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1.  Genetic Identification of the Bacteriocins Produced by Enterococcus faecium IT62 and Evidence that Bacteriocin 32 Is Identical to Enterocin IT▿  
Enterococcus faecium IT62, a strain isolated from ryegrass in Japan, produces three bacteriocins (enterocins L50A, L50B, and IT) that have been previously purified and the primary structures of which have been determined by amino acid sequencing (E. Izquierdo, A. Bednarczyk, C. Schaeffer, Y. Cai, E. Marchioni, A. Van Dorsselaer, and S. Ennahar, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 52:1917-1923, 2008). Genetic analysis showed that the bacteriocins of E. faecium IT62 are plasmid encoded, but with the structural genes specifying enterocin L50A and enterocin L50B being carried by a plasmid (pTAB1) that is separate from the one (pTIT1) carrying the structural gene of enterocin IT. Sequencing analysis of a 1,475-bp region from pTAB1 identified two consecutive open reading frames corresponding, with the exception of 2 bp, to the genes entL50A and entL50B, encoding EntL50A and EntL50B, respectively. Both bacteriocins are synthesized without N-terminal leader sequences. Genetic analysis of a sequenced 1,380-bp pTIT1 fragment showed that the genes entIT and entIM, encoding enterocin IT and its immunity protein, respectively, were both found in E. faecium VRE200 for bacteriocin 32. Enterocin IT, a 6,390-Da peptide made up of 54 amino acids, has been previously shown to be identical to the C-terminal part of bacteriocin 32, a 7,998-Da bacteriocin produced by E. faecium VRE200 whose structure was deduced from its structural gene (T. Inoue, H. Tomita, and Y. Ike, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 50:1202-1212, 2006). By combining the biochemical and genetic data on enterocin IT, it was concluded that bacteriocin 32 is in fact identical to enterocin IT, both being encoded by the same plasmid-borne gene, and that the N-terminal leader peptide for this bacteriocin is 35 amino acids long and not 19 amino acids long as previously reported.
PMCID: PMC2681497  PMID: 19273675
2.  Updated Functional Classification of β-Lactamases▿  
Two classification schemes for β-lactamases are currently in use. The molecular classification is based on the amino acid sequence and divides β-lactamases into class A, C, and D enzymes which utilize serine for β-lactam hydrolysis and class B metalloenzymes which require divalent zinc ions for substrate hydrolysis. The functional classification scheme updated herein is based on the 1995 proposal by Bush et al. (K. Bush, G. A. Jacoby, and A. A. Medeiros, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:1211-1233, 1995). It takes into account substrate and inhibitor profiles in an attempt to group the enzymes in ways that can be correlated with their phenotype in clinical isolates. Major groupings generally correlate with the more broadly based molecular classification. The updated system includes group 1 (class C) cephalosporinases; group 2 (classes A and D) broad-spectrum, inhibitor-resistant, and extended-spectrum β-lactamases and serine carbapenemases; and group 3 metallo-β-lactamases. Several new subgroups of each of the major groups are described, based on specific attributes of individual enzymes. A list of attributes is also suggested for the description of a new β-lactamase, including the requisite microbiological properties, substrate and inhibitor profiles, and molecular sequence data that provide an adequate characterization for a new β-lactam-hydrolyzing enzyme.
PMCID: PMC2825993  PMID: 19995920
3.  Intrapulmonary Pharmacokinetics of S-013420, a Novel Bicyclolide Antibacterial, in Healthy Japanese Subjects▿  
S-013420 (EDP-420) is a novel bicyclolide (bridged bicyclic macrolide) antibacterial currently under development for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma and intrapulmonary pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered S-013420 in healthy volunteers. Twenty-eight healthy Japanese male subjects who never smoked were randomly allocated to seven groups of four subjects each who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at different times after dosing (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 24 h). Blood samples were also taken at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after dosing. The S-013420 concentrations in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were measured by using a combined high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric technique. A pharmacokinetic analysis of the plasma, ELF, and AM S-013420 concentration profiles was performed. S-013420 was rapidly absorbed in plasma, and the mean time to the maximum concentration in plasma was 2.27 h. S-013420 was rapidly distributed to the ELF and was slowly distributed to AMs. The areas under the concentration-time curves from time zero to 24 h (AUC0-24) for S-013420 were 20.3 times higher in ELF than in plasma and 244.6 times higher in AMs than in plasma. The mean maximum concentration in plasma was higher in ELF than in plasma and was much higher in AM than in plasma. Furthermore, pharmacodynamic calculations were done by using the AUC0-24/MIC90 ratio for common pneumonia pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). The AUC0-24 for plasma/MIC90s for these four organisms were 41.8, 83.6, 1.3, and 20.9, respectively. The AUC0-24 for ELF/MIC90s were 849.6, 1,699.2, 26.6, and 424.8, respectively. Considering the good efficacy shown in a subsequent phase 2 study (S. Kohno, K. Yamaguchi, Y. Tanigawara, A. Watanabe, A. Aoki, Y. Niki, and J. Fujita, Abstr. 47th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., abstr. L-485), the good distribution of S-013420 in AMs and ELF observed in the present study is predictive of the good efficacy of S-013420 against respiratory pathogens.
PMCID: PMC2812166  PMID: 19933801
4.  In Vivo Activity of Ceftobiprole in Murine Skin Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿  
Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (P. Hebeisen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:825-836, 2001), was evaluated in a subcutaneous skin infection model with Staphylococcus aureus Smith OC 4172 (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]), S. aureus OC 8525 (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa OC 4351 (having an inducible AmpC β-lactamase), and P. aeruginosa OC 4354 (overproducing AmpC β-lactamase). In the MSSA and MRSA infection models, ceftobiprole, administered as the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril, was more effective in reducing CFU/g skin (P < 0.001) than were cefazolin, vancomycin, or linezolid based on the dose-response profiles. Skin lesion volumes in MSSA-infected animals treated with ceftobiprole were 19 to 29% lower than those for cefazolin-, vancomycin-, or linezolid-treated animals (P < 0.001). In MRSA infections, lesion size in ceftobiprole-treated mice was 34% less than that with cefazolin or linezolid treatment (P < 0.001). Against P. aeruginosa, ceftobiprole at similar doses was as effective as meropenem-cilastatin in reductions of CFU/g skin, despite 8- and 32-fold-lower MICs for meropenem; both treatments were more effective than was cefepime (P < 0.001) against the inducible and overproducing AmpC β-lactamase strains of P. aeruginosa. Ceftobiprole was similar to meropenem-cilastatin and 47 to 54% more effective than cefepime (P < 0.01) in reducing the size of the lesion caused by either strain of P. aeruginosa in this study. These studies indicate that ceftobiprole is effective in reducing both bacterial load and lesion volume associated with infections due to MSSA, MRSA, and P. aeruginosa in this murine model of skin and soft tissue infection.
PMCID: PMC2798551  PMID: 19884364
5.  Amiodarone and Miltefosine Act Synergistically against Leishmania mexicana and Can Induce Parasitological Cure in a Murine Model of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis ▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(12):5108-5113.
Leishmaniasis is parasitic disease that is an important problem of public health worldwide. Intramuscularly administered glucantime and pentostam are the most common drugs used for treatment of this disease, but they have significant limitations due to toxicity and increasing resistance. A recent breakthrough has been the introduction of orally administered miltefosine for the treatment of visceral, cutaneous, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, but the relative high cost and concerns about teratogenicity have limited the use of this drug. Searching for alternative drugs, we previously demonstrated that the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone is active against Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, acting via disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis (specifically at the mitochondrion and the acidocalcisomes of these parasites) and through inhibition of the parasite's de novo sterol biosynthesis (X. Serrano-Martín, Y. García-Marchan, A. Fernandez, N. Rodriguez, H. Rojas, G. Visbal, and G. Benaim, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:1403-1410, 2009). In the present work, we found that miltefosine also disrupts the parasite's intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, in this case by inducing a large increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels, probably through the activation of a plasma membrane Ca2+ channel. We also investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of amiodarone and miltefosine, used alone or in combination, on L. mexicana. It was found that the drug combination had synergistic effects on the proliferation of intracellular amastigotes growing inside macrophages and led 90% of parasitological cures in a murine model of leishmaniasis, as revealed by a PCR assay using a novel DNA sequence specific for L. mexicana.
PMCID: PMC2786335  PMID: 19805563
6.  Multiresistance in Pasteurella multocida Is Mediated by Coexistence of Small Plasmids▿  
In most gram-negative bacteria, acquired multiresistance is conferred by large plasmids compiling numerous antimicrobial resistance genes. Here, we show an evolutionary alternative strategy used by Pasteurella multocida to become resistant to multiple clinically relevant antibiotics. Thirteen β-lactam-resistant clinical isolates, concomitantly resistant to tetracyclines and/or streptomycin as well as to sulfonamides, were studied. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed different profiles among the isolates, showing that clonal dissemination was not the sole event responsible for the spread of multiresistance. Each P. multocida strain carried two or three small plasmids between 4 and 6 kb in size. A direct association between resistance profile and plasmid content was found. Complete nucleotide sequencing of all plasmids revealed seven different replicons, six of them belonging to the ColE1 superfamily. All plasmids carried one, or a maximum of two, antimicrobial resistance determinants. Plasmids pB1000 and pB1002 bore blaROB-1, pB1001 carried tet(B), pB1003 and pB1005 carried sul2 and strA, pB1006 harbored tet(O), and p9956 bore the tet(H) gene. All plasmids except pB1002 and pB1006 were successfully transformed into Escherichia coli. pB1000, also involved in β-lactam resistance in Haemophilus parasuis (A. San Millan et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:2260-2264, 2007), was mobilized in E. coli using the conjugation machinery of an IncP plasmid. Stability experiments proved that pB1000 was stable in P. multocida but highly unstable in E. coli. In conclusion, blaROB-1 is responsible for β-lactam resistance in P. multocida in Spain. Coexistence and the spread of small plasmids are used by P. multocida to become multiresistant.
PMCID: PMC2715648  PMID: 19528282
7.  Intracellular Activity of Antibiotics in a Model of Human THP-1 Macrophages Infected by a Staphylococcus aureus Small-Colony Variant Strain Isolated from a Cystic Fibrosis Patient: Study of Antibiotic Combinations▿ † 
In a companion paper (H. A. Nguyen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:1434-1442, 2009), we showed that vancomycin, oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, linezolid, and daptomycin are poorly active against the intracellular form of a thymidine-dependent small-colony variant (SCV) strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient and that the activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin, moxifloxacin, rifampin, and oritavancin remains limited (2- to 3-log CFU reduction) compared to their extracellular activity. Antibiotic combination is a well-known strategy to improve antibacterial activity, which was examined here against an intracellular SCV strain using combinations with either rifampin or oritavancin. Time-kill curve analysis using either concentrations that caused a static effect for each antibiotic individually or concentrations corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum showed largely divergent effects that were favorable when antibiotics were combined with rifampin at low concentrations only and with oritavancin at both low and high concentrations. The nature of the interaction between rifampin, oritavancin, and moxifloxacin was further examined using the fractional maximal effect method, which allows categorization of the effects of combinations when dose-effect relationships are not linear. Rifampin and oritavancin were synergistic at all concentration ratios investigated. Oritavancin and moxifloxacin were also synergistic but at high oritavancin concentrations only. Rifampin and moxifloxacin were additive. This approach may help in better assessing and improving the activity of antibiotics against intracellular SCV strains.
PMCID: PMC2663110  PMID: 19188397
19.  Molecular Mechanisms of Macrolide Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae from China▿  
Fifty clinical Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains were isolated from 370 children with respiratory tract infections. Four strains were susceptible to macrolides, while the other 46 (92%) were macrolide resistant. The molecular mechanism of resistance was shown to be associated with point mutations in 23S rRNA at positions 2063 and 2064.
PMCID: PMC2681523  PMID: 19273685
20.  Dose Escalation Study of the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a Novel Potent Broad-Spectrum Nonfluorinated Quinolone, in Healthy Volunteers▿  
Nemonoxacin (TG-873870) is a novel nonfluorinated quinolone with potent broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin- and quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin were investigated in a double-blind, ascending-single-dose study involving 56 healthy subjects (48 males and 8 females) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 dose cohorts. In each successive cohort, two subjects received a placebo and six received single oral doses of 25, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 mg nemonoxacin. Nemonoxacin was well tolerated up to the maximum dose of 1,500 mg. No severe or serious adverse events were observed. The most frequent adverse events were contact dermatitis, pruritus, and erythema. No clinically significant abnormalities were noted in the electrocardiograms, vital signs, or laboratory tests. The plasma concentrations increased over the dose range, and at 500 mg, the free area under the plasma concentration-time curve/MIC90 ratios and free maximum nemonoxacin concentration/MIC90 ratios against drug-sensitive/drug-resistant S. pneumoniae and S. aureus were greater than 227 and 24, respectively. The peak time and elimination half-life of nemonoxacin were 1 to 2 h and 9 to 16 h, respectively. The oral clearance was approximately 0.22 liter/h/kg. The plasma protein binding was approximately 16%. The results of this study support further evaluation of the multiple-dose safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin.
PMCID: PMC2798534  PMID: 19884368
24.  Is Vancomycin Ototoxicity a Significant Risk? 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(10):4572-4573.
PMCID: PMC2764170  PMID: 19770289

Results 1-25 (866)