The structure-activity relationships of a series of compounds related to the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) oxathiin carboxanilide have been described (R. W. Buckheit, Jr., T. L. Kinjerski, V. Fliakas-Boltz, J. D. Russell, T. L. Stup, L. A. Pallansch, W. G. Brouwer, D. C. Dao, W. A. Harrison, R. J. Schultz, J. P. Bader, and S. S. Yang, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2718-2727, 1996). From these studies, the furanyl-containing analog UC10 was identified as the most potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and a promising candidate for further development. Three new UC analogs (UC040, UC82, and UC781) have been determined to inhibit laboratory-derived and low-passage-number, primary virus isolates at low nanomolar concentrations in both established and fresh human cells. Each of the compounds synergistically interacted with the nucleoside analogs zidovudine, dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and lamivudine to inhibit HIV-1 replication. As a group, the UC compounds were found to be less active against viruses with the L100I, K103N, and Y181C amino acid changes in the RT and, upon in vitro selection, yielded resistant virus with the Y181C mutation in the RT. The most potent of the three new compounds, UC781, contains a furanyl side chain, similar to UC10, but differs in having an extended ether side chain instead of an oxime chain. The broad therapeutic index of UC781 (>62,000) resulted in effective inhibition of NNRTI-resistant virus isolates at high nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, UC781 and the NNRTI costatolide were able to synergistically inhibit HIV-1 replication when used in combination, suggesting that UC781 may interact with the RT differently than the other UC analogs. The favorable anti-HIV properties of the UC compounds suggest they should be considered for further clinical development.