The AdeABC pump of Acinetobacter baumannii BM4454, which confers resistance to various antibiotic classes including aminoglycosides, is composed of the AdeA, AdeB, and AdeC proteins; AdeB is a member of the RND superfamily. The adeA, adeB, and adeC genes are contiguous and adjacent to adeS and adeR, which are transcribed in the opposite direction and which specify proteins homologous to sensors and regulators of two-component systems, respectively (S. Magnet, P. Courvalin, and T. Lambert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:3375-3380, 2001). Analysis by Northern hybridization indicated that the three genes were cotranscribed, although mRNAs corresponding to adeAB and adeC were also present. Cotranscription of the two regulatory genes was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Inactivation of adeS led to aminoglycoside susceptibility. Transcripts corresponding to adeAB were not detected in susceptible A. baumannii CIP 70-10 but were present in spontaneous gentamicin-resistant mutants obtained in vitro. Analysis of these mutants revealed the substitutions Thr153→Met in AdeS downstream from the putative His-149 site of autophosphorylation, which is presumably responsible for the loss of phosphorylase activity by the sensor, and Pro116→Leu in AdeR at the first residue of the α5 helix of the receiver domain, which is involved in interactions that control the output domain of response regulators. These mutations led to constitutive expression of the pump and, thus, to antibiotic resistance. These data indicate that the AdeABC pump is cryptic in wild A. baumannii due to stringent control by the AdeRS two-component system.
BMS-433771 is a potent inhibitor of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication in vitro. Mechanism of action studies have demonstrated that BMS-433771 halts virus entry through inhibition of F protein-mediated membrane fusion. BMS-433771 also exhibited in vivo efficacy following oral administration in a mouse model of RSV infection (C. Cianci, K. Y. Yu, K. Combrink, N. Sin, B. Pearce, A. Wang, R. Civiello, S. Voss, G. Luo, K. Kadow, E. Genovesi, B. Venables, H. Gulgeze, A. Trehan, J. James, L. Lamb, I. Medina, J. Roach, Z. Yang, L. Zadjura, R. Colonno, J. Clark, N. Meanwell, and M. Krystal, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:413-422, 2004). In this report, the in vivo efficacy of BMS-433771 against RSV was further examined in the BALB/c mouse and cotton rat host models of infection. By using the Long strain of RSV, prophylactic efficacy via oral dosing was observed in both animal models. A single oral dose, administered 1 h prior to intranasal RSV inoculation, was as effective against infection as a 4-day b.i.d. dosing regimen in which the first oral dose was given 1 h prior to virus inoculation. Results of dose titration experiments suggested that RSV infection was more sensitive to inhibition by BMS-433771 treatment in the BALB/c mouse host than in the cotton rat. This was reflected by the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of the efficacy data, where the area under the concentration-time curve required to achieve 50% of the maximum response was ∼7.5-fold less for mice than for cotton rats. Inhibition of RSV by BMS-433771 in the mouse is the result of F1-mediated inhibition, as shown by the fact that a virus selected for resistance to BMS-433771 in vitro and containing a single amino acid change in the F1 region was also refractory to treatment in the mouse host. BMS-433771 efficacy against RSV infection was also demonstrated for mice that were chemically immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide treatment, indicating that compound inhibition of the virus did not require an active host immune response.
Previous studies with beta-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae from Japan, France, and North America indicate that mutations in ftsI encoding PBP3 confer ampicillin MICs of 1 to 4 μg/ml. Several BLNAR strains with ampicillin MICs of 4 to 16 μg/ml recently isolated from North America were studied. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 12 unique BLNAR strains; sequencing of their ftsI transpeptidase domains identified 1 group I and 11 group II mutants, as designated previously (K. Ubukata, Y. Shibasaki, K. Yamamoto, N. Chiba, K. Hasegawa, Y. Takeuchi, K. Sunakawa, M. Inoue, and M. Konno, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:1693-1699, 2001). Geometric mean ampicillin MICs for several clinical isolates were 8 to 10.56 μg/ml. Replacement of the ftsI gene in H. influenzae Rd with the intact ftsI from several clinical isolates resulted in integrants with typical BLNAR geometric mean ampicillin MICs of 1.7 to 2.2 μg/ml. Cloning and purification of His-tagged PBP3 from three clinical BLNAR strains showed significantly reduced Bocillin binding compared to that of PBP3 from strain Rd. Based on these data, changes in PBP3 alone could not account for the high ampicillin MICs observed for these BLNAR isolates. In an effort to determine the presence of additional mechanism(s) of ampicillin resistance, sequencing of the transpeptidase regions of pbp1a, -1b, and -2 was performed. While numerous changes were observed compared to the sequences from Rd, no consistent pattern correlating with high-level ampicillin resistance was apparent. Additional analysis of the resistant BLNAR strains revealed frame shift insertions in acrR for all four high-level, ampicillin-resistant isolates. acrR was intact for all eight low-level ampicillin-resistant and four ampicillin-susceptible strains tested. A knockout of acrB made in one clinical isolate (initial mean ampicillin MIC of 10.3 μg/ml) lowered the ampicillin MIC to 3.67 μg/ml, typical for BLNAR strains. These studies illustrate that BLNAR strains with high ampicillin MICs exist that have combined resistance mechanisms in PBP3 and in the AcrAB efflux pump.
We determined MICs of antibiotics against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia canis by real-time quantitative PCR. The doubling times of the organisms were established: 19 h for E. chaffeensis, 26 h for A. phagocytophilum, and 28 h for E. canis. In comparison to the reference method for determining sensitivities, which uses Diff-Quick staining, our PCR assay was very sensitive and specific. We confirmed that doxycycline and rifampin are highly active against these bacteria and found variable susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones; A. phagocytophilum was susceptible, but E. canis and E. chaffeensis were only partly susceptible. β-Lactam compounds, cotrimoxazole, macrolide compounds, and telithromycin showed no activity against any of the three organisms. Thiamphenicol was found to be more active than chloramphenicol. For the first time, we showed that these three species have numerous point mutations in their 23S RNA genes, with those at positions 754, 2057, 2058, 2059, and 2611 (Escherichia coli numbering) known to confer resistance to macrolide compounds in other bacteria. The role of each of these mutations in resistance to these drugs should be investigated in the future. Our study confirms previous reports that quantitative PCR is a reliable method for determining antibiotic susceptibility; therefore, it might be useful for screening new drugs.
Garenoxacin (T-3811ME, BMS-284756) is a novel, broad-spectrum des-F(6) quinolone currently under study for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This analysis assessed garenoxacin population pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationships for safety (adverse effects [AE]) and antimicrobial activity (clinical cure and bacteriologic eradication of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the grouping of Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Data were obtained from three phase II clinical trials of garenoxacin administered orally as 400 mg once daily for 5 to 10 days for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis. Samples were taken from each patient before drug administration, 2 h following administration of the first dose, and on the day 3 to 5 visit. Individual Bayesian estimates of the fu (fraction unbound), the Cmax, and the fu for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (fu AUC0-24) were calculated as measurements of drug exposure by using an ex vivo assessment of average protein binding. Regression analysis was performed to examine the following relationships: treatment-emergent AE incidence and AUC0-24, Cmax, or patient factors; clinical response or bacterial eradication and drug exposure (fu Cmax/MIC, fu AUC0-24/MIC, and other exposure covariates); or disease and patient factors. Garenoxacin pharmacokinetics were described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Clearance was dependent on creatinine clearance, ideal body weight, age, obesity, and concomitant use of pseudoephedrine. The volume of distribution was dependent on weight and gender. Patients with mild or moderate renal dysfunction had, on average, approximately a 16 or 26% decrease in clearance, respectively, compared to patients of the same gender and obesity classification with normal renal function. AE occurrence was not related to garenoxacin exposure. Overall, clinical cure and bacterial eradication rates were 91 and 90%, respectively, for S. pneumoniae and 93 and 92%, respectively, for the grouping of H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The fu AUC0-24/MIC ratios were high (>90% were >200), and none of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic exposure measurements indexed to the MIC or other factors were significant predictors of clinical or bacteriologic response. Garenoxacin clearance was primarily related to creatinine clearance and ideal body weight. Although garenoxacin exposure was approximately 25% higher for patients with moderate renal dysfunction, this increase does not appear to be clinically significant as exposures in this patient population were not significant predictors of AE occurrence. Garenoxacin exposures were at the upper end of the exposure-response curves for measurements of antimicrobial activity, suggesting that 400 mg of garenoxacin once daily is a safe and adequate dose for the treatment of the specified community-acquired respiratory tract infections.
Overexpression of CDR1, an efflux pump, is one of the major mechanisms contributing to drug resistance in Candida albicans. CDR1 p-lacZ was constructed and transformed into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain so that the lacZ gene could be used as the reporter to monitor the activity of the CDR1 promoter. Overexpression of CaNDT80, the C. albicans homolog of S. cerevisiae NDT80, increases the β-galactosidase activity of the CDR1 p-lacZ construct in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, mutations in CaNDT80 abolish the induction of CDR1 expression by antifungal agents in C. albicans. Consistently, the Candt80/Candt80 mutant is also more susceptible to antifungal drugs than the wild-type strain. Thus, the gene for CaNdt80 may be the first gene among the regulatory factors involved in drug resistance in C. albicans whose function has been identified.
MICs for 349 Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates from respiratory tract infections of swine were determined by broth microdilution. The lowest MIC at which 90% of isolates tested are inhibited (MIC90) was that of tetracycline and enrofloxacin (0.5 μg/ml), whereas the highest MIC90s were those of tilmicosin and cephalothin (32 μg/ml) as well as streptomycin (256 μg/ml).
Genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB were found in glycopeptide-resistant Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus strains from soil. The putative d-Ala:d-Lac ligase genes in Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B were closely related to vanA (92 and 87%) and flanked by genes homologous to vanH and vanX in vanA operons.
The activities of OPT-80 against 453 intestinal bacteria were compared with those of seven other drugs. OPT-80 showed good activity against most clostridia, staphylococci, and enterococci, but streptococci, aerobic and facultative gram-negative rods, anaerobic gram-negative rods, and Clostridium ramosum were resistant. Poor activity against anaerobic gram-negative rods may maintain colonization resistance.
Three distinct Enterococcus faecalis VanE-type isolates—BM4574, BM4575, and BM4576-obtained in Australia were studied. Expression of the resistance genes was constitutive in BM4575, probably due to a 2-bp deletion into the vanSE gene, and inducible in BM4574 and BM4576. Transcription analysis of the vanE operons suggested that the five genes were cotranscribed from an initiation site located 25 bp upstream from the ATG start codon of vanE.
The primary objectives of this analysis were to determine which pharmacokinetic model most accurately describes the elimination pathways for piperacillin in the presence of tazobactam through population pharmacokinetic modeling and to characterize its pharmacodynamic profile. Once the optimal pharmacokinetic model was identified, Monte Carlo simulation of 10,000 subjects with ADAPT II was performed to estimate the probability of attaining a target free-piperacillin concentration greater than the MIC for 50% of the dosing interval for 3.375 g every 6 h or every 4 h given as a 0.5-h infusion at each MIC between 0.25 and 32 μg/ml. In the population pharmacokinetic analysis, measurements of bias and precision, observed-predicted plots, and r2 values were highly acceptable for all three models and all three models were appropriate candidates for the Monte Carlo simulation evaluation. Visual comparison of the distribution of the piperacillin concentrations at the pharmacodynamic endpoint—h 3 concentrations of a 6-h dosing interval—between the simulated populations and raw data revealed that the linear model was most reflective of the raw data at the pharmacodynamic endpoint, and the linear model was therefore selected for the target attainment analysis. In the target attainment analysis, administration of 3 g of piperacillin every 6 h resulted in a robust target attainment rate that exceeded 95% for MICs of ≤8 mg/liter. The 4-h piperacillin administration interval had a superior pharmacodynamic profile and provided target attainment rates exceeding 95% for MICs of ≤16 mg/liter. This study indicates that piperacillin-tazobactam should have utility for empirical therapy of hospital-onset infections.
Mycobacterium kansasii is one of the most pathogenic and frequent nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from humans. Patients with adverse drug reactions, resistant isolates, or suboptimal response require alternative treatment regimens. One hundred forty-eight consecutive clinical isolates of M. kansasii were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by the BACTEC 460 system (NCCLS) with two different inoculation protocols, one conventional and one alternative. In the alternative protocol, the inoculum 12B vial was incubated until the growth index was between 250 and 500. Four conventional antimycobacterial drugs (isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, and ethambutol) were studied with standard critical concentrations. The in vitro activities of linezolid, telithromycin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin were determined by measuring radiometric MICs. All isolates tested were identified as M. kansasii genotype I and were resistant to isoniazid at a concentration of 0.4 μg/ml. One hundred twenty isolates (81.1%) were inhibited by 1 μg of isoniazid per ml. A high level of resistance to isoniazid (>10 μg/ml) was observed in six isolates (4.1%). Only five strains (3.4%) were resistant to rifampin (>1 μg/ml). All isolates studied were susceptible to streptomycin and ethambutol. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (in micrograms per milliliter) were as follows: linezolid, 1 (range, ≤0.25 to 2); telithromycin, >16 (range, 4 to >16); clarithromycin, 0.5 (range, ≤0.03 to 1); levofloxacin, 0.12 (range, 0.12 to 0.25); and moxifloxacin, 0.06 (range, ≤0.06 to 0.12). The susceptibility testing results with both inoculation protocols showed perfect correlation. In conclusion, all M. kansasii isolates showed decreased susceptibility to isoniazid, but resistance to rifampin was infrequent. Quinolones, especially moxifloxacin, were the most active antimicrobial agents tested, followed by clarithromycin. Linezolid also showed good activity against these microorganisms, but telithromycin's in vitro activity was poor.
BG958 reverses resistance in chloroquine-resistant isolates from different countries. Five mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum crt (pfcrt) gene resulting in the amino acid changes K76T, M74I, N75E, A220S, and R371I are systematically identified in resistance-reversed Asian, African, and Brazilian parasites which possess the pfcrt (CIET) haplotype. In combination with BG958, the activity of chloroquine is increased in parasites with the N86Y mutation in pfmdr1.
Antimicrobial susceptibilities and genetic relatedness of the vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (VRSA) isolated at Hershey, Pa. (VRSA Hershey), and its vancomycin-susceptible and high-level-resistant derivatives were studied and compared to 32 methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) isolated from patients and medical staff in contact with the VRSA patient. Derivatives of VRSA were obtained by subculturing six VRSA colonies from the original culture with or without vancomycin. Ten days of drug-free subculture caused the loss of vanA in two vancomycin-susceptible derivatives for which vancomycin MICs were 1 to 4 μg/ml. Multistep selection of three VRSA clones with vancomycin for 10 days increased vancomycin MICs from 32 to 1,024 to 2,048 μg/ml. MICs of teicoplanin, dalbavancin, and oritavancin were also increased from 4, 0.5, and 0.12 to 64, 1, and 32 μg/ml, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing analysis indicated that VRSA Hershey was the vanA-acquired variety of a common MRSA clone in our hospital with sequence type 5 (ST5). Three of five vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains tested from geographically different areas were also ST5, and the Michigan VRSA was ST371, a one-allele variant of ST5. Derivatives of VRSA Hershey had differences in PFGE profiles and the size of SmaI fragment that carries the vanA gene cluster, indicating instability of this cluster in VRSA Hershey. However induction with vancomycin increased glycopeptide MICs and stabilized the resistance.
Acute therapy with pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine is the treatment of choice for reactivated toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). Acute therapy is followed by lifelong maintenance therapy (secondary prophylaxis) with the same drugs at lower dosages. The use of pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine is hampered by severe side effects including allergic reactions and hematotoxicity. Alternative treatment regimens with pyrimethamine plus clindamycin or other antiparasitic drugs are less efficacious. Atovaquone nanosuspensions show excellent therapeutic effects for “acute” intravenous (i.v.) treatment of reactivated TE in a murine model. In the present study, the therapeutic efficacy of atovaquone for oral “maintenance” therapy was investigated. Mice with a targeted mutation in the interferon regulatory factor 8 gene were latently infected with Toxoplasma gondii, developed reactivated TE, and received acute i.v. therapy with atovaquone nanosuspensions. Mice were then treated orally with atovaquone suspension or other antiparasitic drugs to prevent relapse of TE. Maintenance therapy with atovaquone at daily doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg (body weight) protected mice against reactivated TE and death. This maintenance treatment was superior to standard therapy with pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine. The latter combination was superior to the combination of pyrimethamine plus clindamycin. Inflammatory changes in the brain parenchyma and meninges, as well as parasite numbers, in the brains of mice confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of atovaquone for maintenance therapy. Atovaquone was detectable in sera, brains, livers, and lungs of infected mice by high-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry. In conclusion, atovaquone appears to be superior to the standard maintenance therapy regimens in a murine model of reactivated TE. The therapeutic efficacy of atovaquone for maintenance therapy against TE should be further investigated in clinical trials.
A fragment of the gyrA gene was sequenced from 34 isolates of Campylobacter coli, including 23 isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. All ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates examined by DNA sequencing carried a point mutation at position Thr-86 on the gyrA gene product, involving the replacement of Thr-86 by Ile. A combined PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using RsaI was developed to detect this mutation.
We evaluated the impact of high (9.5 log10 CFU/g) and moderate (5.5 log10 CFU/g) inocula of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively) on the activities of nafcillin, linezolid, vancomycin, and daptomycin, alone and in combination with gentamicin in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations over 72 h. Human therapeutic dosing regimens for nafcillin, daptomycin, vancomycin, linezolid, and gentamicin were simulated. At a moderate inoculum, nafcillin (MSSA only), vancomycin, and daptomycin demonstrated equivalent and significant (P < 0.01) bactericidal (99.9% kill) activities (decreases of 3.34 ± 1.1, 3.28 ± 0.4, and 3.34 ± 0.8 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Bactericidal activity was demonstrated at 4 h for nafcillin and daptomycin and at 32 h for vancomycin. Linezolid demonstrated bacteriostatic activity over the course of the study period. At a high inoculum, daptomycin exhibited bactericidal activity against both MSSA and MRSA by 24 h (decrease of 5.51 to 6.31 ± 0.10 log10 CFU/g). Nafcillin (versus MSSA), vancomycin, and linezolid (MSSA and MRSA) did not achieve bactericidal activity throughout the 72-h experiment. The addition of gentamicin increased the rate of 99.9% kill to 8 h for daptomycin (P < 0.01) and 48 h for nafcillin (MSSA only) (P = 0.01). The addition of gentamicin did not improve the activity of vancomycin or linezolid for either isolate for the 72-h period. Overall, high-inoculum Staphylococcus aureus had a significant impact on the activities of nafcillin and vancomycin. In contrast, daptomycin was affected minimally and linezolid was not affected by inoculum.
By use of microdialysis we assessed the concentrations of telithromycin in muscle and adipose tissue to test its ability to penetrate soft tissues. The ratios of the area under the concentration-versus-time curve from 0 to 24 h to the MIC indicated that free concentrations of telithromycin in tissue and plasma might be effective against Streptococcus pyogenes but not against staphylococci and human and animal bite pathogens.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimycoplasmal activity of hydroxytyrosol. Twenty strains of Mycoplasma hominis, three strains of Mycoplasma fermentans, and one strain of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were used. For M. pneumoniae, M. hominis, and M. fermentans, the MICs were 0.5, 0.03 (for 90% of the strains tested), and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively.