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1.  Stability of Amphotericin B in Infusion Bottles 
Intravenous solutions of amphotericin B in 5% dextrose water with or without hydrocortisone or heparin demonstrated no appreciable loss of activity when exposed to fluorescent light for up to 24 h at 25 C (room temperature).
PMCID: PMC444613  PMID: 4793885
2.  Pseudomonas Resistance Due to Inactivated Susceptibility Disks 
The deterioration of carbenicillin is similar to that of other penicillins. Susceptibility test results, by using disks which have been exposed to humidity, may indicate false resistance. Proper storage and handling methods are suggested.
PMCID: PMC444612  PMID: 4210949
5.  Immunosuppressive Effect of 6-Mercaptopurine and Mitomycin C 
6-Mercaptopurine and mitomycin C were used in combination drug therapy to produce a prolongation of skin allograft survival.
PMCID: PMC444582  PMID: 4598616
6.  Fluid and Pharmacological Dynamics in a Subcutaneous Chamber Implanted in Rats 
Antibiotic dynamics in the fluid obtained from subcutaneously implanted chambers in rats were similar to those observed in serum following single intramuscular injections of carbenicillin.
PMCID: PMC444527  PMID: 4790940
7.  Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pseudomonas pseudomallei 
The in vitro activity of various antibiotics against Pseudomonas pseudomallei was studied. The tetracyclines were the most active, followed by gentamicin, kanamycin, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, rifampin, cycloserine, erythromycin, and ampicillin.
PMCID: PMC444526  PMID: 4790939
10.  Divalent Cation Reversal of Tetracycline-Inhibited Respiration of Klebsiella pneumoniae 
Magnesium and ferrous compounds reversed tetracycline inhibition of respiration in Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the two compounds together had greater reversing ability than either alone.
PMCID: PMC444471  PMID: 4597733
11.  Failure of 1-β-d-Ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-Triazole-3-Carboxamide (Virazole, ICN 1229) to Stimulate Interferon 
In cultured cells, Virazole failed to stimulate either interferon or a cellular resistance which continued in its absence. Serum from Virazole-treated mice likewise contained no demonstrable interferon.
PMCID: PMC444450  PMID: 4790608
12.  In Vitro Evaluation of a New Aminoglycoside Derivative of Kanamycin, BB-KA: a Comparison with Tobramycin and Gentamycin 
Against more than 90% of 200 bacterial strains tested in vitro, the inhibitory concentration of gentamicin and tobramycin was 3.1 μg/ml and that of BB-K 8, a new semisynthetic aminoglycoside derivative of kanamycin, was 6.3 μg/ml.
PMCID: PMC444449  PMID: 4790607
14.  Treatment of Chronic Typhoid Carriers with Ampicillin 
Ten chronic enteric typhoid carriers treated with oral ampicillin have been followed for 4 to 9 years and no relapses have occurred. Patients are probably cured if relapse does not occur within 2 years.
PMCID: PMC444429  PMID: 4597723
15.  Double-Blind Controlled Comparison of Phlebitis Produced by Cephapirin and Cephalothin 
In a double-blind study with each patient as his own control cephapirin and cephalothin were administered to 20 patients in opposite arms for a period of 48 hr each. Neither the incidence of phlebitis nor the degree of phlebitis was significantly different with the two drugs, and there was no difference in the time of onset of pain or phlebitis.
PMCID: PMC444404  PMID: 4597719
16.  Effect of Hepatic Insufficiency on 5-Fluorocytosine Concentrations in Serum 
Hepatic function failed to influence serum concentrations of the antifungal agent 5-fluorocytosine when the drug was given intravenously to rabbits with CCl4-induced hepatic insufficiency or orally to a patient with postnecrotic cirrhosis.
PMCID: PMC444376  PMID: 4790571
17.  Resistance of Some Species of Clostridium to Clindamycin 
Ten strains each of 18 clinically important species of Clostridium were tested for susceptibility to clindamycin. Of the 180 strains tested, 56 (31%) were resistant to more than 1.6 μg/ml.
PMCID: PMC444374  PMID: 4790570
18.  Phenazopyridine-Sulfonamide Combination Antibacterial Therapy in Mice 
Phenazopyridine, at its maximum tolerated dose, did not affect the effectiveness of sulfonamides against uropathogenic bacterial species in mice.
PMCID: PMC444373  PMID: 4597706
19.  Transduction of Isoniazid Susceptibility-Resistance and Streptomycin Resistance in Mycobacteria 
Transduction of resistance to isoniazid and streptomycin as well as susceptibility to isoniazid in Mycobacterium smegmatis SN2 has been demonstrated. A method has been described for the selection of isoniazid-susceptible variants after transduction of susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC444611  PMID: 4793884
20.  In Vitro Effect of Virazole Against Influenza Viruses 
The minimal inhibitory concentrations of Virazole against 32 mean tissue culture infective doses of three type A influenza strains including type A/England/42/72 (H3N2) and a type B strain in tissue culture were 0.1 and 0.05 μg/ml, respectively. The growth inhibition pattern by various Virazole concentrations of type A virus was similar to that of the type B virus. Virazole appears to be slightly more potent against the A/England/42/72 strain than are other antiinfluenzal agents.
PMCID: PMC444610  PMID: 4793883
21.  Characterization of a Bacteriocin from Staphylococcus aureus Strain 462 
Staphylococcus aureus 462 is one of three bacteriocin-producing strains selected for study from 200 isolates of staphylococci of animal origin. These bacteriocins are specific in their activity, inhibiting the growth of certain strains of S. aureus and other gram-positive species, but not gram-negative organisms. Staphylococcin 462 was not found in significant concentrations in the supernatant fluid of broth cultures, nor was it released into the suspending liquid when the cells were mechanically disrupted. However, extraction of the cells with 7 M urea resulted in the liberation of much of the activity. The material was purified by gel permeation chromatography by using Sephadex G-200 and by preparative electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Chemical analysis showed that the material consisted of roughly 90% protein and 3% lipid. The molecular weight of sodium dodecyl sulfate-dissociated staphylococcin 462 was calculated to be about 9,000.
PMCID: PMC444609  PMID: 4793882
22.  Antiviral Effect of 3,4-Dihydro-1-Isoquinolineacetamide Hydrochloride in Experimental Human Rhinovirus Infection 
Double-blind trials were conducted in volunteers to evaluate the efficacy of the prophylactic 3,4-dihydro-1-isoquinolineacetamide hydrochloride (DIQA) treatment against rhinovirus type 24 challenge. Ten men received a 7-day course of DIQA treatment and 11 men received a placebo. The intranasal viral challenge dose was 10 mean tissue culture infective doses. The oral administration of 1 g prechallenge and 2 g a day for 6 consecutive postchallenge days did not prevent the development of colds. Nine drug-treated men and 10 controls developed rhinovirus illness. However, the illnesses of the drug-treated men were mild. Rhinorrhea occurred less frequently and was more mild in the drug-treated group. The challenge virus was recovered from 80% of these subjects in both groups, but almost twice the number of challenge viruses were isolated from the controls than from the drug-treated men. The prophylactic DIQA therapy appears to suppress the cold syndrome and to reduce virus excretion, although its effect is marginal. Additional clinical trials are warranted to confirm the antirhinoviral effect of this drug.
PMCID: PMC444606  PMID: 4367686
23.  Effect of Rifampin on Cutaneous Hypersensitivity to Purified Protein Derivative in Humans 
The effect of rifampin on cutaneous hypersensitivity was studied in 11 tuberculous patients. A suppressive effect was noted in eight patients, five of whom developed a negative response to the strength of purified protein derivative to which they had been shown to be previously sensitive. In one instance complete anergy to purified protein derivative was noted. It appears that rifampin has immunosuppressive effects in some patients when used in conventional doses.
PMCID: PMC444605  PMID: 4793880
24.  Binding of Gentamicin and Other Aminoglycoside Antibiotics to Mycelium of Various Actinomycetes 
Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, occurs both free in the fermentation filtrate and bound to the mycelium of the producing organism, Micromonospora purpurea. The bound gentamicin, which represents the major portion of the total quantity present in the fermentation broth, was released after exposure to acid, alkali, or sonic disruption. Washing the mycelium with distilled water, heat treatment, and the addition of sodium chloride to the fermentation medium were not effective methods for releasing bound gentamicin. Gentamicin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics were effectively adsorbed from neutral aqueous solutions by the acid-extracted mycelium of M. purpurea. In addition, the acid-extracted mycelium of actinomycetes other than M. purpurea were shown to be able to adsorb gentamicin from solution.
PMCID: PMC444604  PMID: 4793879
25.  Salmonella typhi resistant to Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, and Other Antimicrobial Agents: Strains Isolated During an Extensive Typhoid Fever Epidemic in Mexico 
During 1972 a large epidemic, in excess of 10,000 cases, of typhoid fever occurred in Mexico City, Pachuca, and other communities of Mexico. The main characteristic of the epidemic, in addition to the large number of persons affected, was the prevalence of a strain of Salmonella typhi which was highly resistant to chloramphenicol both in vivo and in vitro, and which belonged to a single phage type, Vi degraded approaching type A. Of 493 strains of S. typhi studied during the outbreak, 452 (91.7%) were resistant to chloramphenicol (CM), tetracycline (TC), streptomycin (SM), and sulfonamides (SU). The epidemic strain owes its resistance to an R factor which is easily transferable to Escherichia coli K-12 and which appears to be stable. In the third month of the outbreak, a strain of S. typhi resistant to CM, TC, SM, SU, ampicillin (AM), and kanamycin (KM) was isolated from a patient with severe typhoid fever. During the following 9 months, six additional strains of S. typhi resistant to AM, CM, TC, SM, and SU were also isolated. Transfer experiments to E. coli K-12 indicate that these strains are infected with two different R factors, one causing CM, TC, SM, and SU resistance and the other causing AM or AM and KM resistance. The frequency of transfer of the resistance in overnight crosses was in the order of 10−4 for CM, TC, SM, and SU and 10−6 for AM or AM, and KM. The appearance of these strains resistant both to chloramphenicol and ampicillin was a cause for concern for the clinicians; fortunately, they have remained an infrequent cause of disease.
PMCID: PMC444603  PMID: 4602828

Results 1-25 (257)