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1.  Advances in ethylene signalling: protein complexes at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane 
AoB Plants  2012;2012:pls031.
The initial steps in ethylene hormone perception involve proteins that are predominantly localized at the endoplasmic reticulum. This article integrates recent work into a coherent picture of these initial steps and highlights remaining questions.
The gaseous plant hormone ethylene plays critical roles in plant responses to environmental and endogenous signals that modulate growth and development. Over the past 25 years, great progress has been made in elucidating the ethylene signalling pathway. Genetic studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have identified key components of the pathway, and subcellular localization studies have shown that most of these components, other than transcription factors and protein turnover machinery, are associated with or lie within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The ethylene receptors are found in high-molecular-mass protein complexes and interact with the CTR1 serine/threonine protein kinase and the genetically downstream EIN2 Nramp-like protein. To more fully understand the ethylene signalling pathway, recent research has focused on examining the molecular connections between these components and how they are regulated. Here, we review recent advances and remaining gaps in our understanding of the early steps in the ethylene signalling pathway taking place at the ER.
PMCID: PMC3485614  PMID: 23119138

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