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1.  Access to antibiotics: a safety and equity challenge for the next decade 
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide in healthcare settings and in the community. Some microbial pathogens have become resistant to multiple antibiotics, if not all presently available, thus severely compromising treatment success and contributing to enhanced morbidity, mortality, and resource use. The major driver of resistance is misuse of antibiotics in both human and non-human medicine. Both enhanced access and restricted use in many parts of the world is mandatory. There is an urgent need for an international, integrated, multi-level action to preserve antibiotics in the armamentarium of the 21st century and address the global issue of antimicrobial resistance.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-2-1
PMCID: PMC3599140  PMID: 23305311
Antibiotics; Antimicrobial resistance; Antimicrobial resistance surveillance; Antibiotics – use; Multidrug-resistant organisms
2.  The gut is the epicentre of antibiotic resistance 
The gut contains very large numbers of bacteria. Changes in the composition of the gut flora, due in particular to antibiotics, can happen silently, leading to the selection of highly resistant bacteria and Candida species. These resistant organisms may remain for months in the gut of the carrier without causing any symptoms or translocate through the gut epithelium, induce healthcare-associated infections, undergo cross-transmission to other individuals, and cause limited outbreaks. Techniques are available to prevent, detect, and treat the carriage of resistant organisms in the gut. However, evidence on these techniques is scant, the only exception being selective digestive decontamination (SDD), which has been extensively studied in neutropenic and ICU patients. After the destruction of resistant colonizing bacteria, which has been successfully obtained in several studies, the gut could be re-colonized with normal faecal flora or probiotics. Studies are warranted to evaluate this concept.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-1-39
PMCID: PMC3554492  PMID: 23181506
Gut; Resistance to antibiotics; SDD; Probiotics; Clostridium difficile; Search; Destroy and restore
3.  WAAR (World Alliance against Antibiotic Resistance): Safeguarding antibiotics 
Summary
Resistance to antibiotics has increased recently to a dramatic extend, and the pipeline of new antibiotics is almost dry for the five next years. Failures happen already for trivial community acquired infections, like pyelonephritis, or peritonitis, and this is likely to increase. Difficult surgical procedures, transplants, and other immunosuppressive therapies will become far more risky. Resistance is mainly due to an excessive usage of antibiotics, in all sectors, including the animal one. Action is urgently needed. Therefore, an alliance against MDRO has been recently created, which includes health care professionals, consumers, health managers, and politicians. The document highlights the different proposed measures, and represents a strong consensus between the different professionals, including general practicionners, and veterinarians.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-1-25
PMCID: PMC3570339  PMID: 22958542
4.  Ten-year decrease of acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia at a single institution: the result of a multifaceted program combining cross-transmission prevention and antimicrobial stewardship 
Background
In France, the proportion of MRSA has been over 25% since 2000. Prevention of hospital-acquired (HA) MRSA spread is based on isolation precautions and antibiotic stewardship. At our institution, before 2000, the Infection Disease and the Infection Control teams had failed to reduce HA-MRSA rates.
Objectives and methods
We implemented a multifaceted hospital-wide prevention program and measured the effects on HA-MRSA colonization and bacteremia rates between 2000 and 2009. From 2000 to 2003, active screening and decontamination of ICU patients, hospital wide alcohol based hand rubs (ABHR) use, control of specific classes of antibiotics, compliance audits, and feed-backs to the care providers were successively implemented. The efficacy of the program was assessed by HA-MRSA colonized and bacteremic patient rates per 1000 patient-days in patients hospitalized for more than twenty-four hours.
Results
Compliance with the isolation practices increased between 2000 and 2009. Consumption of ABHR increased from 6.8 L to 27.5 L per 1000 patient-days. The use of antibiotic Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 1000 patient-days decreased by 31%. HA-MRSA colonization decreased by 84% from 1.09 to 0.17 per 1000 patient-days and HA-MRSA bacteremia by 93%, from 0.15 to 0.01 per 1000 patient-days (p < 10−7 for each rate).
Conclusions
In an area highly endemic for MRSA, a multifaceted prevention program allows for sustainable reduction in HA-MRSA bacteremia rates.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-1-18
PMCID: PMC3508950  PMID: 22958346
MRSA; Bacteremia; Hospital-acquired; Isolation precaution; Alcohol based hand rub; Antibiotic stewardship
6.  Ready for a world without antibiotics? The Pensières Antibiotic Resistance Call to Action 
Resistance to antibiotics has increased dramatically over the past few years and has now reached a level that places future patients in real danger. Microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are commensals and pathogens for humans and animals, have become increasingly resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. Moreover, in certain countries, they are also resistant to carbapenems and therefore susceptible only to tigecycline and colistin. Resistance is primarily attributed to the production of beta-lactamase genes located on mobile genetic elements, which facilitate their transfer between different species. In some rare cases, Gram-negative rods are resistant to virtually all known antibiotics. The causes are numerous, but the role of the overuse of antibiotics in both humans and animals is essential, as well as the transmission of these bacteria in both the hospital and the community, notably via the food chain, contaminated hands, and between animals and humans. In addition, there are very few new antibiotics in the pipeline, particularly for Gram-negative bacilli. The situation is slightly better for Gram-positive cocci as some potent and novel antibiotics have been made available in recent years. A strong and coordinated international programme is urgently needed. To meet this challenge, 70 internationally recognized experts met for a two-day meeting in June 2011 in Annecy (France) and endorsed a global call to action ("The Pensières Antibiotic Resistance Call to Action"). Bundles of measures that must be implemented simultaneously and worldwide are presented in this document. In particular, antibiotics, which represent a treasure for humanity, must be protected and considered as a special class of drugs.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-1-11
PMCID: PMC3436635  PMID: 22958833
antibiotic resistance; antibiotic stewardship; infection control; hand hygiene; surveillance networks; care bundles; environment; regulations; human medicine; animal medicine

Results 1-6 (6)