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1.  Pharmacokinetics of A40926 in rats after single intravenous and subcutaneous doses. 
A40926 is a new glycopeptide antibiotic with unique activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and high and prolonged levels in mouse blood (B. P. Goldstein, E. Selva, L. Gastaldo, M. Berti, R. Pallanza, F. Ripamonti, P. Ferrari, M. Denaro, V. Arioli, and G. Cassani, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 31:1961-1966, 1987). We studied the pharmacokinetics of A40926 in rats after single intravenous and subcutaneous 10-mg/kg (body weight) doses. Concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by microbiological assay. After intravenous administration, high concentrations of A40926, ranging from 132 mg/liter at 3 min to 0.7 mg/liter at 96 h, were found in plasma. Concentrations declined with a three-exponential decay correlated with a prolonged, biphasic distribution and a slow elimination (terminal half-life, 61.22 h). After completion of the distribution, the compound was widely distributed to the extravascular space. The rate-limiting step in the elimination of A40926 from the body appears to be the slow return from the deep compartment into the central one. A40926 was rapidly absorbed from the injection site after subcutaneous administration, and its availability was close to 90%. The percentage of the dose excreted in urine in 120 h was 35.9%.
PMCID: PMC172143  PMID: 3364946
6.  Zinc for the common cold. 
PMCID: PMC172232  PMID: 3377471
7.  No cytogenetic effects of quinolone treatment in humans. 
Cytogenetic effects of ciprofloxacin (500 to 2,000 mg daily) and ofloxacin (200 mg daily) were studied in lymphocytes from 31 patients treated for 1 to 10 weeks. Blood samples for cytogenetic analysis were taken before the start of treatment from all patients, after 1 week from 25 patients, and after 2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks from six patients. No chromosome-damaging effect could be demonstrated in any treatment group. The mean aberration yields for each cytogenetic parameter studied and the total number of aberrations were all normal at each sampling occasion.
PMCID: PMC172312  PMID: 3166361
10.  Chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin against murine scrub typhus. 
Ciprofloxacin (120 mg/kg of body weight per day), chloramphenicol (300 mg/kg per day), and gentamicin (30 mg/kg per day) were compared with placebo in a BALB/cj mouse model of scrub typhus. All animals treated with ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol survived. All animals treated with gentamicin or placebo died. All surviving animals showed evidence of seroconversion. Ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol were statistically more effective in preventing death than gentamicin or placebo.
PMCID: PMC172156  PMID: 3364949
11.  In vitro evaluation of josamycin, spiramycin, and erythromycin against Rickettsia rickettsii and R. conorii. 
The antimicrobial activities of josamycin, erythromycin, and spiramycin against Rickettsia conorii and R. rickettsii were evaluated in two tests: a dye-uptake assay and a plaque assay. The MIC of josamycin was 1 microgram/ml for both species; the MICs of erythromycin and spiramycin were 4 to 8 and 16 to 32 micrograms/ml, respectively, for both species. Only josamycin may be of clinical use in treating spotted fever rickettsiosis. It may be useful in treating pregnant women and young children.
PMCID: PMC172145  PMID: 3129987
12.  Cilofungin (LY121019) inhibits Candida albicans (1-3)-beta-D-glucan synthase activity. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1988;32(12):1901-1903.
Cilofungin (LY121019) inhibited Candida albicans growth and activity of (1-3)-beta-glucan synthase, for which it was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki-app of 2.5 microM. Cilofungin had no effect on chitin synthase activity. Based on these and other data, it seems likely that cilofungin inhibits fungal growth by inhibiting (1-3)-beta-glucan synthase activity.
PMCID: PMC176043  PMID: 2977537
13.  Decrease in antimicrobial susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica caused by antigenic modulation and phase variation. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1988;32(12):1891-1892.
The susceptibilities to 20 antimicrobial agents of Bordetella bronchiseptica variants in C mode and degraded phases were compared with those of their parents in X mode. Increases in MICs of 4- to 32-fold were observed for ampicillin, carbenicillin, erythromycin, novobiocin, rifampin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid.
PMCID: PMC176039  PMID: 3245700
14.  Occurrence of the Campylobacter resistance gene tetO in Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1988;32(12):1793-1796.
The distribution of nucleotide sequences related to tetK, tetL, tetM, and tetO was studied by dot blot hybridization in 178 strains of Streptococcus and Enterococcus spp. that were resistant to tetracycline. The tetO gene, which is responsible for tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter spp., was detected in six Streptococcus strains and two Enterococcus strains, in which it was borne by similar plasmids. This observation confirms our previous proposal that tetO originated in gram-positive cocci. tetM, the most prevalent resistance gene, was present alone in 109 strains and associated with tetL in 33 strains in which the two genes contributed cooperatively to high-level tetracycline resistance. tetL was present alone in five Enterococcus strains, and tetK was detected in a single Streptococcus strain. The existence of 22 strains that did not hybridize to the probes suggest that tetracycline resistance in streptococci and enterococci involves additional gene classes as well.
PMCID: PMC176020  PMID: 3245693
15.  Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of rimantadine in elderly adults. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1988;32(12):1813-1819.
To assess the possible effect of aging on rimantadine hydrochloride pharmacokinetics, single- and multiple-dose kinetics were determined in 18 healthy adults with ages between 51 and 79 years. Subjects ingested single 100-mg oral doses of rimantadine after an overnight fast, followed after 5 days by a dosage of 100 mg twice a day for 9.5 days. No differences were observed among the age-stratified groups in measured or derived pharmacokinetic parameters. Peak concentrations in plasma (mean +/- standard deviation) following the single- and multiple-dose regimens, respectively, were 89 +/- 25 and 417 +/- 129 ng/ml for subjects who were 50 to 60 years of age (group 1), 92 +/- 24 and 401 +/- 84 ng/ml for those 61 to 70 years of age (group 2), and 100 +/- 14 and 538 +/- 51 for those 71 to 79 years of age (group 3). The elimination half-life in plasma following multiple doses averaged 33.5 h for group 1, 32.5 h for group 2, and 38.6 h for group 3. Steady-state concentrations in nasal mucus developed by day 5 of dosing (1.5-fold higher than concentrations in plasma), and rimantadine remained detectable in secretions for 5 days after the last dose in 65% of subjects. Stepwise regression analysis suggested that changes in maximum concentration in plasma and area under the concentration-time curve at steady state may be related to creatinine clearance. The results indicate that no important differences in rimantadine multiple-dose pharmacokinetics exist among healthy elderly adults with ages between 51 and 79 years.
PMCID: PMC176024  PMID: 3245694
16.  Effects of clindamycin and metronidazole on the intestinal colonization and translocation of enterococci in mice. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1988;32(12):1769-1775.
The intestinal colonization and translocation of enterococci was studied in mice treated intramuscularly with metronidazole or clindamycin, with or without oral streptomycin. Treatment with metronidazole resulted in selective elimination of strictly anaerobic cecal bacteria, with a 100-fold increase in the numbers of aerobic and facultative gram-negative bacilli and a 10,000-fold increase in the numbers of aerobic and facultative gram-positive species. Clindamycin had a similar effect on the cecal flora except that the numbers of aerobic and facultative gram-positive bacteria decreased at least 10-fold. The predominating gram-positive species in the cecal flora or metronidazole-treated mice was an enterococcus, but this organism could not be recovered from the ceca of clindamycin-treated mice. Translocating bacteria (primarily gram-negative enteric bacteria) were recovered from the mesenteric lymph nodes of the majority of mice given metronidazole or clindamycin. Gram-positive bacteria were not recovered from the mesenteric lymph nodes of 20 clindamycin-treated mice, whereas 26% of 19 metronidazole-treated mice had translocating enterococci. With addition of streptomycin to the metronidazole and clindamycin regimens, mice treated with metronidazole-streptomycin became colonized predominantly with an enterococcus, and this was the only translocating species recovered from 13% of 23 mice; however, enterococci could not be detected in the ceca of clindamycin-streptomycin-treated mice, and Bacillus spp. were recovered from the mesenteric lymph nodes of 8% of 24 mice, reflecting the composition of the cecal flora. The apparent elimination of enterococci from the ceca of clindamycin and clindamycin-streptomycin-treated mice was inconsistent with the observation that the average (n=6) peak levels of clindamycin in blood and ceca were 25 and 21 microgram/ml, respectively, whereas the in vitro MIC was 128 microgram/ml. However, this apparent in vivo activity of clindamycin against enterococci was not evident in mice given 10(9) oral enterococci; the concentrations of cecal enterococci in both clindamycin-streptomycin- and metronidazole-streptomycin-treated mice were 10(10) to 10(11) enterococci per g, with translocating enterococci recovered from approximately half of these antibiotic-treated mice. Thus antibiotic therapy with metronidazole, clindamycin, metronidazole-streptomycin, and clindamycin-streptomycin resulted in a wide variation in the cecal population levels and translocation frequencies of enterococci. This variation appeared to be related to the discrepancy between the in vivo and in vitro activities of clindamycin against enterococci.
PMCID: PMC176015  PMID: 3245692
17.  Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of rimantadine hydrochloride in mice and dogs. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1988;32(11):1699-1704.
We studied the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of rimantadine hydrochloride (rimantadine) following single-dose oral and intravenous administration in mice and dogs. Absorption of the compound in mice was rapid. Maximum concentrations in plasma occurred at less than 0.5 h after oral administration, and the elimination half-life was 1.5 h. Peak concentrations in plasma following oral administration were markedly disproportional to the dose (274 ng/ml at 10 mg/kg, but 2,013 ng/ml at 40 mg/kg). The bioavailability after an oral dose of 40 mg/kg was 58.6%. Clearance was 4.3 liters/h per kg, and the volume of distribution was 7.6 liters/kg at 40 mg/kg. In contrast to the results observed in mice, absorption of the compound in dogs was slow. Maximum concentrations in plasma occurred at 1.7 h after oral administration, and the elimination half-life was 3.3 h. A further difference was that peak concentrations in plasma were approximately proportional to the dose. Following administration of a single oral dose of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, maximum concentrations in plasma were 275,800, and 1,950 ng/ml, respectively. The bioavailability after an oral dose of 5 mg/kg was 99.4%. The clearance was 3.7 liters/h per kg, and the volume of distribution was 13.8 liters/kg at 5 mg/kg. Mass balance studies in mice, using [methyl-14C]rimantadine, indicated that 98.7% of the administered dose could be recovered in 96 h. Less than 5% of the dose was recovered as the parent drug in dog urine within 48 h. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies, done with mouse plasma, identified the presence of two rimantadine metabolites. These appeared to be ring-substituted isomers of hydroxy-rimantadine.
PMCID: PMC175954  PMID: 3252751
18.  Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of lomefloxacin after sequentially increasing oral doses. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1988;32(10):1503-1507.
The pharmacokinetics of five dose levels of lomefloxacin (100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg) were examined in a single-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 40 subjects. There were eight subjects in each group: five received active drug and three received placebo; each subject was given only one dose. All subjects completed the study, and lomefloxacin was well tolerated at all doses. No drug crystals were noted in the urine at 3 and 6 h after the dose. The mean maximum concentration in serum (Cmax) ranged from 1.11 to 7.46 micrograms/ml for the 100- to 800-mg doses, respectively, and the AUC increased proportionally with the dose. The mean time to Cmax (Tmax) values averaged 64.8 +/- 28.8 min. The elimination half-life and plasma clearance averaged 7.7 +/- 0.52 h and 259 +/- 37 ml/min, respectively. Mean concentrations in urine were highest during the first 4 h after the dose and ranged from 104 to 713 micrograms/ml following the 100- and 800-mg doses, respectively. Concentrations above 20 micrograms/ml in urine were observed in most subjects over 24 h at the three lower doses and averaged over 120 micrograms/ml during the 12- to 24-h interval at the 400-mg dose, thus supporting once-per-day dosing. Excretion rates from urine and the cumulative amount excreted increased in a dose-related fashion. Renal clearance decreased moderately at the higher doses. Thus, lomefloxacin was well tolerated, and dose proportionality was demonstrated by most pharmacokinetic parameters. The 400-mg dose produced concentrations in plasma and urine above the MIC for susceptible pathogens.
PMCID: PMC175907  PMID: 3214495
19.  In vitro susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to 10 antimicrobial agents. 
After preliminary in vitro screening of 10 antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the MICs of the 6 most promising agents against 27 clinical isolates were determined by agar dilution. The two quinolone compounds tested (difloxacin and A-56620) were the most active, each inhibiting 50% of the strains at concentrations of 4 micrograms/ml. M. tuberculosis strains previously shown to be resistant to isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampin, or ethambutol were as susceptible to these quinolone compounds as susceptible strains.
PMCID: PMC175887  PMID: 3143305
20.  In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of ME1207, a new oral cephalosporin. 
ME1207 (pivaloyloxymethyl ester of ME1206) is a new oral cephalosporin. ME1206 is (6R,7R)-7-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(methoxyimino)- acetamido]-3-[(Z)-2-(4-methylthiazol-5-yl)-ethyl]-cephem-4-carboxy lic acid. The susceptibilities of about 1,600 clinical isolates to ME1206 were determined by the agar dilution method. ME1206 showed a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. ME1206 was more active than cefaclor, T-2525, and cefixime against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Against gram-negative bacteria, the activity of ME1206 was comparable with that of T-2525, but ME1206 was less active than cefixime. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ME1206 had high activity (MIC, less than or equal to 0.05 microgram/ml). ME1206 was stable against various beta-lactamases, except beta-lactamases from Providencia rettgeri, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Escherichia coli W3630 (Rms213). The 50% effective doses of ME1207 after oral administration against systemic infections in mice were comparable with those of T-2588 against gram-negative bacteria and about one-fourth that of T-2588 against Staphylococcus aureus Smith.
PMCID: PMC175880  PMID: 3264132
21.  Mechanism of action and in vitro and in vivo activities of S-6123, a new oxazolidinone compound. 
The in vitro activity of S-6123, a synthetic antimicrobial compound of the new oxazolidinone series, was compared with those of other orally administered agents against 328 clinical isolates. The compound was moderately active (MICs, 16 to 64 micrograms/ml) against 90% of staphylococci, nonenterococcal streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae, including strains resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. S-6123 was minimally active against enterococci and facultative gram-negative bacilli. Nevertheless, the compound had significant activity in a lethal rat Escherichia coli peritonitis model at serum concentrations of one-tenth the MIC against the infecting organism. The drug demonstrated only bacteriostatic activity against susceptible organisms. Studies to define the mechanism of antibacterial action revealed that S-6123 inhibited ribosomal protein synthesis without inhibiting DNA or RNA synthesis. This compound represents a new series of antibacterial agents not related to any other antibacterial compound of natural or synthetic origin.
PMCID: PMC175864  PMID: 3058018
22.  Pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin in pediatric patients. 
The pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin have been studied in 13 pediatric male patients from 2 to 12 years of age. Patients were given a single 3-mg/kg intravenous dose of teicoplanin for prophylaxis. Blood and urine samples were collected for 8 days after administration, and teicoplanin levels were determined by microbiological assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from a three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model and from a noncompartmental analysis. Levels in plasma 1 h after the administration averaged 14.8 mg/liter. The half-lives of the two distribution phases were 1.3 and 9.7 h. The half-life of the terminal phase averaged 57.9 h, with similar estimates obtained from the noncompartmental analysis and from data from urine. The volume of distribution of the central compartment was 0.15 liter/kg, whereas the volume of distribution at steady state and during the elimination phase were 0.80 and 1.25 liters/kg. The total teicoplanin clearance averaged 14.8 ml/h per kg, with renal clearance accounting for about 60% of the total. The average cumulative recovery of teicoplanin in urine over 8 days was 59% of the dose, similar to the value obtained in adult volunteers. There was no significant linear correlation between elimination half-life and age. Preliminary data after repeated administration support the reliability of the model used and the validity of the mean estimated parameters. There were no local or systemic adverse reactions to teicoplanin.
PMCID: PMC172381  PMID: 2973284
23.  Heterogeneity of 6'-N-acetyltransferases of type 4 conferring resistance to amikacin and related aminoglycosides in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. 
DNA-DNA hybridization and immunoblotting were used to assess the relatedness between the 6'-N-acetyltransferases of type 4 encoded by plasmid pAZ007 from a clinical isolate of Serratia marcescens and those encoded by NR79 and R5. The absence of detectable DNA-DNA homology and of immunological cross-reactivity suggests the existence of at least two distinct 6'-N-acetyltransferase type 4 genes that mediate amikacin resistance in gram-negative bacilli.
PMCID: PMC172397  PMID: 3056258
24.  Antibacterial properties of (2,3)-alpha- and (2,3)-beta-methylene analogs of penicillin G. 
The penam nucleus can assume two conformations; these are designated open and closed. The synthetic (2,3)-alpha- and (2,3)-beta-methylenepenams can be regarded as analogs of the open and closed conformations, respectively. It has been shown that the beta-methylenepenams are essentially inactive, suggesting that the closed conformation of penams is also inactive. In this study, we investigated a series of beta-lactams, all of which contained phenylacetamido side chains: penicillin G, the (2,3)-alpha- and (2,3)-beta-methylenepenams, and the 3-acetoxymethyl- and 3-methylcephalosporins. The alpha-methylenepenam and penicillin G were the most active compounds, while the beta-methylene isomer was only poorly active. Results with permeability mutants suggested that the alpha-methylene compound penetrated the outer membrane somewhat more readily than penicillin G did. The intrinsic potency of the alpha-methylenepenam appeared to be similar to that of penicillin G, on the basis of their affinities for penicillin-binding proteins and their abilities to inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis in ether-permeabilized Escherichia coli, while the beta-methylene analog had very poor intrinsic potency. The alpha-methylene analog was about 10-fold more efficient (Vmax/Km) than penicillin G as a substrate for the cephalosporinases from Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris, but it was about 40-fold less efficient with penicillinase from Staphylococcus aureus. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the active conformation of penams is the open conformation and suggest that the position in space of the carboxyl group relative to the beta-lactam carbonyl is an important determinant of cephalosporinlike character, as distinct from penicillinlike character.
PMCID: PMC172334  PMID: 3190190
25.  Uridine reverses the toxicity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine in normal human granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells in vitro without impairment of antiretroviral activity. 
We evaluated the effects of natural purine and pyrimidine nucleosides on protection from or reversal of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) cytotoxicity in human bone marrow progenitor cells by using clonogenic assays. The selectivity of the "protection" or "rescue" agents was examined in evaluating the antiretroviral activity of AZT in combination with these modulating agents and of AZT alone. Following exposure of human granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells for 2 h to 5 microM AZT (70% inhibitory concentration), increasing concentrations of potential rescue agents were added. Cells were cultured, and colony formation was assessed after 14 days. At concentrations of up to 50 microM no natural 2'-deoxynucleosides, including thymidine, were able to reverse the toxic effects of AZT. Dose-dependent reversal was observed with uridine and cytidine, and essentially complete reversal was achieved with 50 microM uridine. In the protection studies, 100 microM thymidine almost completely antagonized the inhibition of granulocyte-macrophage colony formation produced by 1 microM AZT (50% inhibitory concentration), and 50 microM uridine effected 60% protection against a toxic concentration of AZT (5 microM) (70% inhibitory concentration). The antiretroviral activity of AZT in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, assessed by revere transcriptase assays, was substantially decreased in the presence of thymidine, whereas no impairment of suppression of viral replication was observed in the presence of uridine in combination with AZT at a molar ratio (uridine/AZT) as high as 10,000. This demonstration of the capacity of uridine to selectively rescue human bone marrow progenitor cells from the cytotoxicity of AZT suggests that use of uridine rescue regimen with AZT may have potential therapeutic benefit in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
PMCID: PMC172332  PMID: 3190201

Results 1-25 (424)