Pharmacodynamic modeling from earlier experiments in which two ciprofloxacin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains and their corresponding resistant grlA mutants were exposed to a series of ciprofloxacin (J. J. Campion, P. J. McNamara, and M. E. Evans, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:209-219, 2005) and levofloxacin (J. J. Campion et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:2189-2199, 2005) pharmacokinetic profiles in an in vitro system indicated that the subpopulation-specific estimated maximal killing rate constants were similar for both agents, suggesting a common mechanism of action. We propose two novel pharmacodynamic models that assign mechanisms of action to fluoroquinolones (growth inhibition or death stimulation) and compare the abilities of these models and two other maximum effect models (net effect and MIC based) to describe and predict the changes in the population dynamics observed during our previous in vitro system experiments with ciprofloxacin. A high correlation between predicted and observed viable counts was observed for all models, but the best fits, as assessed by diagnostic tests, and the most precise parameter estimates were obtained with the growth inhibition and net effect models. All models, except the death stimulation model, correctly predicted that resistant subpopulations would not emerge when a high-density culture was exposed to a high initial concentration designed to rapidly eradicate low-level-resistant grlA mutants. Additional experiments are necessary to elucidate which of the proposed mechanistic models best characterizes the antibacterial effects of fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.
Arbekacin is widely used in Japan for the treatment of patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we have determined the optimal concentration targets of arbekacin for both efficacy and safety. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was performed to relate exposure to the drug and clinical cure/improvement or nephrotoxicity. Since we have reported the population pharmacokinetic parameters for arbekacin in the preceding paper (Y. Tanigawara, R. Sato, K. Morita, M. Kaku, N. Aikawa, and K. Shimizu, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:3754-3762, 2006), individual exposure parameters, such as area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), peak concentration (Cmax), AUC/MIC, Cmax/MIC, and trough concentration (Cmin) were estimated by the Bayesian method. Logistic regression was used to describe the relationship between exposure to the drug and the probability of clinical cure/improvement or nephrotoxicity. For the clinical efficacy analysis, 174 patients confirmed to have an MRSA infection were evaluated. The Cmax, Cmin, and AUC of arbekacin were associated with the probability of clinical cure/improvement during monotherapy. It was shown that the probability of cure/improvement rose when the Cmax of arbekacin was increased, with an odds ratio of 6.7 for a change in Cmax from 7.9 to 12.5 μg/ml (P = 0.037). For the nephrotoxic risk analysis, 333 patients were included, regardless of whether a pathogen was identified. Logistic regression analysis revealed Cmin and AUC as risk factors of nephrotoxicity (P < 0.005). The estimated probabilities of arbekacin-induced nephrotoxicity were 2.5, 5.2, and 13.1% when the Cmin values were 1, 2, and 5 μg/ml, respectively. The present findings are useful for optimizing the individual dose of arbekacin for the treatment of MRSA-infected patients.
To assess sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine resistance (SPR), we describe here the dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) mutations among the Plasmodium falciparum isolates in which dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) mutations had recently been described by us (A. Ahmed, M. K. Das, V. Dev, M. A. Saifi, Wajihullah, and Y. D. Sharma, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:1546-1549, 2006). A majority of isolates from Car Nicobar island showed double DHPS mutations, whereas a majority of isolates from Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) and Assam contained the wild-type DHPS. Based on DHFR-DHPS mutations, the expected level of SPR was lowest in U.P., higher in Assam, and highest in Car Nicobar, suggesting that a region-wise drug policy is needed in India.
Enterococci are intrinsically resistant to low levels of aminoglycosides. We previously selected in vitro and in vivo Enterococcus faecalis with intermediate-level resistance to gentamicin that did not abolish synergism with a cell-wall-active agent (E. Aslangul et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:4144-4148, 2005). The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of resistance to gentamicin in the 1688-G3 third-step mutant (MIC, 512 μg/ml) of E. faecalis JH2-2. No mutations were found in the genes for L6 ribosomal protein and the four copies of 16S rRNA. Production of a known aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme was unlikely due to the distinct resistance phenotype and absence of the corresponding genes. Efflux was also unlikely since ethidium bromide MICs were similar for JH2-2 and 1688-G3 and since the pump inhibitors reserpine and verapamil had no effect on gentamicin resistance in both strains. To study gentamicin accumulation, we developed a nonisotopic method based on a fluorescent polarization immunoassay. Impaired gentamicin accumulation was observed in 1688-G3 compared to JH2-2 and was only partially reversible by the N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) uncoupler agent. The lower sensitivity of 1688-G3 to DCCD suggested alteration of the FoF1-ATPase. However, no mutations were detected in the structural genes (atp) for the Fo channel and no difference in transcript levels of atpB and atpE was found between 1688-G3 and JH2-2. Our data are compatible with acquisition of intermediate-level gentamicin resistance by uptake impairment in E. faecalis.
Ciprofloxacin is the substrate for a multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP)-like multidrug transporter in J774 mouse macrophages, which also modestly affects levofloxacin but only marginally affects garenoxacin and moxifloxacin (J.-M. Michot et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:2429-2437, 2005). Two clones of ciprofloxacin-resistant cells were obtained by a stepwise increase in drug concentration (from 34 to 51 to 68 mg/liter) in the culture fluid. Compared to wild-type cells, ciprofloxacin-resistant cells showed (i) a markedly reduced ciprofloxacin accumulation (12% of control) and (ii) a two- to threefold lower sensitivity to the enhancing effect exerted by MRP-inhibitors (probenecid and MK571) on ciprofloxacin accumulation or by ciprofloxacin itself. ATP-depletion brought ciprofloxacin accumulation to similarly high levels in both wild-type and ciprofloxacin-resistant cells. Garenoxacin and moxifloxacin accumulation remained unaffected, and levofloxacin showed an intermediate behavior. DNA and protein synthesis were not impaired in ciprofloxacin-resistant cells for ciprofloxacin concentrations up to 100 mg/liter (∼85 and 55% inhibition, respectively, in wild-type cells). In Listeria monocytogenes-infected ciprofloxacin-resistant cells, 12-fold higher extracellular concentrations of ciprofloxacin were needed to show a bacteriostatic effect in comparison with wild-type cells. The data suggest that the resistance mechanism is mediated by an overexpression and/or increased activity of the MRP-like ciprofloxacin transporter expressed at a basal level in wild-type J774 macrophages, which modulates both the intracellular pharmacokinetics and activity of ciprofloxacin.
Acinetobacter baumannii has successfully developed resistance against all common antibiotics, including colistin (polymyxin E), the last universally active drug against this pathogen. The possible widespread distribution of colistin-resistant A. baumannii strains may create an alarming clinical situation. In a previous work, we reported differences in lethal mechanisms between polymyxin B (PXB) and the cecropin A-melittin (CA-M) hybrid peptide CA(1-8)M(1-18) (KWKLFKKIGIGAVLKVLTTGLPALIS-NH2) on colistin-susceptible strains (J. M. Saugar, T. Alarcón, S. López-Hernández, M. López-Brea, D. Andreu, and L. Rivas, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:875-878, 2002). We now demonstrate that CA(1-8)M(1-18) and three short analogues, namely CA(1-7)M(2-9) (KWKLFKKIGAVLKVL-NH2), its Nα-octanoyl derivative (Oct-KWKLFKKIGAVLKVL-NH2), and CA(1-7)M(5-9) (KWKLLKKIGAVLKVL-NH2) are active against two colistin-resistant clinical strains. In vitro, resistance to colistin sulfate was targeted to the outer membrane, as spheroplasts were equally lysed by a given peptide, regardless of their respective level of colistin resistance. The CA-M hybrids were more efficient than colistin in displacing lipopolysaccharide-bound dansyl-polymyxin B from colistin-resistant but not from colistin-susceptible strains. Similar improved performance of the CA-M hybrids in permeation of the inner membrane was observed, regardless of the resistance pattern of the strain. These results argue in favor of a possible use of CA-M peptides, and by extension other antimicrobial peptides with similar features, as alternative chemotherapy in colistin-resistant Acinetobacter infections.
Class A high-molecular-weight penicillin-binding protein 1a (PBP1a) and PBP1b of Escherichia coli have both transglycosylase (TG) and transpeptidase (TP) activity. These enzymes are difficult to assay, since their substrates are difficult to prepare. We show the activity of PBP1a or PBP1b can be measured in membranes by cloning the PBP into an E. coli ponB::Spcr strain. Using this assay, we show that PBP1a is ∼10-fold more sensitive to penicillin than PBP1b and that the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moenomycin, a TG inhibitor, is ∼10-fold higher in the PBP transformants than in wild-type membranes; this increase in IC50 in transformants can be used to test the specificity of test compounds for inhibition of the TG. Alternatively, the coupled TG-TP activity of PBP1b can be directly measured in a two-step microplate assay. In the first step, radiolabeled lipid II, the TG substrate, was made in membranes of the E. coli ponB::Spcr strain by incubation with the peptidoglycan sugar precursors. In the second step, the TG-TP activity was assayed by adding a source of PBP1b to the membranes. The coupled TG-TP activity converts lipid II to cross-linked peptidoglycan, which was specifically captured by wheat germ agglutinin-coated scintillation proximity beads in the presence of 0.2% Sarkosyl (B. Chandrakala et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:30-40, 2004). The TG-TP assay was inhibited by penicillin and moenomycin as expected. Surprisingly, tunicamycin and nisin also inhibited the assay, and paper chromatography analysis revealed that both inhibited the transglycosylase. The assay can be used to screen for novel antibacterial agents.
The in vitro activity of the novel quinolone DX-619 was compared to those of currently available quinolones against U.S. clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. DX-619 was the most potent quinolone overall, indicating possible utility as an anti-gram-positive quinolone.