Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae due to efflux has emerged as an important worldwide clinical problem over the past decade. Efflux is mediated by the genes of the genetic element mega (macrolide efflux genetic assembly) and related elements, such as Tn1207.1. These elements contain two adjacent genes, mef (mefE or mefA) and the closely related mel gene (msrA homolog), encoding a proton motive force pump and a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter homolog, and are transcribed as an operon (M. Del Grosso et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:774-778, 2004; K. Gay and D. S. Stephens, J. Infect. Dis. 184:56-65, 2001; and M. Santagati et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:2585-2587, 2000). Previous studies have shown that Mef is required for macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae; however, the contribution of Mel has not been fully determined. Independent deletions were constructed in mefE and mel in the serotype 14 macrolide-resistant strains GA16638 (erythromycin [Em] MIC, 8 to 16 μg/ml) and GA17719 (Em MIC, 2 to 4 μg/ml), which contain allelic variations in the mega element. The MICs to erythromycin were significantly reduced for the independent deletion mutants of both mefE and mel compared to those of the parent strains and further reduced threefold to fourfold to Em MICs of <0.15 μg/ml with mefE mel double mutants. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, the expression of mefE in the mel deletion mutants was increased more than 10-fold. However, in the mefE deletion mutants, the expression of mel did not differ significantly from the parent strains. The expression of both mefE and mel was inducible by erythromycin. These data indicate a requirement for both Mef and Mel in the novel efflux-mediated macrolide resistance system in S. pneumoniae and other gram-positive bacteria and that the system is inducible by macrolides.
In a previous work, we described the possible relationship between a defect of purine-cytosine permease and the acquisition of a cross-resistance to the antifungal combination flucytosine (5FC) and fluconazole (FLC) in Candida lusitaniae (T. Noël, F. François, P. Paumard, C. Chastin, D. Brethes, and J. Villard, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:1275-1284, 2003). Using degenerate PCR and chromosome walking, we cloned two FCY2-like genes in C. lusitaniae. Northern blot analysis revealed that only one gene was expressed; it was named FCY2. The other one behaved as a pseudogene and was named FCY21. In order to better characterize the possible role of FCY2 in cross-resistance to 5FC-FLC, disruption experiments with auxotrophic strain 6936 ura3(D95V) FCY2 with an integrative vector carrying the URA3 gene and a partial sequence of the C. lusitaniae FCY2 gene were undertaken. Southern blot analysis revealed that homologous recombination events occurred in all transformants analyzed at rates of 50% at resident locus FCY2 and 50% at resident locus URA3, resulting in the genotypes ura3 fcy2::URA3 and ura3::URA3 FCY2, respectively. It was then demonstrated that only transformants harboring a disrupted fcy2 gene were resistant to 5FC, susceptible to FLC, and resistant to the 5FC-FLC combination. Finally, complementation experiments with a functional FCY2 gene restored 5FC and FLC susceptibilities to the wild-type levels. The results of this study provide molecular evidence that inactivation of the sole FCY2 gene promotes cross-resistance to the antifungal association 5FC-FLC in C. lusitaniae.
Ciprofloxacin is subject to efflux from J774 macrophages through a multidrug resistance-related protein-like transporter (J. M. Michot, F. Van Bambeke, M. P. Mingeot-Leclercq, and P. M. Tulkens, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:2673-2682, 2004). Here, we compare ciprofloxacin to levofloxacin, garenoxacin, and moxifloxacin for transport. At 4 mg/liter, an apparent steady state in accumulation was reached after 30 to 60 min for all quinolones but to quite different levels (approximately 3, 5, 10, and 16 fold). Accumulation of ciprofloxacin was increased (to about 16 to 20 fold) by ATP depletion, increase in extracellular concentration, and the addition of probenecid, gemfibrozil, or MK571 (but not verapamil or GF120918). These treatments did not affect the accumulation of moxifloxacin. Levofloxacin and garenoxacin showed an intermediate behavior. Efflux of ciprofloxacin was slowed down by probenecid (half-life, 7.2 versus 1.6 min). Moxifloxacin efflux was faster and unaffected by probenecid (half-lifes, 0.27 versus 0.33 min). Efflux of levofloxacin and garenoxacin was modestly decreased by probenecid (1.5 and 2.1 fold). Accumulation of 14C-labeled ciprofloxacin was increased by unlabeled ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin, but moxifloxacin was two times less potent. Accumulation of moxifloxacin at 4°C was almost identical to that at 37°C, whereas that of ciprofloxacin was minimal (levofloxacin and garenoxacin showed intermediate behaviors). Cells subjected to thermal shock (56°C; 10 min) accumulated all quinolones at a similar level (16 to 23 fold). We conclude that moxifloxacin is apparently not subject to efflux from J774 macrophages, even though it can interact with the ciprofloxacin transporter. Levofloxacin and garenoxacin are partially effluxed. Data suggest that efflux plays an important role in the differential accumulation of quinolones by J774 macrophages.
Previously, we reported the isolation of 10 vancomycin-resistant gram-positive anaerobic bacilli carrying the vanB ligase gene from nine hemodialysis patients (S. A. Ballard et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:77-81, 2005; T. P. Stinear et al., Lancet 357:855-856, 2001). In the present study, the molecular and evolutionary relationship of the vanB resistance element within these 10 anaerobes and two vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains were examined. PCR analysis and nucleotide sequencing demonstrated that all 12 isolates carried the vanB operon associated with an element identical to Tn1549 and Tn5382 of Enterococcus. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the vanB operon in these isolates revealed two distinct patterns, and sequencing showed that minor base differences existed. PCR amplification of the joint region of a circular intermediate was demonstrated in nine of these organisms, a finding indicative of an ability to excise and circularize, an intermediate step in transposition and conjugative transfer. Southern hybridization with a vanB-vanXB probe suggests that there is one insert of the transposon in all isolates. Sequence analysis of the integration site revealed distinct sequences: the Tn1549/5382 element within E. faecium was inserted within the host chromosome, whereas nucleotide sequences surrounding the Tn1549/5382 element in the 10 anaerobes showed no significant homology to sequences in the GenBank database. We demonstrate considerable similarity between the Tn1549/5382 element identified in 10 anaerobe isolates with that found in enterococci. The homology and potential to transpose suggest a recent horizontal transfer event may have occurred. However, the original direction of transposition and the mechanism involved remains unknown.
Oritavancin, a semisynthetic derivative of vancomycin endowed with a cationic amphiphilic character, accumulates to large extent in the lysosomes of eukaryotic cells (F. Van Bambeke, S. Carryn, C. Seral, H. Chanteux, D. Tyteca, M. P. Mingeot-Leclercq, and P. M. Tulkens, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:2853-2860, 2004). In the present study, we examined whether this accumulation could cause cell alterations in phagocytic (J774 mouse macrophages) and nonphagocytic (rat embryo fibroblasts) cells exposed to clinically meaningful (0- to 40-mg/liter) concentrations of oritavancin. Optical and electronic microscopy evidenced conspicuous alterations of the vacuolar apparatus in both cell types, characterized by the deposition of concentric lamellar structures, finely granular material, or other less-defined osmiophilic material, often deposed in giant vesicles. Biochemical studies showed an accumulation of phospholipids (1.5× control values) and free and esterified cholesterol (3 to 4× control values for total cholesterol). Accumulation of these lipids was in close relation to that of oritavancin (excess phospholipid/oritavancin and excess cholesterol/oritavancin molar ratios of 2 to 3 and 3 to 5, respectively). Cholesterol accumulation was rapid and reversible, and that of phospholipids was slower and poorly reversible. Vancomycin and teicoplanin, used as controls (50 and 100 mg/liter, respectively), did not cause any significant change in the lipid content of fibroblasts. The data therefore suggest that oritavancin has the potential to cause a mixed-lipid storage disorder in eukaryotic cells.
The novel ribosome inhibitors (NRIs) are a broad-spectrum naphthyridine class that selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis (P. J. Dandliker et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:3831-3839, 2003). Footprinting experiments, using a range of NRIs and chemical modification agents on Escherichia coli ribosomes, revealed no evidence for direct protection of rRNA. In the presence of tRNA, however, we found that NRIs enhanced the known ribosomal footprinting pattern of tRNA in a dose-dependent manner. The most prominent increase in protection, at A1492/3 and A1413 in helix-44 of 16S RNA, strictly required the presence of tRNA and poly(U), and the effect was correlated with the potency of the inhibitor. Radioligand binding studies with inhibitor [3H]A-424902 showed that the compound binds to tRNA, either in its charged or uncharged form. The dissociation constant for [3H]A-424902 binding to Phe-tRNAPhe was determined to be 1.8 μM, near its translation inhibition potency of 1.6 μM in a cell-free S. pneumoniae extract assay. The compound did not change the binding of radiolabeled tRNA to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Taken together, these results imply that the NRIs exert their effects on protein synthesis by structurally perturbing the tRNA/30S complex at the decoding site.
Nosocomial pneumonia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery (CS). Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, qualifies for the therapy of postoperative pneumonia. However, penetration properties of levofloxacin into the lung tissue could be substantially affected by CS: atelectasis, low cardiac output after CS, high volume loads, and inflammatory capillary leak potentially influence drug distribution. The aim of our study was to gain information on interstitial antibiotic concentrations in lung tissue in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. Therefore, six patients undergoing elective CS participated in this prospective study. A dose of 500 mg of levofloxacin was administered intravenously in addition to standard antibiotic prophylaxis immediately after the end of surgery. Time versus concentration profiles of levofloxacin in the interstitial lung tissue and plasma were determined. A microdialysis technique was used for lung interstitial concentration measurements. The microdialysis procedure was well tolerated in all patients and no adverse events were observed. The median area under the concentration curve (AUC) of levofloxacin in interstitial lung fluid was 18.6 μg · h/ml (range, 10.1 to 33.6). The median AUC for tissue (AUCtissue) of unbound levofloxacin/AUCtotal in plasma was 0.6 (range, 0.4 to 0.9). The median unbound AUCtissue/MIC was 2.4 (range, 1.3 to 4.2) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our study demonstrated the feasibility and safety of microdialysis in human lung tissue in vivo after CS. The unbound AUC/MIC ratio revealed that levofloxacin used in the described manner was borderline sufficient for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and insufficient for the treatment of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, because the breakpoint of 30 to 40 for AUC/MIC could not be reached by the conventionally used dosage schema in our post-CS setting. Penetration was lower than in previous reports.
WR227825 is an antimalarial pyrroloquinazolinediamine derivative with a high potency but a low therapeutic index. A series of carbamate, carboxamide, succinimide, and alkylamine derivatives of WR227825 were prepared to search for compounds with an improved therapeutic index. The new acetamides and imide showed potent cell growth inhibition against four clones of Plasmodium falciparum (D-6, RCS, W-2, and TM91C235), with a 50% inhibitory concentration of ∼0.01 ng/ml, and were highly active against Plasmodium berghei, with 100% cure at doses from <0.1 mg/kg of body weight to 220 mg/kg. The carbamates and alkyl derivatives, however, showed weak activity against Plasmodium falciparum cell growth but were highly efficacious in tests against P. berghei by the Thompson test. The best compounds, bis-ethylcarbamate (compound 2a) and tetra-acetamide (3a) derivatives, further demonstrated high potency against the sporozoite Plasmodium yoelii in mice and P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in aotus monkeys. Against the AMRU-1 strain of P. vivax, which has four dihydrofolate reductase mutations and is highly resistant to antifolates, tetra-acetamide 3a cured the monkeys at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg. Compound 2a cured only one out of two monkeys at 3 mg/kg. The results indicated that the new derivatives 2a and 3a not only have retained/improved the antimalarial efficacy of the parent compound WR227825 but also were less toxic to the animals used in the tests.
The pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) were investigated in neonates with invasive candidiasis enrolled in a phase II multicenter trial. Sparse blood (153 samples; 1 to 9 per patient, 1 to 254 h after the dose) and random urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of 28 neonates (median weight [WT], 1.06 kg; range, 0.48 to 4.9 kg; median gestational age, 27 weeks; range, 24 to 41 weeks) were analyzed. Patients received intravenous ABLC at 2.5 (n = 15) or 5 (n = 13) mg/kg of body weight once a day over 1 or 2 h, respectively, for a median of 21 days (range, 4 to 47 days). Concentrations of amphotericin B were quantified as total drug by high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood data for time after dose (TAD) of <24 h fitted best to a one-compartment model with an additive-error model for residual variability, WT0.75 (where 0.75 is an exponent) as a covariate of clearance (CL), and WT as a covariate of volume of distribution (V). Prior amphotericin B, postnatal age, and gestational age did not further improve the model. The final model equations were CL (liters/h) = 0.399 × WT0.75 (interindividual variability, 35%) and V (liters) = 10.5 × WT (interindividual variability, 43%). Noncompartmental analysis of pooled data with a TAD of >24 h revealed a terminal half-life of 395 h. Mean concentrations in the urine after 1, 2, and 3 weeks ranged from 0.082 to 0.430 μg/ml, and those in CSF ranged from undetectable to 0.074 μg/ml. The disposition of ABLC in neonates was similar to that observed in other age groups: weight was the only factor that influenced clearance. Based on these results and previously published safety and efficacy data, we recommend a daily dosage between 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg for treatment of invasive Candida infections in neonates.
The growth and proliferation of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are dependent on the parasite's ability to obtain essential nutrients. One nutrient for which the parasite has an absolute requirement is the water-soluble vitamin pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). In this study, a series of pantothenic acid analogs which retain the 2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutyramide core of pantothenic acid but deviate in structure from one another and from pantothenic acid in the nature of the substituent attached to the amide nitrogen were synthesized using an efficient single-step synthetic route. Eight of 10 analogs tested inhibited the proliferation of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum parasites in vitro, doing so with 50% inhibitory concentrations between 15 and 200 μM. The compounds were generally selective, inhibiting the proliferation of a human cell line (the Jurkat cell line) only at concentrations severalfold higher than those required for inhibition of parasite growth. It was demonstrated that compounds in this series inhibited the phosphorylation of pantothenic acid by pantothenate kinase, the first step in the parasite's biosynthesis of the essential enzyme cofactor coenzyme A, doing so competitively, with Ki values in the nanomolar range.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are extremely recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. Treatment of cystic fibrosis patients with azithromycin (AZM) has shown promise. We used DNA microarrays to identify differentially expressed transcripts in developing P. aeruginosa biofilms exposed to 2 μg/ml AZM. We report that transcripts for multiple restriction-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux pumps, known to be involved in planktonic antibiotic resistance, and transcripts involved in type III secretion were upregulated in the resistant biofilms that developed in the presence of AZM. Interestingly, the MexAB-OprM and MexCD-OprJ efflux pumps, but not type III secretion, appear to be integral to biofilm formation in the presence of AZM, as evidenced by the fact that a mutant deleted in both mexAB-oprM and mexCD-oprJ was unable to form a biofilm in the presence of AZM. A mutant deleted in type III secretion was still able to form biofilms in the presence of drug. Furthermore, single mexAB-oprM- and mexCD-oprJ-null mutants were able to form a biofilm in the presence of drug, indicating that either of the pumps can confer resistance to AZM during biofilm development. In contrast to planktonically grown cells, where no mexC expression was detectable regardless of the presence of AZM, biofilms exhibited induction of mexC expression from the outset of their formation, but only in the presence of AZM. mexA, which is constitutively expressed in planktonic cells, was uniformly expressed in biofilms regardless of the presence of AZM. These data indicate that the MexCD-OprJ pump acts as a biofilm-specific mechanism for AZM resistance.
In vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 21 antimicrobials against 41 isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type, the cause of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Of the antimicrobials used most widely in Africa, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin were effective, while the isolates were resistant to tylosin. These results provide a baseline for monitoring antimicrobial resistance.
We investigated the fungicidal activity of caspofungin (CAS) and amphotericin B (AMB) against 16 clinical isolates of Candida glabrata. The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of CAS were similar to those of AMB, ranging from 2.0 to >8.0 μg/ml. Time-kill assays performed on selected isolates showed that AMB was fungicidal at concentrations four times the MIC while CAS was not. A neutropenic-mouse model of disseminated infection was utilized to determine the residual fungal kidney burden. While doses as low as 0.3 and 1 mg/kg of body weight/day of CAS and AMB, respectively, were effective at reducing the counts with respect to controls, organ sterilization was reached when both drugs were administered at 5 mg/kg/day. Our study reveals that, similar to AMB, CAS has the potential for a fungicidal effect in vivo against this difficult-to-treat fungal pathogen.
Two blaOKP subgroups were found, diverging by 4.2%. Subgroups blaOKP-A (10 enzyme variants, pIs from 7.1 to 8.3) and blaOKP-B (11 variants, pI 7.1) showed similar antibiotic susceptibilities. Sequencing of rpoB, gyrA, and mdh demonstrated a concordant subdivision of Klebsiella pneumoniae phylogenetic group KpII into two subgroups, KpII-A and KpII-B.
The macrolide resistance determinants and genetic elements carrying the mef(A) and mef(E) subclasses of the mef gene were studied with Streptococcus agalactiae isolated in 2003 and 2004 from 7,084 vaginorectal cultures performed to detect carrier pregnant women. The prevalence of carriage was 18% (1,276 isolates), and that of erythromycin resistance 11.0% (129 of the 1,171 isolates studied). erm(B), erm(A) subclass erm(TR), and the mef gene, either subclass mef(A) or mef(E), were found in 72 (55.8%), 41 (31.8%), and 12 (9.3%) erythromycin-resistant isolates, while 4 isolates had more than 1 erythromycin resistance gene. Of the 13 M-phenotype mef-containing erythromycin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates, 11 had the mef(E) subclass gene alone, one had both the mef(E) and the erm(TR) subclass genes, and one had the mef(A) subclass gene. mef(E) subclass genes were associated with the carrying element mega in 10 of the 12 mef(E)-containing strains, while the single mef(A) subclass gene found was associated with the genetic element Tn1207.3. The nonconjugative nature of the mega element and the clonal diversity of mef(E)-containing strains determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggest that transformation is the main mechanism through which this resistance gene is acquired.
Caspofungin had diminished activity in vitro against Candida albicans at concentrations of 8 to 32 μg/ml. This phenomenon was markedly attenuated in a Δmkc1/Δmkc1 deletion mutant and by the addition of cyclosporine to the wild type. Short exposure to these caspofungin concentrations resulted in MKC1 up-regulation, suggesting roles of cell wall integrity and calcineurin pathways.
The syringopeptins are a group of antimicrobial cyclic lipodepsipeptides produced by several plant-associated pseudomonads. A novel syringopeptin, SP508, was shown to be produced as two homologs (A and B) by Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans strain 508 from apple and to structurally resemble syringopeptin SP22. SP508 differed from SP22 and other syringopeptins by having three instead of four α,β-unsaturated amino acids and a longer β-hydroxy acyl chain. Both SP508 and SP22 displayed growth-inhibitory activities against Mycobacterium smegmatis, other gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts but not against gram-negative bacteria. Structure-activity analyses of the SP508 and SP22 homologs indicated chemical structural features that lead to enhanced antimycobacterial activity by these pseudomonad cyclic lipodepsipeptides.
We investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of caspofungin against Aspergillus terreus. The drug increased survival and reduced tissue fungal burden in neutropenic mice. Therefore, our data support the role of caspofungin in treating systemic infections due to this emerging pathogen.
Against 307 pneumococci of various resistotypes, dalbavancin MICs were 0.008 to 0.125 μg/ml. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Dalbavancin at 2× MIC was bactericidal against all 10 pneumococci tested after 24 h. Vancomycin and teicoplanin killed 10 and 8 strains, respectively, at 2× MIC after 24 h.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of benign and malignant lesions of the epithelium. Despite their high prevalence, there is currently no antiviral drug for the treatment of HPV-induced lesions. The ATPase and helicase activities of the highly conserved E1 protein of HPV are essential for viral DNA replication and pathogenesis and hence are considered valid antiviral targets. We recently described novel biphenylsulfonacetic acid inhibitors of the ATPase activity of E1 from HPV type 6 (HPV6). Based on kinetics and mutagenesis studies, we now report that these compounds act by an allosteric mechanism. They are hyperbolic competitive inhibitors of the ATPase activity of HPV6 E1 and also inhibit its helicase activity. Compounds in this series can also inhibit the ATPase activity of the closely related enzyme from HPV11; however, the most potent inhibitors of HPV6 E1 are significantly less active against the type 11 protein. We identified a single critical residue in HPV6 E1, Tyr-486, substituted by a cysteine in HPV11, which is primarily responsible for this difference in inhibitor potency. Interestingly, HPV18 E1, which also has a tyrosine at this position, could be inhibited by biphenylsulfonacetic acid derivatives, thereby raising the possibility that this class of inhibitors could be optimized as antiviral agents against multiple HPV types. These studies implicate Tyr-486 as a key residue for inhibitor binding and define an allosteric pocket on HPV E1 that can be exploited for future drug discovery efforts.
Suppression of resistance in a dense Pseudomonas aeruginosa population has previously been shown with optimized quinolone exposures. However, the relevance to β-lactams is unknown. We investigated the bactericidal activity of meropenem and its propensity to suppress P. aeruginosa resistance in an in vitro hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM). Two isogenic strains of P. aeruginosa (wild type and an AmpC stably derepressed mutant [MIC = 1 mg/liter]) were used. An HFIM inoculated with approximately 1 × 108 CFU/ml of bacteria was subjected to various meropenem exposures. Maintenance doses were given every 8 h to simulate the maximum concentration achieved after a 1-g dose in all regimens, but escalating unbound minimum concentrations (Cmins) were simulated with different clearances. Serial samples were obtained over 5 days to quantify the meropenem concentrations, the total bacterial population, and subpopulations with reduced susceptibilities to meropenem (>3× the MIC). For both strains, a significant bacterial burden reduction was seen with all regimens at 24 h. Regrowth was apparent after 3 days, with the Cmin/MIC ratio being ≤1.7 (time above the MIC, 100%). Selective amplification of subpopulations with reduced susceptibilities to meropenem was suppressed with a Cmin/MIC of ≥6.2 or by adding tobramycin to meropenem (Cmin/MIC = 1.7). Investigations that were longer than 24 h and that used high inocula may be necessary to fully evaluate the relationship between drug exposures and the likelihood of resistance suppression. These results suggest that the Cmin/MIC of meropenem can be optimized to suppress the emergence of non-plasmid-mediated P. aeruginosa resistance. Our in vitro data support the use of an extended duration of meropenem infusion for the treatment of severe nosocomial infections in combination with an aminoglycoside.
We tested the in vitro susceptibilities of 603 enterococcal isolates from eight tertiary-care hospitals in Korea. The quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance rate in Enterococcus faecium was very high (25 isolates, 10.0%). It was suggested that both clonal spread and the sporadic emergence of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant isolates may explain the high prevalence of quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance in Korea.
The in vitro activities of ravuconazole against 575 clinical strains of Aspergillus spp. and 348 nondermatophyte non-Aspergillus spp. were analyzed. Ravuconazole was active against Aspergillus spp., other hyaline filamentous fungi, black molds, and some Mucorales. Species such as Scedosporium prolificans, Fusarium spp., and Scopulariopsis spp. were resistant to the triazole.