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1.  Cloning and Characterization of SmeDEF, a Novel Multidrug Efflux Pump from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(11):3079-3086.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a nosocomial bacterial pathogen intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics. The mechanisms involved in this intrinsic multiresistance phenotype are poorly understood. A library of chromosomal DNA from a spontaneous multidrug-resistant S. maltophilia D457R mutant (A. Alonso and J. L. Martinez, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:1140–1142, 1997) was screened for complementation of erythromycin susceptibility on an antibiotic-hypersusceptible Escherichia coli ΔacrAB strain. Cloning and further analysis revealed that a 6-kbp region constituting a transcriptional unit was capable of complementing the antibiotic-susceptible phenotype of an E. coli ΔacrAB strain. We identified three open reading frames, smeD, smeE and smeF, which code for members of the membrane fusion protein, resistance nodulation division, and outer membrane factor families, respectively. Drug susceptibility assays indicated that the SmeDEF system cloned in E. coli mediates resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. Ethidium bromide and norfloxacin accumulation experiments in the presence and in the absence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone showed that this system constitutes a drug efflux pump dependent on the membrane proton motive force. The presence of high levels of smeDEF mRNA in the multiresistant D457R mutant was consistent with the high levels of SmeF (formerly Omp54) observed in the same strain. In contrast, transcription levels of smeDEF in the D457 strain were tiny, which correlates with the low levels of SmeF observed for this strain. Also, for both the D457 and D457R strains, we observed growth phase-dependent regulation in which the highest level of transcription corresponded to early exponential phase, with transcription decreasing throughout the growth curve to undetectable levels at 24 h.
PMCID: PMC101606  PMID: 11036026
2.  In Vitro and In Vivo Potentiation of Artemisinin and Synthetic Endoperoxide Antimalarial Drugs by Metalloporphyrins 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(10):2836-2841.
The in vitro potentiation of artemisinin by synthetic manganese porphyrin complexes has been recently reported (F. Benoit-Vical, A. Robert, and B. Meunier, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:2555–2558, 1999). Since the activity of artemisinin and synthetic antimalarial endoperoxides is related to their interaction with heme (S. R. Meshnick, A. Thomas, A. Ranz, C. M. Xu, and H. Z. Pan, Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 49:181–190, 1991), an improvement of their efficiency may be expected in the presence of a synthetic metalloporphyrin having the same activating role as endogenous heme. With the aim to boost the activity of antimalarial endoperoxide drugs, we were thus led to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo potentiation of natural and synthetic drugs of this family by a nontoxic and cheap metalloporphyrin. The potentiation of artemisinin, β-artemether, and arteflene (Ro 42-1611) by synthetic heme models is reported. In vitro studies on the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum FcB1-Columbia strain indicate a synergistic effect of the manganese complex of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenylporphyrin) (Mn-TPPS) on the activity of artemisinin or β-artemether, whereas this heme model has no influence on the activity of arteflene. A significant synergistic effect on rodent malaria was also observed in vivo between artemisinin and Mn-TPPS using Plasmodium vinckei petteri strain.
PMCID: PMC90158  PMID: 10991867
3.  Functional Analysis of the Active Site of a Metallo-β-Lactamase Proliferating in Japan 
An R-plasmid-mediated metallo-β-lactamase was found in Klebsiella pneumoniae DK4 isolated in Japan in 1991. The nucleotide sequence of its structural gene revealed that the β-lactamase termed DK4 was identical to the IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase which was mediated by a chromosomal gene of Serratia marcescens TN9106 isolated in Japan in 1991 (E. Osano et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:71–78, 1994). The dose effect of DK4 β-lactamase production on the resistance levels indicated a significant contribution of the enzyme to bacterial resistance to all the β-lactams except monobactams. The enzymatic characteristics of the DK4 β-lactamase and its kinetic parameters for nine β-lactams were examined. The DK4 β-lactamase was confirmed to contain 2 mol of zinc per mol of enzyme protein. The apoenzyme that lacked the two zincs was structurally unstable, and the activities of only 30% of the apoenzyme molecules could be restored by the addition of 1 mM zinc sulfate. The substitution of five conserved histidines (His28, His86, His88, His149, His210) and a cysteine (Cys168) for an alanine indicated that His86, His88, and His149 served as ligands to one of the zincs and that Cys168 played a role as a ligand to the second zinc. Both zinc molecules contribute to the enzymatic process. Mutant enzymes that lack only one of these retained some activity. Additionally, a conserved aspartic acid at position 90 was replaced by asparagine. This mutant enzyme showed an approximately 1,000 times lower kcat value for cephalothin than that of the wild-type enzyme but retained the two zincs even after dialysis against zinc-free buffer. The observed effect of pH on the activity suggested that Asp90 functions as a general base in the enzymatic process.
PMCID: PMC90062  PMID: 10952572
4.  Antibiotic Resistance in the ECOR Collection: Integrons and Identification of a Novel aad Gene 
The 72 Escherichia coli strains of the ECOR collection were examined for resistance to 10 different antimicrobial agents including ampicillin, tetracycline, mercury, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides. Eighteen strains were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested, and nearly 20% (14 of 72) were resistant to two or more. Several of the resistance determinants were shown to be carried on conjugative elements. The collection was screened for the presence of the three classes of integrons and for the sul1 gene, which is generally associated with class 1 integrons. The four strains found to carry a class 1 integron also had Tn21-encoded mercury resistance. One of the integrons encoded a novel streptomycin resistance gene, aadA7, with an attC site (or 59-base element) nearly identical to the attC site associated with the qacF gene cassette found in In40 (M.-C. Ploy, P. Courvalin, and T. Lambert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:2557–2563, 1998). The conservation of associated attC sites among unrelated resistance cassettes is similar to arrangements found in the Vibrio cholerae superintegrons (D. Mazel, B. Dychinco, V. A. Webb, and J. Davies, Science 280:605–608, 1998) and supports the hypothesis that resistance cassettes are picked up from superintegron pools and independently assembled from unrelated genes and related attC sites.
PMCID: PMC89914  PMID: 10817710
5.  The Legionella (Fluoribacter) gormanii Metallo-β-Lactamase: a New Member of the Highly Divergent Lineage of Molecular-Subclass B3 β-Lactamases 
A metallo-β-lactamase determinant was cloned from a genomic library of Legionella (Fluoribacter) gormanii ATCC 33297T constructed in the plasmid vector pACYC184 and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α, by screening for clones showing a reduced susceptibility to imipenem. The product of the cloned determinant, named FEZ-1, contains a 30-kDa polypeptide and exhibits an isoelectric pH of 7.6. Sequencing revealed that FEZ-1 is a molecular-class B β-lactamase which shares the closest structural similarity (29.7% of identical residues) with the L1 enzyme of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, being a new member of the highly divergent subclass B3 lineage. All the residues that in L1 are known to be directly or indirectly involved in coordination of the zinc ions were found to be conserved also in FEZ-1, suggesting that the geometry of zinc coordination in the active site of the latter enzyme is identical to that of L1. Unlike L1, however, FEZ-1 appeared to be monomeric in gel permeation chromatography experiments and exhibited a distinctive substrate specificity with a marked preference for cephalosporins and meropenem. The properties of FEZ-1 overall resembled those of a β-lactamase previously purified from the same strain of L. gormanii (T. Fujii, K. Sato, K. Miyata, M. Inoue, and S. Mitsuhashi, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:925–926, 1986) and are as yet unique among class B enzymes, reinforcing the notion that considerable functional heterogeneity can be encountered among members of this class. A system for overexpression of the blaFEZ-1 gene in E. coli, based on the T7 phage promoter, was also developed.
PMCID: PMC89909  PMID: 10817705
6.  Comparison of High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic and Microbiological Methods for Determination of Voriconazole Levels in Plasma 
A new selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection for the determination of the investigational triazole voriconazole in human plasma by using acetonitrile precipitation followed by reverse-phase HPLC on a C18 column was compared with a simple agar well diffusion bioassay method with Candida kefyr ATCC 46764 as the assay organism. Pooled plasma was used to prepare standard and control samples for both methods. The results of analyses with spiked serum samples (run as unknowns) were concordant by the bioassay and HPLC methods, with expected values being obtained. HPLC demonstrated an improved precision (3.47 versus 12.12%) and accuracy (0.81 versus 1.28%) compared to those of the bioassay method. The range of linearity obtained by both methods (from 0.2 to 10 μg/ml for HPLC and from 0.25 to 20 μg/ml for the bioassay) includes the range of concentrations of voriconazole (from 1.2 to 4.7 μg/ml) which are considered clinically relevant. Although either methodology could be used for the monitoring of patient therapy, the smaller variability observed with HPLC compared to that observed with the bioassay favors the use of HPLC for pharmacokinetic studies.
PMCID: PMC89846  PMID: 10770753
9.  Efficacy of the Echinocandin Caspofungin against Disseminated Aspergillosis and Candidiasis in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppressed Mice 
The in vivo efficacy of the echinocandin antifungal caspofungin acetate (caspofungin; MK-0991) was evaluated in models of disseminated aspergillosis and candidiasis in mice with cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunosuppression. Caspofungin is a 1,3-β-d-glucan synthesis inhibitor efficacious against a number of clinically relevant fungi including Aspergillus and Candida species. Models of CY-induced transient or chronic leukopenia were used with once daily administration of therapy initiated 24 h after microbial challenge. Caspofungin was effective in treating disseminated aspergillosis in mice that were transiently leukopenic (significant prolongation of survival at doses of ≥0.125 mg/kg of body weight and a 50% protective dose [PD50] of 0.245 mg/kg/day at 28 days after challenge) or chronically leukopenic (50 to 100% survival at doses of ≥0.5 mg/kg and PD50s ranging from 0.173 to 0.400 mg/kg/day). Caspofungin was effective in the treatment and sterilization of Candida infections in mice with transient leukopenia with a 99% effective dose based on reduction in log10 CFU of Candida albicans/gram of kidneys of 0.119 mg/kg and 80 to 100% of the caspofungin-treated mice having sterile kidneys at caspofungin doses from 0.25 to 2.0 mg/kg. In Candida-infected mice with chronic leukopenia, caspofungin was effective at all dose levels tested (0.25 to 1.0 mg/kg), with the log10 CFU of C. albicans/gram of kidneys of caspofungin-treated mice being significantly lower (>99% reduction) than that of sham-treated mice from day 4 to day 28 after challenge. Also, 70 to 100% of the caspofungin-treated, chronic leukopenic mice had sterile kidneys at caspofungin doses of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg from day 8 to 28 after challenge. Sterilization of Candida infections by caspofungin in the absence of host leukocytes provides compelling in vivo evidence for fungicidal activity against C. albicans. Further human clinical trials with caspofungin against serious fungal infections are in progress.
PMCID: PMC90063  PMID: 10952573
10.  In Vitro Activities of Novel trans-3,5-Disubstituted Pyrrolidinylthio-1β-Methylcarbapenems with Potent Activities against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
The in vitro activities of the novel 1β-methylcarbapenems J-111,225, J-114,870, and J-114,871, which have a structurally unique side chain that consists of a trans-3,5-disubstituted 5-arylpyrrolidin-3-ylthio moiety at the C-2 position, were compared with those of reference antibiotics. Among isolates of both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), 90% were inhibited by J-111,347 (prototype), J-111,225, J-114,870, and J-114,871 at concentrations of 2, 4, 4, and 4 μg/ml (MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90s]), respectively, indicating that these agents were 32- to 64-fold more potent than imipenem, which has an MIC90 of 128 μg/ml. Although these drugs were less active in vitro than vancomycin, which had MIC90s of 1 and 2 μg/ml for MRSA and MRCoNS, respectively, the new carbapenems displayed better killing kinetics than vancomycin. The potent anti-MRSA activity was ascribed to the excellent affinities of the new carbapenems for penicillin-binding protein 2a of MRSA. Since the new carbapenems also exhibited good activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria including clinically important pathogens such as penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Clostridium difficile, as well as MRSA, the novel carbapenems are worthy of further evaluation.
PMCID: PMC89716  PMID: 10681308
11.  SME-Type Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class A β-Lactamases from Geographically Diverse Serratia marcescens Strains 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(11):3035-3039.
Three sets of carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates have been identified in the United States: 1 isolate in Minnesota in 1985 (before approval of carbapenems for clinical use), 5 isolates in Los Angeles (University of California at Los Angeles [UCLA]) in 1992, and 19 isolates in Boston from 1994 to 1999. All isolates tested produced two β-lactamases, an AmpC-type enzyme with pI values of 8.6 to 9.0 and one with a pI value of approximately 9.5. The enzyme with the higher pI in each strain hydrolyzed carbapenems and was not inhibited by EDTA, similar to the chromosomal class A SME-1 β-lactamase isolated from the 1982 London strain S. marcescens S6. The genes encoding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes were cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced. The enzyme from the Minnesota isolate had an amino acid sequence identical to that of SME-1. The isolates from Boston and UCLA produced SME-2, an enzyme with a single amino acid change relative to SME-1, a substitution from valine to glutamine at position 207. Purified SME enzymes from the U.S. isolates had β-lactam hydrolysis profiles similar to that of the London SME-1 enzyme. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the isolates showed some similarity but differed by at least three genetic events. In conclusion, a family of rare class A carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases first described in London has now been identified in S. marcescens isolates across the United States.
PMCID: PMC101599  PMID: 11036019
12.  Evernimicin (SCH27899) Inhibits both Translation and 50S Ribosomal Subunit Formation in Staphylococcus aureus Cells 
The effects of the everninomicin antibiotic evernimicin (SCH27899) on growing Staphylococcus aureus cells were investigated. Cellular growth rates and viable cell numbers decreased with increasing antibiotic concentrations. The rate of protein synthesis, measured as 35S-amino acid incorporation, declined in parallel with the growth rate. Significantly, the formation of the 50S ribosomal subunit was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion as well. 30S ribosomal subunit synthesis was not affected over the same concentration range. Evernimicin did not stimulate the breakdown of mature ribosomal subunits. Pulse-chase labeling experiments revealed a reduced rate of 50S subunit formation in drug-treated cells. Two erythromycin-resistant strains of S. aureus that carried the ermC gene were as sensitive as wild-type cells to antibiotic inhibition. In addition, two methicillin-resistant S. aureus organisms, one sensitive to erythromycin and one resistant to the macrolide, showed similar sensitivities to evernimicin. These results suggest a use for this novel antimicrobial agent against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
PMCID: PMC89890  PMID: 10817686
14.  Activity of ABT-773 against Mycobacterium avium Complex in the Beige Mouse Model 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(10):2895-2896.
ABT-773, a new ketolide antimicrobial agent, was evaluated in comparison to clarithromycin (CLA) in vitro against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and in a beige mouse model of disseminated MAC infection. The MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited were 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively, for CLA and 8 and 16 μg/ml, respectively, for ABT-773. Eight CLA-resistant isolates were found to be resistant to ABT-773 (MICs > 64 μg/ml). In the in vivo study mice were treated with ABT-773 (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of body weight) or CLA (200 mg/kg). Both ABT-773 (100 and 200 mg/kg) and CLA significantly decreased the viable cell counts in spleens and lungs. ABT-773 (200 mg/kg) and CLA had similar activities in lungs, but the former was more active in spleens.
PMCID: PMC90174  PMID: 10991883
15.  In Vivo Activities of Evernimicin (SCH 27899) against Vancomycin-Susceptible and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Experimental Endocarditis 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(10):2733-2739.
To assess the potential efficacy of evernimicin (SCH 27899) against serious enterococcal infections, we used a rat model of aortic valve endocarditis established with either a vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis or a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strain. Animals infected with either one of the test strains were assigned to receive no treatment (controls) or 5-day therapy with one of the following regimens: evernimicin 60-mg/kg of body weight intravenous (i.v.) bolus once daily, 60-mg/kg i.v. bolus twice daily (b.i.d.), 60 mg/kg/day i.v. by continuous infusion, or 120 mg/kg/day i.v. by continuous infusion. These regimens were compared with vancomycin at 150 mg/kg/day. In animals infected with E. faecalis, evernimicin at 120 mg/kg/day by continuous infusion significantly reduced bacterial counts in vegetations (final density, 5.75 ± 3.38 log10 CFU/g) compared with controls (8.51 ± 1.11 log10 CFU/g). In animals infected with 0.5 ml of an 8 × 107-CFU/ml inoculum of the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, both 60-mg/kg bolus once a day and b.i.d. dose regimens of evernimicin were very effective (viable counts, 3.45 ± 1.44 and 3.81 ± 1.98 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Vancomycin was unexpectedly active against infections induced with that inoculum. In animals infected with a 109-CFU/ml inoculum of the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, the evernimicin 60-mg/kg i.v. bolus b.i.d. reduced viable counts in vegetations compared with controls (6.27 ± 1.63 versus 8.34 ± 0.91 log10 CFU/g; P < 0.05), whereas vancomycin was ineffective. Although resistant colonies could be selected in vitro, we were not able to identify evernimicin-resistant clones from cardiac vegetations. An unexplained observation from these experiments was the great variability in final bacterial densities within cardiac vegetations from animals in each of the evernimicin treatment groups.
PMCID: PMC90144  PMID: 10991853
16.  Mutations in 23S rRNA and Ribosomal Protein L4 Account for Resistance in Pneumococcal Strains Selected In Vitro by Macrolide Passage 
The mechanisms responsible for macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants, selected from susceptible strains by serial passage in azithromycin, were investigated. These mutants were resistant to 14- and 15-membered macrolides, but resistance could not be explained by any clinically relevant resistance determinant [mef(A), erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(TR), msr(A), mph(A), mph(B), mph(C), ere(A), ere(B)]. An investigation into the sequences of 23S rRNAs in the mutant and parental strains revealed individual changes of C2611A, C2611G, A2058G, and A2059G (Escherichia coli numbering) in four mutants. Mutations at these residues in domain V of 23S rRNA have been noted to confer erythromycin resistance in other species. Not all four 23S rRNA alleles have to contain the mutation to confer resistance. Some of the mutations also confer coresistance to streptogramin B (C2611A, C2611G, and A2058G), 16-membered macrolides (all changes), and clindamycin (A2058G and A2059G). Interestingly, none of these mutations confer high-level resistance to telithromycin (HMR-3647). Further, two of the mutants which had no changes in their 23S rRNA sequences had changes in a highly conserved stretch of amino acids (63KPWRQKGTGRAR74) in ribosomal protein L4. One mutant contained a single amino acid change (G69C), while the other mutant had a 6-base insert, resulting in two amino acids (S and Q) being inserted between amino acids Q67 and K68. To our knowledge, this is the first description of mutations in 23S rRNA genes or ribosomal proteins in macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae strains.
PMCID: PMC90022  PMID: 10898684
17.  Compartmental Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of Multilamellar Liposomal Nystatin in Rabbits 
The plasma pharmacokinetics of multilamellar liposomal nystatin were studied in normal, catheterized rabbits after single and multiple daily intravenous administration of dosages of 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg of body weight, and drug levels in tissues were assessed after multiple dosing. Concentrations of liposomal nystatin were measured as those of nystatin by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method, and plasma concentration data were fitted into a two-compartment open model. Across the investigated dosage range, liposomal nystatin demonstrated nonlinear kinetics with more than proportional increases in the AUC0–24 and decreasing clearance, consistent with dose-dependent tissue distribution and/or a dose-dependent elimination process. After single-dose administration, the mean Cmax increased from 13.07 μg/ml at 2 mg/kg to 41.91 μg/ml at 6 mg/kg (P < 0.001); the AUC0–24 changed from 11.65 to 67.44 μg · h/ml (P < 0.001), the Vd changed from 0.205 to 0.184 liters/kg (not significant), the CLt from 0.173 to 0.101 liters/kg · h (P < 0.05), and terminal half-life from 0.96 to 1.51 h (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters after multiple dosing over 14 days. Assessment of tissue concentrations of nystatin near peak plasma levels after multiple dosing over 15 days revealed preferential distribution to the lungs, liver, and spleen at that time point. Substantial levels were also found in the urine, raising the possibility that renal excretion may play a significant role in drug elimination. Liposomal nystatin administered to rabbits was well tolerated and displayed nonlinear pharmacokinetics, potentially therapeutic peak plasma concentrations, and substantial penetration into tissues. Pharmacokinetic parameters were very similar to those observed in patients, thus validating results derived from infection models in the rabbit and allowing inferences to be made about the treatment of invasive fungal infections in humans.
PMCID: PMC89797  PMID: 10722496
18.  Discovery of Novel Antifungal (1,3)-β-d-Glucan Synthase Inhibitors 
The increasing incidence of life-threatening fungal infections has driven the search for new, broad-spectrum fungicidal agents that can be used for treatment and prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. Natural-product inhibitors of cell wall (1,3)-β-d-glucan synthase such as lipopeptide pneumocandins and echinocandins as well as the glycolipid papulacandins have been evaluated as potential therapeutics for the last two decades. As a result, MK-0991 (caspofungin acetate; Cancidas), a semisynthetic analogue of pneumocandin Bo, is being developed as a broad-spectrum parenteral agent for the treatment of aspergillosis and candidiasis. This and other lipopeptide antifungal agents have limited oral bioavailability. Thus, we have sought new chemical structures with the mode of action of lipopeptide antifungal agents but with the potential for oral absorption. Results of natural-product screening by a series of newly developed methods has led to the identification of four acidic terpenoid (1,3)-β-d-glucan synthase inhibitors. Of the four compounds, the in vitro antifungal activity of one, enfumafungin, is comparable to that of L-733560, a close analogue of MK-0991. Like the lipopeptides, enfumafungin specifically inhibits glucan synthesis in whole cells and in (1,3)-β-d-glucan synthase assays, alters the morphologies of yeasts and molds, and produces a unique response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with point mutations in FKS1, the gene which encodes the large subunit of glucan synthase.
PMCID: PMC89685  PMID: 10639364
20.  Therapeutic Efficacy of GAR-936, a Novel Glycylcycline, in a Rat Model of Experimental Endocarditis 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(11):3022-3027.
GAR-936, a novel glycylcycline, was investigated with a rat model of experimental endocarditis. It was compared with vancomycin against both vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant Enterococcus faecalis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. GAR-936 exhibited the lowest MICs (≤0.12 μg/ml) in vitro against each of the isolates tested. Endocarditis was established by placement of a catheter across the aortic valve, followed by intravenous injection of 106 CFU of bacteria 48 h later. Treatment with GAR-936 or vancomycin was initiated 24 to 36 h after bacterial infection and administered subcutaneously twice a day for 3 days at ascending doses. GAR-936 reduced bacterial vegetation titers by >2 log10 CFU, compared to those in untreated controls, for both vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant (VanA and VanB) E. faecalis strains and >4 log10 CFU for a methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate. The glycylcycline was more efficacious at a lower administered dose in the rat model of endocarditis than was vancomycin. The efficacy of GAR-936 in this model was apparently not enhanced by a factor in rat serum, as was observed for vancomycin with a time-kill curve. The results of this study demonstrate the therapeutic potential of GAR-936 for the treatment of enterococcal and staphylococcal infections and warrant further investigation.
PMCID: PMC101597  PMID: 11036017
22.  Single-Dose AmBisome (Liposomal Amphotericin B) as Prophylaxis for Murine Systemic Candidiasis and Histoplasmosis 
AmBisome is a liposomal formulation of amphotericin B that has broad-spectrum antifungal activity and greatly reduced toxicity compared to the parent drug. In this study, amphotericin B deoxycholate (Fungizone) (1 mg/kg) and AmBisome (1 to 20 mg/kg) were tested as single-dose prophylactic agents in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed C57BL/6 mice challenged with either Candida albicans or Histoplasma capsulatum. Prophylactic efficacy was based on survival and fungal burden in the target organ (kidneys or spleen). At 9 to 10 days after histoplasma challenge, 80 to 90% of both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed mice in the control and Fungizone groups had died. All AmBisome-treated mice survived, although in the AmBisome groups given 1 mg/kg, the mice became moribund by day 10 to 12. No spleen CFU were detected in the histoplasma-challenged mice given 10 or 20 mg of AmBisome per kg. By 23 to 24 days after histoplasma challenge, fungal growth and/or death had occurred in all immunosuppressed mice except for four mice receiving 20 mg of AmBisome per kg. There were still no detectable fungi in the spleens of immunocompetent mice given 10 or 20 mg of AmBisome per kg. In the C. albicans experiment at 7 days postchallenge, all animals in both untreated and treated groups were alive with culture-positive kidneys. The kidney fungal burdens in AmBisome groups given 5 to 20 mg/kg were at least 1 log unit lower than those in the Fungizone group and significantly lower than those in the untreated control group (P < 0.05). There was a trend toward decreasing fungal growth in the kidneys as the dose of AmBisome was increased. In conclusion, these results show that a single high dose of AmBisome (5 to 20 mg/kg) had prophylactic efficacy in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed murine H. capsulatum and C. albicans models.
PMCID: PMC90065  PMID: 10952575
24.  In Vitro Activity of Telithromycin (HMR3647), a New Ketolide, against Clinical Isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Japan 
The in vitro activity of telithromycin (HMR3647), a new ketolide, against Mycoplasma pneumoniae was determined by the broth microdilution test using 41 clinical isolates obtained in Japan, as compared with those of five macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, and josamycin), minocycline, and levofloxacin. Telithromycin was less potent than azithromycin, but it was more active than four other macrolides, minocycline, and levofloxacin; its MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited were both 0.00097 μg/ml, justifying clinical studies to determine its efficacy for treatment of M. pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC89878  PMID: 10770785
25.  Activities of Trovafloxacin and Ampicillin-Sulbactam Alone or in Combination versus Three Strains of Vancomycin- Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model 
The recent isolation of clinical strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with intermediate susceptibility (MICs, 8 μg/ml) to vancomycin (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus [VISA]) emphasizes the importance of developing novel antimicrobial regimens and/or agents for future treatment. We studied the activities of ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin alone or in combination against three unique strains of VISA in an in vitro infection model. Two VISA strains were trovafloxacin susceptible (MICs, ≤2 μg/ml); one VISA strain was trovafloxacin resistant (MIC, 4 μg/ml). Trovafloxacin was administered to simulate a dose of 200 or 400 mg every 24 h. Ampicillin-sulbactam was administered to simulate a dose of 3 g every 6 h. Samples were removed from the infection models over 48 h, and reductions in colony counts were compared between regimens. Trovafloxacin (200 mg) produced rapid killing of a control MRSA strain over the 48-h experiment but produced only slight killing of all three VISA strains. The higher dose of trovafloxacin improved killing but did not produce bactericidal activity at 48 h. Ampicillin-sulbactam produced rapid bactericidal activity against all four strains tested, and colony counts at 8 h were at the limits of detection. However, regrowth occurred by 48 h for each strain. The combination of ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin provided additive activity against two of the three VISA strains. In conclusion, trovafloxacin or ampicillin-sulbactam alone did not provide adequate activity against the VISA strains for the 48-h evaluation period, but the combination could help improve activity against some strains of VISA.
PMCID: PMC89837  PMID: 10770744

Results 1-25 (680)