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1.  Cognitive correlates of HVOT performance differ between individuals with mild cognitive impairment and normal controls 
Objective
To clinically characterize performance on the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) among participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to identify naming and executive functioning correlates associated with HVOT performance among MCI participants and normal controls (NC).
Background
The HVOT is a common neuropsychological instrument that measures visuospatial skills and agnosia. It has, however, been criticized for its multifactorial nature, as several studies have reported executive or language correlates of HVOT performance. To our knowledge, simultaneous comparison of executive functioning and language demands of the HVOT has never been performed among an older cohort.
Methods
The HVOT, two tests of executive functioning [Trail Making Test, Part B (TMT-B), Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA)] and two tests of naming [abbreviated Boston Naming Test (BNT), Animal Naming] were administered to 222 NC, 166 MCI, and 68 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) individuals.
Results
HVOT scores were significantly different between all three groups in the expected direction (AD < MCI < NC). Linear regression among NC participants revealed that COWA, age, and BNT were significantly associated with HVOT scores, accounting for 12%, 6%, and 4% of HVOT variance, respectively. Among MCI participants, the BNT accounted for 43% of HVOT variance. Neither TMT-B nor Animal Naming was a significant predictor for either group.
Conclusion
Among NC participants, rapid word generation (i.e., COWA), a measure of executive functioning, is the most salient predictor of HVOT performance. In contrast, lexical retrieval (i.e., BNT) is the most salient language or executive functioning predictor of HVOT performance among MCI participants. These findings extend previous claims that the HVOT is multifactorial by suggesting that reduced HVOT performance in MCI patients may be related to mild lexical retrieval impairments.
doi:10.1016/j.acn.2006.06.001
PMCID: PMC2746420  PMID: 16893623
Object recognition; Mild cognitive impairment; Hooper Visual Organization Test
2.  Evaluating elements of executive functioning as predictors of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) 
OBJECTIVE
Executive functioning has been repeatedly linked to the integrity of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The present study examined the association of multiple executive functioning elements (i.e., working memory, generation, inhibition, planning, and sequencing) to IADLs among an older adult cohort at risk for future cognitive and functional decline.
METHODS
Seventy-two participants with prevalent but stable cardiovascular disease completed a neuropsychological protocol assessing multiple elements of executive functioning, including COWA, PASAT, DKEFS Color-Word Interference Test, DKEFS Trail-Making Test, DKEFS Tower Test, and Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Reliable informants completed a measure of IADLs.
RESULTS
Stepwise logistic regression selected a model involving a single significant predictor, a measure of inhibition (i.e., DKEFS Color-Word Interference Test), which had a significant regression coefficient. Subsequent correlation analyses confirmed an association between the inhibition measure and multiple IADL items. Inter-item comparisons among the IADLs revealed significant differences, such that telephone use and laundry were significantly more intact than most other IADLs while shopping and housekeeping were most compromised.
CONCLUSIONS
Our data suggest that inhibition, also known as susceptibility to interference, is most strongly related to IADL impairment among patients at risk for future cognitive and functional decline.
doi:10.1016/j.acn.2006.03.007
PMCID: PMC2746400  PMID: 16814980
Cardiovascular disease; Neuropsychology; Cognition; Executive functioning; Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS); Inhibition; Geriatric

Results 1-2 (2)