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1.  Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Bacteroides fragilis Group in Canada in 2010-2011: CANWARD Surveillance Study 
Clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 387) were collected from patients attending nine Canadian hospitals in 2010-2011 and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. B. fragilis (59.9%), Bacteroides ovatus (16.3%), and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (12.7%) accounted for ∼90% of isolates collected. Overall rates of percent susceptibility were as follows: 99.7%, metronidazole; 99.5%, piperacillin-tazobactam; 99.2%, imipenem; 97.7%, ertapenem; 92.0%, doripenem; 87.3%, amoxicillin-clavulanate; 80.9%, tigecycline; 65.9%, cefoxitin; 55.6%, moxifloxacin; and 52.2%, clindamycin. Percent susceptibility to cefoxitin, clindamycin, and moxifloxacin was lowest for B. thetaiotaomicron (n = 49, 24.5%), Parabacteroides distasonis/P. merdae (n = 11, 9.1%), and B. ovatus (n = 63, 31.8%), respectively. One isolate (B. thetaiotaomicron) was resistant to metronidazole, and two isolates (both B. fragilis) were resistant to both piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem. Since the last published surveillance study describing Canadian isolates of B. fragilis group almost 20 years ago (A.-M. Bourgault et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:343–347, 1992), rates of resistance have increased for amoxicillin-clavulanate, from 0.8% (1992) to 6.2% (2010-2011), and for clindamycin, from 9% (1992) to 34.1% (2010-2011).
doi:10.1128/AAC.05823-11
PMCID: PMC3294939  PMID: 22203594
2.  A Canadian National Surveillance Study of Urinary Tract Isolates from Outpatients: Comparison of the Activities of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, Ampicillin, Mecillinam, Nitrofurantoin, and Ciprofloxacin 
Ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin mean resistance rates for 2,000 urinary tract isolates collected from outpatients across Canada in 1998 were 41.1, 19.2, 14.7, 5.0, and 1.8%, respectively. For Escherichia coli isolates alone (n = 1,681) comparable rates were 41.0, 18.9, 7.4, 0.1, and 1.2%, respectively. The majority of E. coli isolates resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or ciprofloxacin were susceptible (MIC, <16 μg/ml) to mecillinam.
PMCID: PMC89821  PMID: 10722520
3.  Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada during 1998–1999: Prevalence of mef(A) and erm(B) and Susceptibilities to Ketolides 
In this study (1998–1999), we collected 215 macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from an ongoing Canadian Respiratory Organism Surveillance Study involving 23 centers representing all regions of Canada. The prevalence of erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae was 8% (215 of 2,688). Of the 215 isolates, 48.8% (105 of 215) were PCR positive for mef(A) and 46.5% (100 of 215) were PCR positive for erm(B). The ketolides telithromycin and ABT-773 demonstrated excellent activity against both mef(A) (MIC for 90% of strains [MIC90], 0.06 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively) and erm(B) (MIC90, 0.06 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively) strains of S. pneumoniae.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.7.2147-2150.2001
PMCID: PMC90618  PMID: 11408241
4.  Genomic Analyses of DNA Transformation and Penicillin Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae Clinical Isolates 
Alterations in penicillin-binding proteins, the target enzymes for β-lactam antibiotics, are recognized as primary penicillin resistance mechanisms in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Few studies have analyzed penicillin resistance at the genome scale, however, and we report the sequencing of S. pneumoniae R6 transformants generated while reconstructing the penicillin resistance phenotypes from three penicillin-resistant clinical isolates by serial genome transformation. The genome sequences of the three last-level transformants T2-18209, T5-1983, and T3-55938 revealed that 16.2 kb, 82.7kb, and 137.2 kb of their genomes had been replaced with 5, 20, and 37 recombinant sequence segments derived from their respective parental clinical isolates, documenting the extent of DNA transformation between strains. A role in penicillin resistance was confirmed for some of the mutations identified in the transformants. Several multiple recombination events were also found to have happened at single loci coding for penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that increase resistance. Sequencing of the transformants with MICs for penicillin similar to those of the parent clinical strains confirmed the importance of mosaic PBP2x, -2b, and -1a as a driving force in penicillin resistance. A role in resistance for mosaic PBP2a was also observed for two of the resistant clinical isolates.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01311-13
PMCID: PMC3957846  PMID: 24342643
5.  In Vitro Activity of Fosfomycin against Escherichia coli Isolated from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in Canada as Part of the CANWARD Surveillance Study 
We tested 868 urinary isolates of Escherichia coli collected from 2010 to 2013 as part of the Canadian national surveillance study CANWARD against fosfomycin by using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) agar dilution method with MIC interpretation in accordance with the CLSI M100-S23 (2013) criteria. The concentrations of fosfomycin inhibiting 50 and 90% of the isolates were ≤1 and 4 μg/ml; 99.4% of the isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02399-13
PMCID: PMC3910835  PMID: 24323476
6.  In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline-Avibactam against Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Pathogens Isolated from Patients in Canadian Hospitals from 2010 to 2012: Results from the CANWARD Surveillance Study 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2013;57(11):5600-5611.
The in vitro activities of ceftaroline-avibactam, ceftaroline, and comparative agents were determined for a collection of bacterial pathogens frequently isolated from patients seeking care at 15 Canadian hospitals from January 2010 to December 2012. In total, 9,758 isolates were tested by using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method (document M07-A9, 2012), with MICs interpreted by using CLSI breakpoints (document M100-S23, 2013). Ceftaroline-avibactam demonstrated potent activity (MIC90, ≤0.5 μg/ml) against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Haemophilus influenzae; >99% of isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, P. mirabilis, M. morganii, C. freundii, and H. influenzae were susceptible to ceftaroline-avibactam according to CLSI MIC interpretative criteria for ceftaroline. Ceftaroline was less active than ceftaroline-avibactam against all species of Enterobacteriaceae tested, with rates of susceptibility ranging from 93.9% (P. mirabilis) to 54.0% (S. marcescens). All isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) and 99.6% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 1 μg/ml) were susceptible to ceftaroline; the addition of avibactam to ceftaroline did not alter its activity against staphylococci or streptococci. All isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90, 0.03 μg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90, ≤0.03 μg/ml), and Streptococcus agalactiae (MIC90, 0.015 μg/ml) tested were susceptible to ceftaroline. We conclude that combining avibactam with ceftaroline expanded its spectrum of activity to include most isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, while maintaining potent activity against staphylococci and streptococci.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01485-13
PMCID: PMC3811279  PMID: 23979759
7.  Genomic Characterization of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in a Laboratory-Derived Mutant and a Clinical Isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2013;57(10):4911-4919.
The broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is a bactericidal antibiotic targeting DNA topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase encoded by the parC and gyrA genes. Resistance to ciprofloxacin in Streptococcus pneumoniae mainly occurs through the acquisition of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the ParC and GyrA targets. A role in low-level ciprofloxacin resistance has also been attributed to efflux systems. To look into ciprofloxacin resistance at a genome-wide scale and to discover additional mutations implicated in resistance, we performed whole-genome sequencing of an S. pneumoniae isolate selected for resistance to ciprofloxacin in vitro (128 μg/ml) and of a clinical isolate displaying low-level ciprofloxacin resistance (2 μg/ml). Gene disruption and DNA transformation experiments with PCR fragments harboring the mutations identified in the in vitro S. pneumoniae mutant revealed that resistance is mainly due to QRDR mutations in parC and gyrA and to the overexpression of the ABC transporters PatA and PatB. In contrast, no QRDR mutations were identified in the genome of the S. pneumoniae clinical isolate with low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Assays performed in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor reserpine suggested that resistance is likely mediated by efflux. Interestingly, the genome sequence of this clinical isolate also revealed mutations in the coding region of patA and patB that we implicated in resistance. Finally, a mutation in the NAD(P)H-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase identified in the S. pneumoniae clinical strain was shown to protect against ciprofloxacin-mediated reactive oxygen species.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00418-13
PMCID: PMC3811476  PMID: 23877698
8.  Mature Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Prevail Compared to Young Biofilms in the Presence of Ceftazidime 
Phenotypic tolerances to antibiotics of mature and young Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms and released planktonic bacteria were compared for four antibiotics. Resistance levels were similar for gentamicin and ciprofloxacin but differed for ceftazidime and meropenem. β-Lactamase mapping showed that, after 5 h of ceftazidime exposure, mature biofilms produced more β-lactamase than young biofilms, facilitating the growth of released planktonic bacteria. This shows the importance of early treatment and choice of antibiotics for P. aeruginosa biofilm infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00650-12
PMCID: PMC3421884  PMID: 22777043
9.  Cationic Amphiphiles, a New Generation of Antimicrobials Inspired by the Natural Antimicrobial Peptide Scaffold▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2010;54(10):4049-4058.
Naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their mimics form a diverse class of antibacterial agents currently validated in preclinical and clinical settings for the treatment of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Numerous studies with linear, cyclic, and diastereomeric AMPs have strongly supported the hypothesis that their physicochemical properties, rather than any specific amino acid sequence, are responsible for their microbiological activities. It is generally believed that the amphiphilic topology is essential for insertion into and disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane. In particular, the ability to rapidly kill bacteria and the relative difficulty with which bacteria develop resistance make AMPs and their mimics attractive targets for drug development. However, the therapeutic use of naturally occurring AMPs is hampered by the high manufacturing costs, poor pharmacokinetic properties, and low bacteriological efficacy in animal models. In order to overcome these problems, a variety of novel and structurally diverse cationic amphiphiles that mimic the amphiphilic topology of AMPs have recently appeared. Many of these compounds exhibit superior pharmacokinetic properties and reduced in vitro toxicity while retaining potent antibacterial activity against resistant and nonresistant bacteria. In summary, cationic amphiphiles promise to provide a new and rich source of diverse antibacterial lead structures in the years to come.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00530-10
PMCID: PMC2944624  PMID: 20696877
10.  Molecular Epidemiology of Penicillin-Resistant and Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada 
Eighty-nine penicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were evaluated by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although penicillin-resistant isolates demonstrated considerable homogeneity, resistance to ciprofloxacin did not correlate with a reduction in genotypic variability. These results suggest that, unlike that of penicillin resistance, the spread of S. pneumoniae ciprofloxacin resistance in Canada is currently not attributable to clonal dissemination.
doi:10.1128/AAC.47.2.804-808.2003
PMCID: PMC151757  PMID: 12543698
11.  Influence of Human Serum on Antifungal Pharmacodynamics with Candida albicans 
Antifungal susceptibilities (NCCLS, approved standard M27-A, 1997) were determined for the reference strain ATCC 90028 and 21 clinical isolates of Candida albicans with varying levels of fluconazole susceptibility using RPMI 1640 (RPMI) and 80% fresh human serum–20% RPMI (serum). Sixty-four percent (14 of 22) of the isolates tested demonstrated significant decreases (≥4-fold) in fluconazole MICs in the presence of serum, and the remaining eight isolates exhibited no change. Itraconazole and ketoconazole, two highly protein-bound antifungal agents, had MICs in serum that were increased or unchanged for 46% (10 of 22) and 41% (9 of 22) of the isolates, respectively. All 10 isolates tested against an investigational antifungal agent, LY303366, demonstrated significant increases in the MIC required in serum, while differences in amphotericin B MICs in the two media were not observed. Four of 10 isolates tested demonstrated fourfold higher flucytosine MICs in serum than in RPMI. Postantifungal effects (PAFEs) and 24-h kill curves were determined by standard methods for selected isolates. At the MIC, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, flucytosine, and LY303366 kill curves and PAFEs in RPMI were similar to those in serum. Isolates of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans required lower MICs in serum than in RPMI, without relative increases in fungal killing or PAFEs. Isolates tested against amphotericin B demonstrated significantly reduced killing and shorter PAFEs in serum than in RPMI without observable changes in MIC. In conclusion, antifungal pharmacodynamics in RPMI did not consistently predict antifungal activity in serum for azoles and amphotericin B. Generally speaking, antifungal agents with high protein binding exhibited some form of reduced activity (MIC, killing, or PAFE) in the presence of serum compared to those with low protein binding.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.7.2018-2022.2001
PMCID: PMC90594  PMID: 11408217
12.  Nitrofurantoin Is Active against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci 
The activity of nitrofurantoin was tested against 300 isolates of Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus gallinarum. No isolates tested were resistant to nitrofurantoin (MIC, ≥128 μg/ml), including vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates with vanA- and vanB-positive genotypes and vancomycin-resistant E. gallinarum isolates. We conclude that nitrofurantoin may provide effective treatment of urinary tract infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.1.324-326.2001
PMCID: PMC90284  PMID: 11120989
14.  Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Respiratory Tract Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Results of a Canadian National Surveillance Study 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(10):2504-2509.
From October 1997 to November 1998, 1,180 respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected from 18 medical centers in 9 of the 10 Canadian provinces. Penicillin-intermediate and -resistant isolates occurred at rates of 14.8 and 6.4%, respectively, and these rates varied considerably by geographic region. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and macrolide rates of nonsusceptibility were 12.2, 10.6, and 8.0 to 9.3%, respectively. The most potent agents studied were newer fluoroquinolones.
PMCID: PMC89508  PMID: 10508032
15.  In Vitro Susceptibilities of Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates from Blood Cultures of Neutropenic Patients 
Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans and intrinsically fluconazole-resistant Candida species have been reported as bloodstream isolates. However, an association between the isolation of fluconazole-resistant Candida from the bloodstream and patient risk factors for fungemia has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of fluconazole resistance in bloodstream isolates of Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans collected from patients with neutropenia, one of the most important risk factors for fungemia. MICs of voriconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine were determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-A method (1997). Voriconazole, on a per-weight basis, was the most active azole tested. Fluconazole resistance (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml) was not identified in any of the C. albicans (n = 513), Candida parapsilosis (n = 78), Candida tropicalis (n = 62), or C. neoformans (n = 38) isolates tested.
PMCID: PMC89297  PMID: 10348771
16.  Susceptibilities of Candida Species Isolated from the Lower Gastrointestinal Tracts of High-Risk Patients to the New Semisynthetic Echinocandin LY303366 and Other Antifungal Agents 
Fifty-two percent of stool specimens collected from 1,200 high-risk patients were colonized with yeasts, primarily Candida albicans (53.6%) and Candida glabrata (35.7%). Susceptibilities to all antifungal agents tested, including LY303366, were similar to those reported previously for Candida species isolated from blood.
PMCID: PMC105852  PMID: 9736582
17.  Influence of Human Serum on Pharmacodynamic Properties of an Investigational Glycopeptide, LY333328, and Comparator Agents against Staphylococcus aureus 
The MICs and MBCs of 15 antibiotics for two strains of Staphylococcus aureus were determined in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and 90% serum–10% MHB. Subsequent experiments established that highly protein-bound antibiotics (≥80%), such as LY333328, demonstrated higher MICs and MBCs, less killing over an 8-h interval, and shorter postantibiotic effects in 90% serum–10% MHB than in MHB alone. Albumin was demonstrated to be almost solely responsible for changes in the aforementioned pharmacodynamic parameters of LY333328.
PMCID: PMC105846  PMID: 9736576
18.  Comparison of CO2 Generation (BACTEC) and Viable-Count Methods To Determine the Postantibiotic Effect of Antimycobacterial Agents against Mycobacterium avium Complex 
The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of antimycobacterial agents determined with a BACTEC TB-460 instrument (CO2 production) and by a traditional viable-count method against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The longest PAEs following a 2-h exposure to 2× the MIC were induced by amikacin (10.3 h), rifampin (9.7 h), and rifabutin (9.5 h), while the shortest PAEs resulted from clofazimine (1.7 h) and ethambutol (1.1 h) exposure. CO2 generation is a valid and efficient means of determining in vitro PAEs against MAC.
PMCID: PMC105479  PMID: 9449284
19.  Antimicrobial Resistance in Urinary Tract Pathogens in Canada from 2007 to 2009: CANWARD Surveillance Study ▿ 
From January 2007 to December 2009, an annual Canadian national surveillance study (CANWARD) tested 2,943 urinary culture pathogens for antimicrobial susceptibilities according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The most frequently isolated urinary pathogens were as follows (number of isolates, percentage of all isolates): Escherichia coli (1,581, 54%), enterococci (410, 14%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (274, 9%), Proteus mirabilis (122, 4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100, 3%), and Staphylococcus aureus (80, 3%). The rates of susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) were 78, 86, 84, and 93%, respectively, for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and S. aureus. The rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin were 96, 97, 33, and 100%, respectively, for E. coli, enterococci, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus. The rates of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were 81, 40, 86, 81, 66, and 41%, respectively, for E. coli, enterococci, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. Statistical analysis of resistance rates (resistant plus intermediate isolates) by year for E. coli over the 3-year study period demonstrated that increased resistance rates occurred only for amoxicillin-clavulanate (from 1.8 to 6.6%; P < 0.001) and for SXT (from 18.6 to 24.3%; P = 0.02). For isolates of E. coli, in a multivariate logistic regression model, hospital location was independently associated with resistance to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.026) with higher rates of resistance observed in inpatient areas (medical, surgical, and intensive care unit wards). Increased age was also associated with resistance to ciprofloxacin (P < 0.001) and with resistance to two or more commonly prescribed oral agents (amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and SXT) (P = 0.005). We conclude that frequently prescribed empirical agents for urinary tract infections, such as SXT and ciprofloxacin, demonstrate lowered in vitro susceptibilities when tested against recent clinical isolates.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00066-11
PMCID: PMC3122429  PMID: 21537027
20.  In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogens Isolated from Patients in Canadian Hospitals in 2009▿ 
The in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparative agents were determined for a collection of the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogens from hospital-associated patients across Canada in 2009 as part of the ongoing CANWARD surveillance study. In total, 4,546 isolates from 15 sentinel Canadian hospital laboratories were tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. Compared with other cephalosporins, including ceftobiprole, cefepime, and ceftriaxone, ceftaroline exhibited the greatest potency against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), with a MIC90 of 0.25 μg/ml. Ceftaroline also demonstrated greater potency than ceftobiprole against community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) and health care-associated MRSA (MIC90, 1 μg/ml) and was at least 4-fold more active than other cephalosporins against Staphylococcus epidermidis; all isolates of MSSA and MRSA tested were susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC, ≤1 μg/ml). Against streptococci, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, ceftaroline MICs (MIC90, ≤0.03 μg/ml) were comparable to those of ceftobiprole; however, against penicillin-nonsusceptible, macrolide-nonsusceptible, and multidrug-nonsusceptible isolates of S. pneumoniae, ceftaroline demonstrated 2- to 4-fold and 4- to 16-fold more potent activities than those of ceftobiprole and ceftriaxone, respectively. All isolates of S. pneumoniae tested were susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC, ≤0.25 μg/ml). Among Gram-negative isolates, ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity (MIC90, ≤0.5 μg/ml) against Escherichia coli (92.2% of isolates were susceptible), Klebsiella pneumoniae (94.1% of isolates were susceptible), Proteus mirabilis (97.7% of isolates were susceptible), and Haemophilus influenzae (100% of isolates were susceptible). Ceftaroline demonstrated less potent activity (MIC90, ≥4 μg/ml) against Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Overall, ceftaroline demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a recent collection of the most frequently encountered Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates from patients attending hospitals across Canada in 2009.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01787-10
PMCID: PMC3101400  PMID: 21402844
21.  Cadaverine Suppresses Persistence to Carboxypenicillins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2010;54(12):5173-5179.
The refractory nature of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections is due in part to the presence of specialized cells, termed persisters, within the population. To identify genes involved in P. aeruginosa persister formation, a PAO1 transposon (Tn) library was challenged en masse with 1,000 μg/ml of carbenicillin and was enriched for mutants that were able to survive in the presence of this antibiotic. For one mutant that was further characterized, the carbenicillin MIC was equal to that of PAO1, but persister formation exhibited a 20-fold increase after exposure to the antibiotic. Sequence analysis revealed that the Tn had inserted into PA4115, a gene encoding a putative lysine decarboxylase. A PA4115 mutant that produced 48-fold and 20-fold more survivors than PAO1 after 10-h exposures to carbenicillin and ticarcillin, respectively, was generated by allelic exchange. Furthermore, the rate of carboxypenicillin-induced lysis was reduced in the PA4115 mutant. Under certain pH conditions, lysine decarboxylase converts lysine to cadaverine. By measuring cadaverine production, we discovered that the PA4115 mutant had significantly reduced lysine decarboxylase activity. To determine if reduced cadaverine levels are responsible for the increase in carbenicillin and ticarcillin persistence, viability and lysis assays were performed in the presence of exogenous cadaverine. Cadaverine increased the rate of killing and lysis of the PA4115 mutant in the presence of both antibiotics. These findings suggest that cadaverine may be able to enhance the effectiveness of carboxypenicillins against P. aeruginosa by reducing persister formation.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01751-09
PMCID: PMC2981224  PMID: 20855735
22.  Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Pathogens in Canadian Hospitals: Results of the Canadian Ward Surveillance Study (CANWARD 2008) ▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2010;54(11):4684-4693.
A total of 5,282 bacterial isolates obtained between 1 January and 31 December 31 2008, inclusive, from patients in 10 hospitals across Canada as part of the Canadian Ward Surveillance Study (CANWARD 2008) underwent susceptibility testing. The 10 most common organisms, representing 78.8% of all clinical specimens, were as follows: Escherichia coli (21.4%), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; 13.9%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.0%), coagulase-negative staphylococci/Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.4%), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; 5.1%), Haemophilus influenzae (4.1%), Enterococcus spp. (3.3%), Enterobacter cloacae (2.2%). MRSA comprised 27.0% (272/1,007) of all S. aureus isolates (genotypically, 68.8% of MRSA were health care associated [HA-MRSA] and 27.6% were community associated [CA-MRSA]). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli occurred in 4.9% of E. coli isolates. The CTX-M type was the predominant ESBL, with CTX-M-15 the most prevalent genotype. MRSA demonstrated no resistance to ceftobiprole, daptomycin, linezolid, telavancin, tigecycline, or vancomycin (0.4% intermediate intermediate resistance). E. coli demonstrated no resistance to ertapenem, meropenem, or tigecycline. Resistance rates with P. aeruginosa were as follows: colistin (polymyxin E), 0.8%; amikacin, 3.5%; cefepime, 7.2%; gentamicin, 12.3%; fluoroquinolones, 19.0 to 24.1%; meropenem, 5.6%; piperacillin-tazobactam, 8.0%. A multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype occurred frequently in P. aeruginosa (5.9%) but uncommonly in E. coli (1.2%) and K. pneumoniae (0.9%). In conclusion, E. coli, S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA), P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and Enterococcus spp. are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Canadian hospitals. The prevalence of MRSA was 27.0% (of which genotypically 27.6% were CA-MRSA), while ESBL-producing E. coli occurred in 4.9% of isolates. An MDR phenotype was common in P. aeruginosa.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00469-10
PMCID: PMC2976152  PMID: 20805395
23.  In Vitro Activity of Nemonoxacin, a Novel Nonfluorinated Quinolone, against 2,440 Clinical Isolates▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(11):4915-4920.
The in vitro activity of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, was tested against 2,440 clinical isolates. Nemonoxacin was at least fourfold more active than levofloxacin and moxifloxacin against most gram-positive cocci tested (shown by the following MIC90/range [μg/ml] values; community-associated methicillin [meticillin]-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 0.5/0.015 to 2; Staphylococcus epidermidis, 0.5/0.015 to 4 for methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and 2/0.12 to 2 for methicillin-resistant staphylococci; Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015/≤0.008 to 0.25; Enterococcus faecalis, 1/0.03 to 128). Nemonoxacin activity against gram-negative bacilli was similar to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin (MIC90/range [μg/ml]; Escherichia coli, 32/≤0.015 to ≥512; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2/≤0.015 to 128; K. oxytoca, 0.5/0.06 to 1; Proteus mirabilis, 16/0.25 to ≥512; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 32/≤0.015 to ≥512; Acinetobacter baumannii, 1/0.12 to 16).
doi:10.1128/AAC.00078-09
PMCID: PMC2772340  PMID: 19738018
24.  AFN-1252, a FabI Inhibitor, Demonstrates a Staphylococcus-Specific Spectrum of Activity▿  
AFN-1252, a potent inhibitor of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI), inhibited all clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n = 502) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 51) tested, including methicillin (meticillin)-resistant isolates, at concentrations of ≤0.12 μg/ml. In contrast, AFN-1252 was inactive (MIC90, >4 μg/ml) against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli, and Moraxella catarrhalis. These data support the continued development of AFN-1252 for the treatment of patients with resistant staphylococcal infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00400-09
PMCID: PMC2715641  PMID: 19487444
25.  Epidemic Clonal Groups of Escherichia coli as a Cause of Antimicrobial-Resistant Urinary Tract Infections in Canada, 2002 to 2004▿  
The extent to which clonal spread contributes to emerging antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli is incompletely defined. To address this question within a recent, nationally representative strain collection, three established drug-resistant E. coli clonal groups (i.e., clonal group A, E. coli O15:K52:H1, and sequence type 131 [ST131]) were sought among 199 E. coli urine isolates recovered from across Canada from 2002 to 2004, with stratification by resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) and fluoroquinolones (FQs). The isolates' clonal backgrounds, virulence genotypes, and macrorestriction profiles were assessed. The three clonal groups were found to account for 37.2% of isolates overall, but accounted for 0% of TS-susceptible (TS-S) and FQ-susceptible (FQ-S) isolates, 20% of TS-resistant (TS-R) and FQ-S isolates, 60% of TS-S and FQ-R isolates, and 68% of TS-R and FQ-R isolates (P < 0.001). E. coli ST131, the most prevalent clonal group, accounted for 23.1% of isolates overall and for 44% of the FQ-R isolates. Nearly all ST131 isolates were FQ-R (96%) but, notably, cephalosporin susceptible (98%). Although the distinctive virulence profiles of the FQ-R clonal group isolates were less extensive than those of the susceptible isolates, they were significantly more extensive than those of the other FQ-R isolates. These findings indicate that among the E. coli urine isolates studied, resistance to TS and FQs has a prominent clonal component, with the O15:K52:H1 clonal group and especially E. coli ST131 being the major contributors. These clonal groups appear to be more virulent than comparably resistant isolates, possibly contributing to their success as emerging multi-drug-resistant pathogens.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00297-09
PMCID: PMC2704706  PMID: 19398649

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