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1.  Category and letter verbal fluency across the adult lifespan: relationship to EEG theta power 
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age, sex, and education on category and letter verbal fluency task performance. A secondary goal was to examine whether resting EEG theta power in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes impacts age-associated decline in verbal fluency task performance. A large sample (N=471) of healthy, normal participants, age 21–82, was assessed for letter fluency (i.e., FAS), and for category fluency (i.e., Animal Naming), and with a 32-channel EEG system for ‘eyes-open’ resting theta power. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined using analyses of variance. Correlation analyses were used to test the impact of theta power on age and fluency performance by controlling for the effects of theta when examining the relationship between the other two variables. The results indicated that performance on both fluency tests declined linearly with age, but that the rate of decline was greater for category fluency. These age changes were not associated with education level, and there were no sex differences. While theta power was negatively associated with age and positively associated with Animal Naming performance, it did not moderate the relationship between the two. The differential age-associated decline between category and letter fluency suggests separate neurobiological substrates underlying the two domains of performance, which is not related to theta activity.
doi:10.1016/j.acn.2004.12.006
PMCID: PMC2758771  PMID: 15939182
Normal aging; Category fluency; Letter fluency; EEG; Theta
2.  Evaluating elements of executive functioning as predictors of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) 
OBJECTIVE
Executive functioning has been repeatedly linked to the integrity of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The present study examined the association of multiple executive functioning elements (i.e., working memory, generation, inhibition, planning, and sequencing) to IADLs among an older adult cohort at risk for future cognitive and functional decline.
METHODS
Seventy-two participants with prevalent but stable cardiovascular disease completed a neuropsychological protocol assessing multiple elements of executive functioning, including COWA, PASAT, DKEFS Color-Word Interference Test, DKEFS Trail-Making Test, DKEFS Tower Test, and Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Reliable informants completed a measure of IADLs.
RESULTS
Stepwise logistic regression selected a model involving a single significant predictor, a measure of inhibition (i.e., DKEFS Color-Word Interference Test), which had a significant regression coefficient. Subsequent correlation analyses confirmed an association between the inhibition measure and multiple IADL items. Inter-item comparisons among the IADLs revealed significant differences, such that telephone use and laundry were significantly more intact than most other IADLs while shopping and housekeeping were most compromised.
CONCLUSIONS
Our data suggest that inhibition, also known as susceptibility to interference, is most strongly related to IADL impairment among patients at risk for future cognitive and functional decline.
doi:10.1016/j.acn.2006.03.007
PMCID: PMC2746400  PMID: 16814980
Cardiovascular disease; Neuropsychology; Cognition; Executive functioning; Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS); Inhibition; Geriatric

Results 1-2 (2)