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1.  Twenty years of antimicrobial resistance control programme in a regional multi hospital institution, with focus on emerging bacteria (VRE and CPE) 
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), the largest public health care institution in France (38 hospitals, 23,000 beds, serving 11.6 millions inhabitants) launched in 1993 a long term programme to control and survey multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR).
AP-HP MDR programme consisted in successive waves of actions: bundle measures to survey and control cross transmission of MRSA and extended-spectrum betalactamase producing enterobacteria (ESBL) in 1993, large campaign to promote the use of alcohol-based hand rub solution (ABHRS) in 2001, specific strategy to quickly control the spread of emerging MDR (vancomycin resistant Enterococcus, VRE; carbapenemase producing enterobacteria, CPE) in 2006, large campaign to decrease antibiotics consumption in 2006.
Following this programme, the ABHRS consumption dramatically increased, the antibiotic consumption decreased by 10%, the incidence of MRSA, including MRSA bacteraemia, decreased by 2/3, all VRE and CPE events were rapidly controlled. However, the incidence of ESBL, mainly Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, that remained low and stable until 2003 increased markedly afterwards, justifying adapting our programme in the future.
A sustained and coordinated strategy can lead to control multidrug resistant bacteria at the level of a large multihospital institution.
PMCID: PMC3436665  PMID: 22958336
antibiotic resistance control; carbapenemase producing enterobacteria; CPE; vancomycin resistant enterococci; VRE; MRSA; quality programme; healthcare associated infections; HAI

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