The mechanism of action of the fungicidal peptide auristatin PHE was investigated in Cryptococcus neoformans. Since auristatin PHE causes budding arrest in C. neoformans (T. Woyke, G. R. Pettit, G. Winkelmann, and R. K. Pettit, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:3580-3584, 2001), microtubule integrity and nuclear localization in auristatin PHE-treated cells were examined. Iterative deconvolution in conjunction with an optimized C. neoformans microtubule immunolabeling procedure enabled detailed visualization of the microtubule cytoskeleton in auristatin PHE-treated C. neoformans. The effect of auristatin PHE on C. neoformans microtubule organization was compared with that of the tubulin-binding agent nocodazole. Both drugs produced complete disruption first of cytoplasmic and then of spindle microtubules in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Sub-MICs of auristatin PHE caused complete microtubule disruption within 4.5 h, while 1.5 times the nocodazole MIC was required for the same effect. For both drugs, disruption of microtubules was accompanied by blockage of nuclear migration and of nuclear and cellular division, resulting in cells arrested in a uninucleate, large-budded stage. Nocodazole and the linear peptide auristatin PHE are remarkably different in structure and spectrum of activity, yet on the cellular level, they have similar effects.
In a previous study, zidovudine (ZDV) was shown to cause a concentration-dependent inhibition of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clonal expansion (S. Francke, C. G. Orosz, K. A. Hayes, and L. E. Mathes, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:1900-1905, 2000). However, this suppressive effect was lost if exposure to ZDV was delayed for 24 to 48 h during the antigen sensitization period, suggesting that antigen-primed CTL may be less susceptible than naive T lymphocytes to the suppressive effects of ZDV. The present study was undertaken to determine if naive T lymphocytes were more sensitive to the suppressive effects of ZDV than T lymphocytes previously exposed to antigen. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of ZDV were determined on naive and antigen-primed T-cell responses in an alloantigen system. Lymphocyte cultures with continuous antigen exposure (double prime) were more resistant to ZDV suppression (IC50 = 316 μM) than were naive lymphocytes (IC50 = 87.5 μM). Interestingly, lymphocytes that were antigen primed but deprived of antigen during the final 7 days of culture (prime/hold) were exquisitely sensitive to ZDV suppression (IC50 = 29.3 μM). The addition of 80 μM ZDV during the initial priming of the single-prime (prime/hold) and double-prime cultures did not select for a more drug-resistant cell population. The differences in ZDV sensitivities are likely a reflection of the physiological properties of the lymphocytes related to their activation state.
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 4,940 U.S. pneumococcal isolates collected during 1999 was as follows: penicillin, 16.2%; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 12.2%; cefuroxime, 28.1%; ceftriaxone, 3.6%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 30.3%; azithromycin, 21.4%; levofloxacin, 0.6%; and moxifloxacin, 0.1%. Compared to the previous 1997-1998 study (Jones et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:2645-2652, 2000), increases were noted for resistance to penicillin (3.7%; P < 0.001), amoxicillin-clavulanate (3.9%; P < 0.001), cefuroxime (5.7%; P < 0.001), azithromycin (2.4%; P = 0.014), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (15.4%; P < 0.001), and levofloxacin (0.3%; P = 0.017). Resistance to ceftriaxone (0.1%; P = 0.809) and moxifloxacin (0.03%; P = 0.570) decreased. Concurrently, multidrug resistance increased (P < 0.001) from 6.3% to 11.3%.
In previous studies, we demonstrated the leishmanicide effect of coronaridine, a natural indole alkaloid isolated from stem bark of Peschiera australis (Delorenzi et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:1349-1354, 2001). In this study we show the leishmanicidal effect of the synthetic coronaridine and its racemic 18-methoxylated analog, 18-methoxycoronaridine. Both alkaloids revealed a potent leishmanicide effect against Leishmania amazonensis, a causative agent of cutaneous and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. Despite their potent leishmanicide effect, both alkaloids were neither toxic to murine macrophages nor did they modulate their oxidative or cytokine production responses.
Mechanisms of resistance were studied in 22 macrolide-resistant mutants selected in vitro from 5 parental strains of macrolide-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae by serial passage in various macrolides (T. A. Davies, B. E. Dewasse, M. R. Jacobs, and P. C. Appelbaum, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 44:414–417, 2000). Portions of genes encoding ribosomal proteins L22 and L4 and 23S rRNA (domains II and V) were amplified by PCR and analyzed by single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis to screen for mutations. The DNA sequences of amplicons from mutants that differed from those of parental strains by their electrophoretic migration profiles were determined. In six mutants, point mutations were detected in the L22 gene (G95D, P99Q, A93E, P91S, and G83E). The only mutant selected by telithromycin (for which the MIC increased from 0.008 to 0.25 μg/ml) contained a combination of three mutations in the L22 gene (A93E, P91S, and G83E). L22 mutations were combined with an L4 mutation (G71R) in one strain and with a 23S rRNA mutation (C2611A) in another strain. Nine other strains selected by various macrolides had A2058G (n = 1), A2058U (n = 2), A2059G (n = 1), C2610U (n = 1), and C2611U (n = 4) mutations (Escherichia coli numbering) in domain V of 23S rRNA. One mutant selected by clarithromycin and resistant to all macrolides tested (MIC, >32 μg/ml) and telithromycin (MIC, 4 μg/ml) had a single base deletion (A752) in domain II. In six remaining mutants, no mutations in L22, L4, or 23S rRNA could be detected.
The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between gentamicin concentrations during surgery and the development of wound infection following colorectal operations. Despite decades of research in surgical prophylaxis, the relationship between intraoperative antibiotic concentrations and postoperative infection and the concentrations required for effective prophylaxis have not been established. A pharmacodynamic analysis was conducted using data from a previous prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study which compared two dosage regimens of gentamicin plus metronidazole for prophylaxis in connection with elective colorectal surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for postoperative wound infection were conducted, and the relationship between intraoperative gentamicin concentrations and surgical outcome was characterized. The gentamicin concentration at the time of surgical closure was one of the strongest independent risk factors for infection (P = 0.02), along with the presence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02), stoma (P = 0.04), and advanced age (P = 0.05). Gentamicin concentrations at closure of less than 0.5 mg/liter were associated with an infection rate of 80% (representing 8 of 10 patients with concentrations below that level) (P = 0.003). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a critical closure concentration of 1.6 mg/liter for effective surgical prophylaxis (P = 0.002; sensitivity, 70.8%; specificity, 65.9%). This study provides new and important information on antibiotic pharmacodynamics in surgical prophylaxis. It demonstrates the critical effect of the antibiotic concentration at closure on wound infection and suggests a significant association between the concentration and other well-established risk factors, like the timing of preoperative antibiotic administration and surgery duration.
The objective of the present study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and efficacies of liposomal and conventional formulations of tobramycin against Burkholderia cepacia in a model of chronic lung infection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were inoculated intratracheally with 106 CFU of a very resistant strain of B. cepacia (strain BC 1368; MIC, 128 μg/ml) to establish lung infection. A 1,200-μg dose of tobramycin was administered intratracheally as a liposomal formulation and as a conventional formulation. Rats were anesthetized and exsanguinated by cardiac puncture at different times over 24 h to assess pulmonary tobramycin concentrations and the number of residual CFU. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by using a two-compartment model with NONMEM. The mean half-life at the β phase (t1/2β) and the pulmonary exposure (the area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) of liposomal tobramycin were 19.7 h (coefficient of variation [CV], 24.2%) and 6,811 μg · h/lungs (CV, 19.7%), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of conventional tobramycin were statistically different, with a t1/2β and AUC of 12.9 h (CV, 31.4%) and 821 μg · h/lungs (CV, 15.0%), respectively. Pearson chi-square analyses were performed on residual CFU data distributed in the following categories: <103, 103 to 105, and >105. Differences in CFU data between formulations showed a statistical trend (P < 0.10) when data from all time points were used, and statistically significant differences were found after 12 h (P < 0.05), with greater eradication achieved with the liposomal formulation. In conclusion, intratracheal administration of tobramycin in liposomes was associated with marked changes in the pharmacokinetics of the drug in the lung and an apparent trend for a prolonged efficacy against B. cepacia. These results support the hypothesis that inhalation of liposomal tobramycin may improve the management of chronic pulmonary infections caused by resistant bacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis.
The intracellular penetration and activity of linezolid in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and tissue-cultured cells (McCoy) were evaluated. Linezolid reached intracellular concentrations slightly greater than extracellular ones in both types of cell. The uptake was rapid and not saturable and was affected by environmental temperature and cell viability. Linezolid showed slight intracellular activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis at high extracellular concentrations.
The uptake of [3H]pentamidine into wild-type and drug-resistant strains of Leishmania mexicana was compared. Uptake was carrier mediated. Pentamidine-resistant parasites showed cross-resistance to other toxic diamidine derivatives. A substantial decrease in accumulation of the drug accompanied the resistance phenotype, although the apparent affinity for pentamidine by its carrier was not altered when initial uptake velocity was measured. The apparent Vmax, however, was reduced. An efflux of pentamidine could be measured in both wild-type and resistant cells. Only a relatively small proportion of the total accumulated pentamidine was available for efflux in wild-type cells, while in resistant cells the majority of loaded pentamidine was available for release. Pharmacological reagents which diminish the mitochondrial membrane potential reduced pentamidine uptake in wild-type parasites, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to be reduced in resistant cells. A fluorescent analogue of pentamidine, 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole, accumulated in the kinetoplast of wild-type but not resistant parasites. These data together indicate that diamidine drugs accumulate in the Leishmania mitochondrion and that the development of the resistance phenotype is accompanied by lack of mitochondrial accumulation of the drug and its exclusion from the parasites.
The association between macrolide resistance mechanisms and clinical outcomes remains understudied. The present study, using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model, assessed clarithromycin (CLR) activity against mef(A)-positive and erm(B)-negative Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates by simulating free-drug concentrations in serum and both total (protein-bound and free) and free drug in epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Five mef(A)-positive and erm(B)-negative strains, one mef(A)-negative and erm(B)-positive strain, and a control [mef(A)-negative and erm(B)-negative] strain of S. pneumoniae were tested. CLR was modeled using a one-compartment model, simulating a dosage of 500 mg, per os, twice a day (in serum, free-drug Cp maximum of 2 μg/ml, t1/2 of 6 h; in ELF, CELF(total) maximum of 35μg/ml, t1/2 of 6 h; CELF(free) maximum of 14 μg/ml, t1/2 of 6 h). Starting inocula were 106 CFU/ml in Mueller-Hinton broth with 2% lysed horse blood. With sampling at 0, 4, 8, 12, 20, and 24 h, the extent of bacterial killing was assessed. Achieving CLR T/MIC values of ≥90% (AUC0-24/MIC ratio, ≥61) resulted in bacterial eradication, while T>MIC values of 40 to 56% (AUC0-24/MIC ratios of ≥30.5 to 38) resulted in a 1.2 to 2.0 log10 CFU/ml decrease at 24 h compared to that for the initial inoculum. CLR T/MIC values of ≤8% (AUC0-24/MIC ratio, ≤17.3) resulted in a static effect or bacterial regrowth. The high drug concentrations in ELF that were obtained clinically with CLR may explain the lack of clinical failures with mef(A)-producing S. pneumoniae strains, with MICs up to 8 μg/ml. However, mef(A) isolates for which MICs are ≥16 μg/ml along with erm(B) may result in bacteriological failures.
The postantifungal effect (PAFE) of amphotericin B was determined with a BacT/Alert automated system, which is based on the colorimetric detection of CO2. The levels of accuracy and precision of the automated method were high. Longer PAFEs were obtained for Candida albicans (P < 0.001), C. glabrata (P < 0.01), and C. krusei (P < 0.01) at increasing amphotericin B concentrations and exposure times.
We evaluated the in vitro activity of the new echinocandin antifungal micafungin against Candida spp. using microdilution and time-kill methods. Additionally, we examined the postantifungal effect (PAFE) of micafungin. Finally, we evaluated the effect of the addition of serum and plasma on the MIC of micafungin. Four Candida albicans isolates and two isolates of each Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis were selected for testing. The MICs of micafungin were determined in RPMI 1640 medium buffered with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid alone and with the addition of 10, 20, and 50% human serum and plasma. MICs were determined by using two endpoints: a prominent reduction in growth (the MIC at which 80% of isolates are inhibited [MIC80]) and complete visual inhibition of growth (MIC100). The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of micafungin for each isolate was also determined. Time-kill curves were determined for each isolate in RPMI 1640 medium with micafungin at concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 16 times the MIC80 to assess the correlation between MIC80 and fungicidal activity. PAFE studies were conducted with each isolate by using concentrations ranging between 0.25 and 4 times the MIC80. The MIC80s for the test isolates ranged from 0.0039 to 0.25 μg/ml. Overall, the addition of serum or plasma increased the MIC 6 to 7 doubling dilutions for C. albicans and 3 to 4 doubling dilutions for C. krusei and C. tropicalis. Micafungin time-kill studies demonstrated fungicidal activity at concentrations ranging from 4 to 16 times the MIC80. Micafungin is very potent agent against a variety of Candida spp., producing fungicidal activity against 7 of 10 isolates tested. A PAFE was observed against all isolates. The PAFE was influenced by the drug concentration, with the highest concentration resulting in the longest observed PAFE in each case. The highest concentration tested, four times the MIC, resulted in a PAFE of more than 9.8 h for 5 of 10 isolates tested (range, 0.9 to ≥20.1 h).
The postantibiotic effect (PAE) values found for proteinase-defective (Lon−) Escherichia coli and RNase-defective E. coli exposed to antibiotics were reduced (31 to 60% and 35 to 50%, respectively) in comparison with the control (AB1157), and in the recA13 mutant these values were about 0.4 h with all drugs. Nalidixic acid, under anaerobic conditions, induced no PAE (0 to 0.1 h) in AB1157. A delay in regrowth (0.2 to 0.26 h) was noted with dnaA46(Ts), gyrA43(Ts), and gyrB41(Ts) mutants cultured for 2 h at 43°C. These findings suggest that when proteins and RNA are saved, the cell rapidly resumes the original growth rate.
Streptococcus pyogenes strains inducibly resistant (iMLS phenotype) to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLS) antibiotics can be subdivided into three phenotypes: iMLS-A, iMLS-B, and iMLS-C. This study focused on inducibly erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes strains of the iMLS-B and iMLS-C types, which are very similar and virtually indistinguishable in a number of phenotypic and genotypic features but differ clearly in their degree of resistance to MLS antibiotics (high in the iMLS-B type and low in the iMLS-C type). As expected, the iMLS-B and iMLS-C test strains had the erm(A) methylase gene; the iMLS-A and the constitutively resistant (cMLS) isolates had the erm(B) methylase gene; and a control M isolate had the mef(A) efflux gene. mre(A) and msr(A), i.e., other macrolide efflux genes described in gram-positive cocci, were not detected in any test strain. With a radiolabeled erythromycin method for determination of the intracellular accumulation of the drug in the absence or presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, active efflux of erythromycin was observed in the iMLS-B isolates as well as in the M isolate, whereas no efflux was demonstrated in the iMLS-C isolates. By the triple-disk (erythromycin plus clindamycin and josamycin) test, performed both in normal test medium and in the same medium supplemented with the efflux pump inhibitor, under the latter conditions iMLS-B and iMLS-C strains were no longer distinguishable, all exhibiting an iMLS-C phenotype. In conjugation experiments with an iMLS-B isolate as the donor and a Rifr Fusr derivative of an iMLS-C isolate as the recipient, transconjugants which shared the iMLS-B type of the donor under all respects, including the presence of an efflux pump, were obtained. These results indicate the existence of a novel, transferable efflux system, not associated with mef(A) or with other known macrolide efflux genes, that is peculiar to iMLS-B strains. Whereas the low-level resistance of iMLS-C strains to MLS antibiotics is apparently due to erm(A)-encoded methylase activity, the high-level resistance of iMLS-B strains appears to depend on the same methylase activity plus the new efflux system.
Oseltamivir carboxylate is a potent and specific inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase (NA). An influenza A/H1N1 variant selected in vitro with reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir carboxylate contains a His274Tyr mutation. To understand the mechanism by which a His274Tyr mutation gives rise to drug resistance, we studied a series of NA variant proteins containing various substitutions at position 274. Replacement of His274 with larger side chain residues (Tyr or Phe) reduced the NA sensitivity to oseltamivir carboxylate. In contrast, replacement of His274 with smaller side chain residues (Gly, Asn, Ser, and Gln) resulted in enhanced or unchanged sensitivity to oseltamivir carboxylate. Previous studies have suggested that the slow-binding inhibition of NA by oseltamivir carboxylate is a result of the reorientation of Glu276. Loss of this slow-binding inhibition in the His274Tyr and His274Phe mutant NA but not in His274Asn, His274Gly, His274Ser, or His274Gln supports the conclusion that the conformational change of Glu276 is restricted in the His274Tyr and His274Phe mutant NA upon oseltamivir carboxylate binding. Interestingly, His274Asn, as well as His274Gly, His274Ser, and His274Gln, also displayed reduced sensitivity to zanamivir and its analogue, 4-amino-Neu5Ac2en. Substitution of His274 with Tyr in influenza A/Tokyo/3/67 (H3N2) recombinant NA did not affect the susceptibility to oseltamivir carboxylate. These data indicate that the volume occupied by the amino acid side chain at position 274 can influence the sensitivities of influenza N1 NA but not of N2 NA to both oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir.
Artemisinin-derivative combination therapies (ACT) are highly efficacious against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Few efficacy data, however, are available for vivax malaria. With high rates of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in both vivax and falciparum malaria in Papua Province, Indonesia, new combination therapies are required for both species. We recently found artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ART-SP) to be highly effective (96%) in the treatment of falciparum malaria in Papua Province. Following a preliminary study of CQ plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP) for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection, we used modified World Health Organization criteria to evaluate the efficacy of ART-SP for the treatment of vivax malaria in Papua. Nineteen of 22 patients treated with ART-SP could be evaluated on day 28, with no early treatment failures. Adequate clinical and parasitological responses were found by day 14 in all 20 (100%) of the patients able to be evaluated and by day 28 in 17 patients (89.5%). Fever and parasite clearance times were short, with hematological improvement observed in 70.6% of the patients. Double (at positions 58 and 117) and quadruple (at positions 57, 58, 61, and 117) mutations in the P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (PvDHFR) were common in Papuan P. vivax isolates (46 and 18%, respectively). Treatment failure with SP-containing regimens was significantly higher with isolates with this PvDHFR quadruple mutation, which included a novel T→M mutation at residue 61 linked to an S→T (but not an S→N) mutation at residue 117. ART-SP ACT resulted in a high cure rate for both major Plasmodium species in Papua, though progression of DHFR mutations in both species due to the continued use of SP monotherapy for clinically diagnosed malaria threatens the future utility of this combination.
The therapeutic efficacy of KP-103, a novel topical triazole, in a guinea pig tinea unguium model was investigated. Experimental tinea unguium and tinea pedis were produced by inoculation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes SM-110 between the toes of the hind paw of guinea pigs. One percent solution (0.1 ml) of KP-103, amorolfine, or terbinafine was topically applied to the nails and whole sole of an infected foot once daily for 30 consecutive days, and terbinafine was also orally administered at a daily dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight for 30 consecutive days, starting on day 60 postinfection. The fungal burdens of nails and plantar skin were assessed using a new method, which makes it possible to recover infecting fungi by removing a carryover of the drug remaining in the treated tissues into the culture medium. Topically applied KP-103 inhibited the development of nail collapse, significantly reduced the fungal burden of the nails, and sterilized the infected plantar skin. On the other hand, topical amorolfine and topical or oral terbinafine were ineffective for tinea unguium, although these drugs eradicated or reduced the fungal burden of plantar skin. The in vitro activities of amorolfine and terbinafine against T. mentagrophytes SM-110 were 8- and 32-fold, respectively, decreased by the addition of 5% keratin to Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. In contrast, the activity of KP-103 was not affected by keratin because its keratin affinity is lower than those of the reference drugs, suggesting that KP-103 largely exists in the nails as an active form that was not bound to keratin and diffuses in the nail without being trapped by keratin. The effectiveness of KP-103 against tinea unguium is probably due to its favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the nails together with its potent antifungal activity.
We describe the development of chimeric virus technology (CVT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) env genes gp120, gp41, and gp160 for evaluation of the susceptibilities of HIV to entry inhibitors. This env CVT allows the recombination of env sequences derived from different strains into a proviral wild-type HIV-1 clone (clone NL4.3) from which the corresponding env gene has been deleted. An HIV-1 strain (strain NL4.3) resistant to the fusion inhibitor T20 (strain NL4.3/T20) was selected in vitro in the presence of T20. AMD3100-resistant strain NL3.4 (strain NL4.3/AMD3100) was previously selected by De Vreese et al. (K. De Vreese et al., J. Virol. 70:689-696, 1996). NL4.3/AMD3100 contains several mutations in its gp120 gene (De Vreese et al., J. Virol. 70:689-696, 1996), whereas NL4.3/T20 has mutations in both gp120 and gp41. Phenotypic analysis revealed that NL4.3/AMD3100 lost its susceptibility to dextran sulfate, AMD3100, AMD2763, T134, and T140 but not its susceptibility to T20, whereas NL4.3/T20 lost its susceptibility only to the inhibitory effect of T20. The recombination of gp120 of NL4.3/AMD3100 and gp41 of NL4.3/T20 or recombination of the gp160 genes of both strains into a wild-type background reproduced the phenotypic (cross-)resistance profiles of the corresponding strains selected in vitro. These data imply that mutations in gp120 alone are sufficient to reproduce the resistance profile of NL4.3/AMD3100. The same can be said for gp41 in relation to NL4.3/T20. In conclusion, we demonstrate the use of env CVT as a research tool in the delineation of the region important for the phenotypic (cross-)resistance of HIV strains to entry inhibitors. In addition, we obtained a proof of principle that env CVT can become a helpful diagnostic tool in assessments of the phenotypic resistance of clinical HIV isolates to HIV entry inhibitors.
Using an isogenic system, we have determined the impact that the four promoters known to control blaTEM gene expression have on β-lactamase activity. For both TEM-1 and TEM-30, this activity gradually increased in relation to the presence of promoters P3, Pa/Pb, and P4 upstream of the corresponding gene. Promoter P5, only found upstream of the blaTEM-1B gene, was related to the highest expression of this gene.
An 8.1-kb region of the Saccharopolyspora erythraea genome, significant for its contiguity to the known genes of the erythromycin biosynthetic gene cluster, was mutationally analyzed and its DNA sequence was determined. The region lies immediately adjacent to eryCI. The newly characterized region is notable for a large, 3.0-kb segment, predicted not to be translated, followed by four probable genes: an acetyltransferase gene, a protease inhibitor gene, a methyltransferase gene, and a transposase gene. Because the probable functions of the genes in this region are not required for erythromycin biosynthesis or resistance and because a deletion of a 6.0-kb portion of this region had no effect on erythromycin biosynthesis, this region marks the outside boundary of the erythromycin gene cluster. Therefore, eryCI represents the end of the cluster. These results complete the analysis of the erythromycin gene cluster and eliminate the possibility that additional sought-after pathway-specific structural or regulatory genes might be found within or adjacent to the cluster.
A blaTEM-92 gene was cloned from a Proteus mirabilis isolate and expressed in Escherichia coli. Production of the enzyme caused reduction of susceptibility to penicillins and narrow- to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins but not to moxalactam and cephamycins. Determination of kinetic parameters with the purified enzyme revealed hydrolysis of expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, while cephamycins, moxalactam, and aztreonam were very poorly or not hydrolyzed. Clavulanate and penicillanic acid sulfones acylated TEM-92 slowly, and deacylation occurred at measurable rates.
The time-kill effect of moxifloxacin on 20 genetically distinct isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was studied. The majority (80%) were killed by a concentration equivalent to four times the MIC; the MIC induced a transient decrease in bacterial counts at 4 h, followed by regrowth. No effect was detected in four isolates. These results merit further clinical consideration.