls (73% vs 54%; p<0.001). UGICs were associated with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.0), oral steroids (adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7 to 4.8) and antibiotics (adjusted OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8 to 3.1). The duration of use of these drug categories was short (range 1–8 days). Paracetamol showed a lower risk (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.6) compared to ibuprofen (adjusted OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3 to 5.9), although with partially overlapping CIs.
NSAIDs, oral steroids and antibiotics, even when administered for a short period, were associated with an increased risk of UGIC.
PMCID: PMC3582087  PMID: 23264432
gastrointestinal complications; drug use; adverse events; case-control study
12.  Recurrent life-threatening sepsis in intestinal failure: transplantation or foster care? 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2012;98(7):556-557.
Parenteral nutrition has transformed the outlook for patients with intestinal failure, but is associated with serious long-term complications, including catheter-related blood stream infection, liver disease and loss of venous access. Risks can be significantly reduced by strict adherence to management regimens, such as catheter-care protocols, but intestinal transplantation is indicated when complications threaten survival. The responsibility of home parenteral nutrition as an alternative to long-term hospitalisation is welcomed by many parents, but represents a huge burden of care that sometimes proves beyond their capacity. We report two children with recurrent life-threatening central venous catheter infections who were removed from the intestinal transplant list following virtual cessation of infective episodes after going into foster care. These cases raise important issues about the level of family support offered, the role of non-compliance with treatment routines in relation to risk of complications, and how this should be assessed and monitored.
PMCID: PMC3686303  PMID: 23142786
Nutrition; Gastroenterology

Results 1-12 (12)