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1.  Influence of the Protein Kinase C Activator Phorbol Myristate Acetate on the Intracellular Activity of Antibiotics against Hemin- and Menadione-Auxotrophic Small-Colony Variant Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus and Their Wild-Type Parental Strain in Human THP-1 Cells 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(12):6166-6174.
In a previous study (L. G. Garcia et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56:3700–3711, 2012), we evaluated the intracellular fate of menD and hemB mutants (corresponding to menadione- and hemin-dependent small-colony variants, respectively) of the parental COL methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and the pharmacodynamic profile of the intracellular activity of a series of antibiotics in human THP-1 monocytes. We have now examined the phagocytosis and intracellular persistence of the same strains in THP-1 cells activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and measured the intracellular activity of gentamicin, moxifloxacin, and oritavancin in these cells. Postphagocytosis intracellular counts and intracellular survival were lower in PMA-activated cells, probably due to their higher killing capacities. Gentamicin and moxifloxacin showed a 5- to 7-fold higher potency (lower static concentrations) against the parental strain, its hemB mutant, and the genetically complemented strain in PMA-activated cells and against the menD strain in both activated and nonactivated cells. This effect was inhibited when cells were incubated with N-acetylcysteine (a scavenger of oxidant species). In parallel, we observed that the MICs of these drugs were markedly reduced if bacteria had been preexposed to H2O2. In contrast, the intracellular potency of oritavancin was not different in activated and nonactivated cells and was not decreased by the addition of N-acetylcysteine, regardless of the phenotype of the strains. The oritavancin MIC was also unaffected by preincubation of the bacteria with H2O2. Thus, activation of THP-1 cells by PMA may increase the intracellular potency of certain antibiotics (probably due to synergy with reactive oxygen species), but this effect cannot be generalized to all antibiotics.
PMCID: PMC3497167  PMID: 22985883
2.  Reduced Expression of the rplU-rpmA Ribosomal Protein Operon in mexXY-Expressing Pan-Aminoglycoside-Resistant Mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(10):5171-5179.
Pan-aminoglycoside-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants expressing the mexXY components of the aminoglycoside-accommodating MexXY-OprM multidrug efflux system but lacking mutations in the mexZ gene encoding a repressor of this efflux system and in the mexXY promoter have been reported (S. Fraud and K. Poole, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55:1068–1074, 2011). Genome sequencing of one of these mutants, K2966, revealed the presence of a mutation within the predicted promoter region of the rplU-rpmA operon encoding ribosomal proteins L21 and L27, consistent with an observed 2-fold decrease in expression of this operon in the mutant relative to wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1. Moreover, correction of the mutation restored rplU-rpmA expression and, significantly, reversed the elevated mexXY expression and pan-aminoglycoside resistance of the mutant. Reduced rplU-rpmA expression was also observed in a second mexXY-expressing pan-aminoglycoside-resistant mutant, K2968, which, however, lacked a mutation in the rplU-rpmA promoter region. Restoration of rplU-rpmA expression in the K2968 mutant following chromosomal integration of the rplU-rpmA operon derived from wild-type P. aeruginosa failed, however, to reverse the elevated mexXY expression and pan-aminoglycoside resistance of this mutant, although it did so for K2966, suggesting that the mutation impacting rplU-rpmA expression in K2968 also impacts other mexXY-related genes. Increased mexXY expression owing to reduced rplU-rpmA expression in K2966 and K2968 was dependent on PA5471, whose expression was also elevated in these mutants. Thus, mutational disruption of ribosome function, by limiting expression of ribosomal constituents, promotes recruitment of mexXY and does so via PA5471, reminiscent of mexXY induction by ribosome-disrupting antimicrobial agents. Interestingly, reduced rplU-rpmA expression was also observed in a mexXY-expressing pan-aminoglycoside-resistant clinical isolate, suggesting that ribosome-perturbing mutations have clinical relevance in the recruitment of the MexXY-OprM aminoglycoside resistance determinant.
PMCID: PMC3457373  PMID: 22825121
3.  Characterization of RarA, a Novel AraC Family Multidrug Resistance Regulator in Klebsiella pneumoniae 
Transcriptional regulators, such as SoxS, RamA, MarA, and Rob, which upregulate the AcrAB efflux pump, have been shown to be associated with multidrug resistance in clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria. In addition to the multidrug resistance phenotype, these regulators have also been shown to play a role in the cellular metabolism and possibly the virulence potential of microbial cells. As such, the increased expression of these proteins is likely to cause pleiotropic phenotypes. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major nosocomial pathogen which can express the SoxS, MarA, Rob, and RamA proteins, and the accompanying paper shows that the increased transcription of ramA is associated with tigecycline resistance (M. Veleba and T. Schneiders, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56:4466–4467, 2012). Bioinformatic analyses of the available Klebsiella genome sequences show that an additional AraC-type regulator is encoded chromosomally. In this work, we characterize this novel AraC-type regulator, hereby called RarA (Regulator of antibiotic resistance A), which is encoded in K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp. 638, Serratia proteamaculans 568, and Enterobacter cloacae. We show that the overexpression of rarA results in a multidrug resistance phenotype which requires a functional AcrAB efflux pump but is independent of the other AraC regulators. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments show that rarA (MGH 78578 KPN_02968) and its neighboring efflux pump operon oqxAB (KPN_02969_02970) are consistently upregulated in clinical isolates collected from various geographical locations (Chile, Turkey, and Germany). Our results suggest that rarA overexpression upregulates the oqxAB efflux pump. Additionally, it appears that oqxR, encoding a GntR-type regulator adjacent to the oqxAB operon, is able to downregulate the expression of the oqxAB efflux pump, where OqxR complementation resulted in reductions to olaquindox MICs.
PMCID: PMC3421627  PMID: 22644028
4.  Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Bacteroides fragilis Group in Canada in 2010-2011: CANWARD Surveillance Study 
Clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 387) were collected from patients attending nine Canadian hospitals in 2010-2011 and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. B. fragilis (59.9%), Bacteroides ovatus (16.3%), and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (12.7%) accounted for ∼90% of isolates collected. Overall rates of percent susceptibility were as follows: 99.7%, metronidazole; 99.5%, piperacillin-tazobactam; 99.2%, imipenem; 97.7%, ertapenem; 92.0%, doripenem; 87.3%, amoxicillin-clavulanate; 80.9%, tigecycline; 65.9%, cefoxitin; 55.6%, moxifloxacin; and 52.2%, clindamycin. Percent susceptibility to cefoxitin, clindamycin, and moxifloxacin was lowest for B. thetaiotaomicron (n = 49, 24.5%), Parabacteroides distasonis/P. merdae (n = 11, 9.1%), and B. ovatus (n = 63, 31.8%), respectively. One isolate (B. thetaiotaomicron) was resistant to metronidazole, and two isolates (both B. fragilis) were resistant to both piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem. Since the last published surveillance study describing Canadian isolates of B. fragilis group almost 20 years ago (A.-M. Bourgault et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:343–347, 1992), rates of resistance have increased for amoxicillin-clavulanate, from 0.8% (1992) to 6.2% (2010-2011), and for clindamycin, from 9% (1992) to 34.1% (2010-2011).
PMCID: PMC3294939  PMID: 22203594
5.  Colistin-Resistant, Lipopolysaccharide-Deficient Acinetobacter baumannii Responds to Lipopolysaccharide Loss through Increased Expression of Genes Involved in the Synthesis and Transport of Lipoproteins, Phospholipids, and Poly-β-1,6-N-Acetylglucosamine 
We recently demonstrated that colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii can result from mutational inactivation of genes essential for lipid A biosynthesis (Moffatt JH, et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54:4971–4977). Consequently, strains harboring these mutations are unable to produce the major Gram-negative bacterial surface component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To understand how A. baumannii compensates for the lack of LPS, we compared the transcriptional profile of the A. baumannii type strain ATCC 19606 to that of an isogenic, LPS-deficient, lpxA mutant strain. The analysis of the expression profiles indicated that the LPS-deficient strain showed increased expression of many genes involved in cell envelope and membrane biogenesis. In particular, upregulated genes included those involved in the Lol lipoprotein transport system and the Mla-retrograde phospholipid transport system. In addition, genes involved in the synthesis and transport of poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) also were upregulated, and a corresponding increase in PNAG production was observed. The LPS-deficient strain also exhibited the reduced expression of genes predicted to encode the fimbrial subunit FimA and a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The reduced expression of genes involved in T6SS correlated with the detection of the T6SS-effector protein AssC in culture supernatants of the A. baumannii wild-type strain but not in the LPS-deficient strain. Taken together, these data show that, in response to total LPS loss, A. baumannii alters the expression of critical transport and biosynthesis systems associated with modulating the composition and structure of the bacterial surface.
PMCID: PMC3256090  PMID: 22024825
6.  Comparative Efficacies of Human Simulated Exposures of Tedizolid and Linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus in the Murine Thigh Infection Model 
Tedizolid (formally torezolid) is an expanded-spectrum oxazolidinone with enhanced in vitro potency against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The efficacies of human simulated exposures of tedizolid and linezolid against S. aureus in an immunocompetent mouse thigh model over 3 days were compared. Four strains of MRSA and one of MSSA with tedizolid and linezolid MICs ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 and from 2 to 4 μg/ml, respectively, were utilized. Tedizolid or linezolid was administered in a regimen simulating a human steady-state 24-h area under the free concentration-time curve of 200 mg every 24 h (Q24) or 600 mg Q12, respectively. Thighs were harvested after 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h, and efficacy was determined by the change in bacterial density. The mean bacterial density in control mice increased over the 3-day period. After 24 h of treatment, a reduction in bacterial density of ≥1 log CFU was observed for both the tedizolid and linezolid treatments. Antibacterial activity was enhanced for both agents with a reduction of ≥2.6 log CFU after 72 h of treatment. Any statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in efficacy between the agents were transient and did not persist throughout the 72-h treatment period. The tedizolid and linezolid regimens demonstrated similar in vivo efficacies against the S. aureus isolates tested. Both agents were bacteriostatic at 24 h and bactericidal on the third day of treatment. These data support the clinical utility of tedizolid for skin and skin structure infections caused by S. aureus, as well as the bactericidal activity of the oxazolidinones after 3 days of treatment.
PMCID: PMC3421595  PMID: 22687504
7.  Evaluation of Telavancin Activity versus Daptomycin and Vancomycin against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model 
Daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) Staphylococcus aureus strains have been reported over the last several years. Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with a dual mechanism of action, as it inhibits peptidoglycan polymerization/cross-linking and disrupts the membrane potential. Three clinical DNS S. aureus strains, CB1814, R6212, and SA-684, were evaluated in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model with simulated endocardial vegetations (starting inoculum, 108.5 CFU/g) for 120 h. Simulated regimens included telavancin at 10 mg/kg every 24 h (q24h; peak, 87.5 mg/liter; t1/2, 7.5 h), daptomycin at 6 mg/kg q24h (peak, 95.7 mg/liter; t1/2, 8 h), and vancomycin at 1 g q12h (peak, 30 mg/liter; t1/2, 6 h). Differences in CFU/g between regimens at 24 through 120 h were evaluated by analysis of variance with a Tukey's post hoc test. Bactericidal activity was defined as a ≥3-log10 CFU/g decrease in colony count from the initial inoculum. MIC values were 1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/liter (telavancin), 4, 2, and 2 mg/liter (daptomycin), and 2, 2, and 2 mg/liter (vancomycin) for CB1814, R6212, and SA-684, respectively. Telavancin displayed bactericidal activities against R6212 (32 to 120 h; −4.31 log10 CFU/g), SA-684 (56 to 120 h; −3.06 log10 CFU/g), and CB1814 (48 to 120 h; −4.9 log10 CFU/g). Daptomycin displayed initial bactericidal activity followed by regrowth with all three strains. Vancomycin did not exhibit sustained bactericidal activity against any strain. At 120 h, telavancin was significantly better at reducing colony counts than vancomycin against all three tested strains and better than daptomycin against CB1814 (P < 0.05). Telavancin displayed bactericidal activity in vitro against DNS S. aureus isolates.
PMCID: PMC3264278  PMID: 22123693
8.  Comparative In Vivo Efficacies of Epithelial Lining Fluid Exposures of Tedizolid, Linezolid, and Vancomycin for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Mouse Pneumonia Model 
The antibacterial efficacies of tedizolid phosphate (TZD), linezolid, and vancomycin regimens simulating human exposures at the infection site against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were compared in an in vivo mouse pneumonia model. Immunocompetent BALB/c mice were orally inoculated with one of three strains of MRSA and subsequently administered 20 mg/kg TZD every 24 hours (q24h), 120 mg/kg linezolid q12h, or 25 mg/kg vancomycin q12h over 24 h. These regimens produced epithelial lining fluid exposures comparable to human exposures observed following intravenous regimens of 200 mg TZD q24h, 600 mg linezolid q12h, and 1 g vancomycin q12h. The differences in CFU after 24 h of treatment were compared between control and treatment groups. Vehicle-dosed control groups increased in bacterial density an average of 1.1 logs. All treatments reduced the bacterial density at 24 h with an average of 1.2, 1.6, and 0.1 logs for TZD, linezolid, and vancomycin, respectively. The efficacy of TZD versus linezolid regimens against the three MRSA isolates was not statistically different (P > 0.05), although both treatments were significantly different from controls. In contrast, the vancomycin regimen was significantly different from TZD against one MRSA isolate and from linezolid against all isolates. The vancomycin regimen was less protective than either the TZD or linezolid regimens, with overall survival of 61.1% versus 94.7% or 89.5%, respectively. At human simulated exposures to epithelial lining fluid, vancomycin resulted in minimal reductions in bacterial counts and higher mortality compared to those of either TZD or linezolid. TZD and linezolid showed similar efficacies in this MRSA pneumonia model.
PMCID: PMC3346598  PMID: 22354302
9.  Genetic Contexts of blaNDM-1 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):6065-6067.
PMCID: PMC3486571  PMID: 23074228
10.  Efficacy of Ceftobiprole Medocaril against Enterococcus faecalis in a Murine Urinary Tract Infection Model 
We evaluated ceftobiprole against the well-characterized Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF (with and without the β-lactamase [Bla] plasmid pBEM10) in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model. Ceftobiprole was equally effective for Bla+ and Bla− OG1 strains, while ampicillin was moderately to markedly (depending on the inoculum) less effective against Bla+ than Bla− OG1 strains. These data illustrate an in vivo effect on ampicillin of Bla production by E. faecalis and the stability and efficacy of ceftobiprole in experimental UTI.
PMCID: PMC3370727  PMID: 22450988
11.  Chromosome-Encoded Extended-Spectrum Class A β-Lactamase MIN-1 from Minibacterium massiliensis 
Minibacterium massiliensis strain CIP107820 is a recently discovered waterborne Gram-negative rod isolated from hospital water samples. It harbors a chromosomally located gene encoding an Ambler class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase termed MIN-1, sharing 56%, 54%, and 51% amino acid identities with β-lactamases LUT-1, KPC-2, and CTX-M-2, respectively. β-Lactamase MIN-1 hydrolyzes penicillins, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, cefotaxime, and, less efficiently, cefepime, while ceftazidime and carbapenems are very poor substrates, and cephamycins and aztreonam are not hydrolyzed.
PMCID: PMC3393436  PMID: 22526320
12.  IMP-29, a Novel IMP-Type Metallo-β-Lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Analysis of two clonally related multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates led to the identification of a novel IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase. IMP-29 was significantly different from the other IMP variants (the closest variant being IMP-5 with 93% amino acid identity). The blaIMP-29 gene cassette was carried by a class 1 integron in strain 10.298, while in strain 10.266 it was located in a rearranged DNA region on a 30-kb conjugative plasmid. Biochemical analysis confirmed that IMP-29 efficiently hydrolyzed carbapenems.
PMCID: PMC3318365  PMID: 22290960
13.  Chromosomal Integration and Location on IncT Plasmids of the blaCTX-M-2 Gene in Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolates 
Analysis of five CTX-M-2-producing Proteus mirabilis isolates in Japan demonstrated that blaCTX-M-2 was located on the chromosome in four isolates and on IncT plasmids in three isolates, including two isolates that also carried the gene on the chromosome. In all four isolates with chromosomal blaCTX-M-2, ISEcp1 was responsible for the integration of the gene into the chromosome. Three different sites in the P. mirabilis genomic sequence were utilized as integration sites.
PMCID: PMC3264238  PMID: 22106217
14.  ICESp1116, the Genetic Element Responsible for erm(B)-Mediated, Inducible Resistance to Erythromycin in Streptococcus pyogenes 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(12):6425-6429.
ICESp1116, responsible for erm(B)-mediated, inducible erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes, was comprehensively characterized, and its chromosomal integration site was determined. It displayed a unique mosaic organization consisting of a scaffold, related to TnGallo1 from Streptococcus gallolyticus, with two inserted fragments separated by IS1216. One fragment, containing erm(B), displayed high-level identity to a portion of the S. pyogenes plasmid pSM19035; the other, containing a truncated tet(M) gene, displayed high-level identity to the right-hand portion of Clostridium difficile Tn5397.
PMCID: PMC3497170  PMID: 23027190
15.  Two Clinical Isolates of Candida glabrata Exhibiting Reduced Sensitivity to Amphotericin B Both Harbor Mutations in ERG2 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(12):6417-6421.
Two novel isolates of Candida glabrata exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B (MIC, 8 μg ml−1) were found to be ERG2 mutants, wherein Δ8-sterol intermediates comprised >90% of the total cellular sterol fraction. Both harbored an alteration at Thr121 in ERG2; the corresponding residue (Thr119) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for sterol Δ8-Δ7 isomerization. This constitutes the first report of C. glabrata harboring mutations in ERG2 and exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B.
PMCID: PMC3497184  PMID: 23027188
16.  In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Isavuconazole against Madurella mycetomatis 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):6054-6056.
Currently, therapy of black-grain mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis consists of extensive debridement of the infected tissue combined with prolonged antifungal therapy with ketoconazole or itraconazole. In the present study, the in vitro activity of the new triazole isavuconazole toward M. mycetomatis was evaluated. Isavuconazole appeared to have high activity against M. mycetomatis, with MICs ranging from ≤0.016 to 0.125 μg/ml. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetics, isavuconazole could be a promising antifungal agent in the treatment of mycetoma.
PMCID: PMC3486573  PMID: 22964246
17.  Antifungal Susceptibilities of Aspergillus fumigatus Clinical Isolates Obtained in Nagasaki, Japan 
We investigated the triazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin susceptibilities of 196 A. fumigatus clinical isolates in Nagasaki, Japan. The percentages of non-wild-type (non-WT) isolates for which MICs of itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole were above the ECV were 7.1%, 2.6%, and 4.1%, respectively. A G54 mutation in cyp51A was detected in 64.2% (9/14 isolates) and 100% (5/5 isolates) of non-WT isolates for itraconazole and posaconazole, respectively. Amphotericin B MICs of ≥2 μg/ml and micafungin minimum effective concentrations (MECs) of ≥16 μg/ml were recorded for two and one isolates, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3256053  PMID: 22024829
18.  pEl1573 Carrying blaIMP-4, from Sydney, Australia, Is Closely Related to Other IncL/M Plasmids 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):6029-6032.
Complete sequencing of pEl1573, a representative IncL/M plasmid carrying blaIMP-4 from Sydney, Australia, revealed an ∼60-kb backbone almost identical to those of IncL/M plasmids pCTX-M3, from Poland, and pCTX-M360, from China, and less closely related to pNDM-HK, pOXA-48a, and pEL60, suggesting different lineages. The ∼28-kb Tn2-derived multiresistance region in pEl1573 is inserted in the same location as those in pCTX-M3 and pNDM-HK and shares some of the same components but has undergone rearrangements.
PMCID: PMC3486572  PMID: 22926566
19.  Caspofungin Etest Susceptibility Testing of Candida Species: Risk of Misclassification of Susceptible Isolates of C. glabrata and C. krusei when Adopting the Revised CLSI Caspofungin Breakpoints 
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species.
PMCID: PMC3393381  PMID: 22564836
20.  The Order Bacillales Hosts Functional Homologs of the Worrisome cfr Antibiotic Resistance Gene 
The cfr gene encodes the Cfr methyltransferase that methylates a single adenine in the peptidyl transferase region of bacterial ribosomes. The methylation provides resistance to several classes of antibiotics that include drugs of clinical and veterinary importance. This paper describes a first step toward elucidating natural residences of the worrisome cfr gene and functionally similar genes. Three cfr-like genes from the order Bacillales were identified from BLAST searches and cloned into plasmids under the control of an inducible promoter. Expression of the genes was induced in Escherichia coli, and MICs for selected antibiotics indicate that the cfr-like genes confer resistance to PhLOPSa (phenicol, lincosamide, oxazolidinone, pleuromutilin, and streptogramin A) antibiotics in the same way as the cfr gene. In addition, modification at A2503 on 23S rRNA was confirmed by primer extension. Finally, expression of the Cfr-like proteins was verified by SDS gel electrophoresis of whole-cell extracts. The work shows that cfr-like genes exist in the environment and that Bacillales are natural residences of cfr-like genes.
PMCID: PMC3393444  PMID: 22547628
21.  Activity of a Novel Cyclic Lipopeptide, CB-183,315, against Resistant Clostridium difficile and Other Gram-Positive Aerobic and Anaerobic Intestinal Pathogens 
We evaluated the activity of CB-183,315 against Clostridium difficile, including strains that are resistant to fluoroquinolones and metronidazole and with elevated MICs to vancomycin as well as other Gram-positive intestinal pathogens. The MICs of CB-183,315 against all C. difficile isolates were ≤1 μg/ml. CB-183,315 had greater activity than vancomycin and metronidazole against C. difficile isolates and was more active than the comparators against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). CB-183,315 also had excellent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), other Clostridium spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp.
PMCID: PMC3370783  PMID: 22391542
22.  Impact of Two-Component Regulatory Systems PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB on Colistin Pharmacodynamics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
The in vitro pharmacodynamics of colistin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 wild-type and isogenic knockout strains of phoP and pmrA were evaluated. Colistin killing at subinhibitory concentrations was greater against the phoP and pmrA mutants than the wild type within the first 8 h: the concentration that results in 50% of maximal effect (EC50) of the pmrA mutant (0.413 mg/liter) was less than that of the wild type (0.718 mg/liter) (P < 0.05). An in vitro pharmacodynamic model simulating human colistin regimens displayed initial killing followed by regrowth in the phoP mutant and gradual regrowth in the pmrA mutant and wild type.
PMCID: PMC3370801  PMID: 22470116
23.  In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea? 
Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea.
PMCID: PMC3346660  PMID: 22354296
24.  First Report of the Multidrug Resistance Gene cfr in Enterococcus faecalis of Animal Origin 
The multiresistance gene cfr was identified for the first time in an Enterococcus faecalis isolate of animal origin. The 32,388-bp plasmid pEF-01, which carried the cfr gene, was sequenced completely. Three copies of the insertion sequence IS1216 were identified in pEF-01, and the detection of a cfr- and IS1216-containing amplicon by inverse PCR suggests that IS1216 may play a role in the dissemination of cfr by a recombination process.
PMCID: PMC3294887  PMID: 22203597
25.  Genetic Features of the Widespread Plasmid Coding for the Carbapenemase OXA-48 
Complete sequencing of plasmid pOXA-48a carrying the blaOXA-48 gene from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate was performed. Its backbone corresponded to that of an IncL/M-type plasmid, in which the blaOXA-48 gene had been integrated through the acquisition of the Tn1999 composite transposon without any other antibiotic resistance gene. Molecular epidemiology using a collection of international OXA-48 producers revealed the wide diffusion of pOXA-48a or closely related plasmids.
PMCID: PMC3256075  PMID: 22083465

Results 1-25 (1021)