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1.  Longitudinal Assessment of Antipneumococcal Susceptibility in the United States 
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 4,940 U.S. pneumococcal isolates collected during 1999 was as follows: penicillin, 16.2%; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 12.2%; cefuroxime, 28.1%; ceftriaxone, 3.6%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 30.3%; azithromycin, 21.4%; levofloxacin, 0.6%; and moxifloxacin, 0.1%. Compared to the previous 1997-1998 study (Jones et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:2645-2652, 2000), increases were noted for resistance to penicillin (3.7%; P < 0.001), amoxicillin-clavulanate (3.9%; P < 0.001), cefuroxime (5.7%; P < 0.001), azithromycin (2.4%; P = 0.014), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (15.4%; P < 0.001), and levofloxacin (0.3%; P = 0.017). Resistance to ceftriaxone (0.1%; P = 0.809) and moxifloxacin (0.03%; P = 0.570) decreased. Concurrently, multidrug resistance increased (P < 0.001) from 6.3% to 11.3%.
PMCID: PMC127351  PMID: 12121949
2.  Levofloxacin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: Second Look 
PMCID: PMC90629  PMID: 11441827
4.  Analysis of Ciprofloxacin Activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae after 10 Years of Use in the United States 
As the most commonly used fluoroquinolone in the United States since 1987, ciprofloxacin has exerted the greatest selective pressure on S. pneumoniae and provides a valuable marker to evaluate the actual and potential emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in this species. Analysis of susceptibility results obtained with 5,640 strains collected from throughout the United States showed that only 16 (0.3%) of the isolates demonstrated MICs of ≥4 μg/ml. The prevalence of this phenotype was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among penicillin-resistant populations, among isolates from patients >64 years old, and among respiratory isolates. However, >99% of strains had MICs of <4 μg/ml regardless of the risk group examined, and the MIC population distributions were the same for each risk group. These findings demonstrate that the phenotype of a MIC of ≥4 μg/ml remains uncommon after 10 years of ciprofloxacin use; however, these findings are no reason to become complacent with regard to appropriate use of fluoroquinolones and the need to carefully track resistance trends. Equally important is careful analysis of data that result from surveillance in terms of risk factors and other associated trends so that resistance and susceptibility, and their consequences, are neither over- nor underestimated.
PMCID: PMC90096  PMID: 10952606
5.  Prevalence of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE Mutations in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with Decreased Susceptibilities to Different Fluoroquinolones and Originating from Worldwide Surveillance Studies during the 1997-1998 Respiratory Season 
From 8,419 worldwide clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained during 1997-1998, 69 isolates with reduced susceptibility or resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQs) were molecularly characterized. For the isolates in this prevalence study, only parC (Ser-79→Tyr) and gyrA (Ser-81→Phe or Tyr) mutations, especially in combination, were found to contribute significantly to resistance. These mutations influenced the FQ MICs to varying degrees, although the rank order of activity remains independent of mutation type, with ciprofloxacin the least active, followed by levofloxacin, gatifloxacin/grepafloxacin/moxifloxacin/sparfloxacin/trovafloxacin, and clinafloxacin/sitafloxacin. Efflux likely plays a crucial role in reduced susceptibility for new hydrophilic FQs.
PMCID: PMC89708  PMID: 10639387
7.  In Vitro Activities of Novel Nonfluorinated Quinolones PGE 9262932 and PGE 9509924 against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae with Defined Mutations in DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV 
Two 8-methoxy nonfluorinated quinolones (NFQs), PGE 9262932 and PGE 9509924, were tested against contemporary clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n = 122) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 69) with genetically defined quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs). For S. aureus isolates with wild-type (WT) sequences at the QRDRs, the NFQs demonstrated activities 4- to 32-fold more potent (MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90s], 0.03 μg/ml) than those of moxifloxacin (MIC90, 0.12 μg/ml), gatifloxacin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml), levofloxacin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml), and ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 1 μg/ml). Against S. pneumoniae isolates with WT sequences at gyrA and parC, the NFQs PGE 9262932 (MIC90, 0.03 μg/ml) and PGE 9509924 (MIC90, 0.12 μg/ml) were 8- to 64-fold and 2- to 16-fold more potent, respectively, than moxifloxacin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml), gatifloxacin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), levofloxacin (MIC90, 2 μg/ml), and ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 2 μg/ml). The MICs of all agents were elevated for S. aureus isolates with alterations in GyrA (Glu88Lys or Ser84Leu) and GrlA (Ser80Phe) and S. pneumoniae isolates with alterations in GyrA (Ser81Phe or Ser81Tyr) and ParC (Ser79Phe or Lys137Asn). Fluoroquinolone MICs for S. aureus strains with double alterations in GyrA combined with double alterations in GrlA were ≥32 μg/ml, whereas the MICs of the NFQs for strains with these double alterations were 4 to 8 μg/ml. The PGE 9262932 and PGE 9509924 MICs for the S. pneumoniae isolates did not exceed 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively, even for isolates with GyrA (Ser81Phe) and ParC (Ser79Phe) alterations, for which levofloxacin MICs were >16 μg/ml. No difference in the frequency of selection of mutations (<10−8 at four times the MIC) in wild-type or first-step mutant isolates of S. aureus or S. pneumoniae was detected for the two NFQs. On the basis of their in vitro activities, these NFQ agents show potential for the treatment of infections caused by isolates resistant to currently available fluoroquinolones.
PMCID: PMC127266  PMID: 12019071
8.  Determining Linezolid’s Baseline In Vitro Activity in Canada Using Gram-Positive Clinical Isolates Collected prior to Its National Release 
All of the isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n = 317), Enterococcus species (n = 315), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 282), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 176) collected at 16 Canadian microbiology laboratories from October 2000 to April 2001 were susceptible to linezolid. Future studies will determine how linezolid clinical use in Canada affects its in vitro activity.
PMCID: PMC127260  PMID: 12019122
9.  Multidrug-Resistant Urinary Tract Isolates of Escherichia coli: Prevalence and Patient Demographics in the United States in 2000 
Concurrent resistance to antimicrobials of different structural classes has arisen in a multitude of bacterial species and may complicate the therapeutic management of infections, including those of the urinary tract. To assess the current breadth of multidrug resistance among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli, the most prevalent pathogen contributing to these infections, all pertinent results in The Surveillance Network Database—USA from 1 January to 30 September 2000 were analyzed. Results were available for 38,835 urinary isolates of E. coli that had been tested against ampicillin, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Of these isolates, 7.1% (2,763 of 38,835) were resistant to three or more agents and considered multidrug resistant. Among the multidrug-resistant isolates, 97.8% were resistant to ampicillin, 92.8% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 86.6% were resistant to cephalothin, 38.8% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 7.7% were resistant to nitrofurantoin. The predominant phenotype among multidrug-resistant isolates (57.9%; 1,600 of 2,793) included resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. This was the most common phenotype regardless of patient age, gender, or inpatient-outpatient status and in eight of the nine U.S. Bureau of the Census regions. Rates of multidrug resistance were demonstrated to be higher among males (10.4%) than females (6.6%), among patients >65 years of age (8.7%) than patients ≤17 (6.8%) and 18 to 65 (6.1%) years of age, and among inpatients (7.6%) than outpatients (6.9%). Regionally, the rates ranged from 4.3% in the West North Central region to 9.2% in the West South Central region. Given the current prevalence of multidrug resistance among urinary tract isolates of E. coli in the United States (7.1%), continued local, regional, and national surveillance is warranted.
PMCID: PMC90480  PMID: 11302802
10.  Need for Annual Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States: 2-Year Longitudinal Analysis 
Although changing patterns in antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae have prompted several surveillance initiatives in recent years, the frequency with which these studies are needed has not been addressed. To approach this issue, the extent to which resistance patterns change over a 1-year period was examined. In this study we analyzed S. pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility results produced in our laboratory with isolates obtained over 2 consecutive years (1997–1998 and 1998–1999) from the same 96 institutions distributed throughout the United States. Comparison of results revealed increases in resistant percentages for all antimicrobial agents studied except vancomycin. For four of the agents tested (penicillin, cefuroxime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin), the increases were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Resistance to the fluoroquinolone remained low in both years (0.1 and 0.6%, respectively); in contrast, resistance to macrolides was consistently greater than 20%, and resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased from 13.3 to 27.3%. Multidrug resistance, concurrent resistance to three or more antimicrobials of different chemical classes, also increased significantly between years, from 5.9 to 11%. The most prevalent phenotype was resistance to penicillin, azithromycin (representative macrolide), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Multidrug-resistant phenotypes that included fluoroquinolone resistance were uncommon; however, two phenotypes that included fluoroquinolone resistance not found in 1997–1998 were encountered in 1998–1999. This longitudinal surveillance study of resistance in S. pneumoniae revealed that significant changes do occur in just a single year and supports the need for surveillance at least on an annual basis, if not continuously.
PMCID: PMC90422  PMID: 11257013
11.  Evaluation of Current Activities of Fluoroquinolones against Gram-Negative Bacilli Using Centralized In Vitro Testing and Electronic Surveillance 
Given the propensity for Enterobacteriaceae and clinically significant nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli to acquire antimicrobial resistance, consistent surveillance of the activities of agents commonly prescribed to treat infections arising from these organisms is imperative. This study determined the activities of two fluoroquinolones, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and seven comparative agents against recent clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia using two surveillance strategies: 1) centralized in vitro susceptibility testing of isolates collected from 27 hospital laboratories across the United States and 2) analysis of data from The Surveillance Network Database-USA, an electronic surveillance network comprising more than 200 laboratories nationwide. Regardless of the surveillance method, Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii demonstrated similar rates of susceptibility to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones approached or exceeded 90% for all Enterobacteriaceae except Providencia spp. (≤65%). Approximately 70% of P. aeruginosa and 50% of A. baumanii isolates were susceptible to both fluoroquinolones. Among S. maltophilia isolates, 50% more isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin than to ciprofloxacin. Overall, the rate of ceftazidime nonsusceptibility among Enterobacteriaceae was 8.7%, with fluoroquinolone resistance rates notably higher among ceftazidime-nonsusceptible isolates than ceftazidime-susceptible ones. Multidrug-resistant isolates were present among all species tested but were most prevalent for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae. No gram-negative isolates resistant only to a fluoroquinolone were encountered, regardless of species. Thus, while levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have maintained potent activity against Enterobacteriaceae, the potential for fluoroquinolone resistance, the apparent association between fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin resistance, and the presence of multidrug resistance in every species examined emphasize the need to maintain active surveillance of resistance patterns among gram-negative bacilli.
PMCID: PMC90271  PMID: 11120976
12.  Benchmarking the In Vitro Activities of Moxifloxacin and Comparator Agents against Recent Respiratory Isolates from 377 Medical Centers throughout the United States 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(10):2645-2652.
To benchmark the activity of moxifloxacin (a newer fluoroquinolone), a U.S. study comprising 16,141 contemporary isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (5,640), Haemophilus influenzae (6,583), and Moraxella catarrhalis (3,648) referred from 377 institutions during 1998 is described. For S. pneumoniae the modal MIC and MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC90) for moxifloxacin were 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively, independent of susceptibility to other drug classes, geography, or site of infection. Eleven isolates were intermediate or resistant to levofloxacin and grepafloxacin; of these isolates, 1 remained susceptible to sparfloxacin, 2 remained susceptible to moxifloxacin, and 4 remained susceptible to trovafloxacin. All 11 isolates possessed classic mutations in gyrA and/or parC known to confer reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Four isolates (originating from four separate states) belonging to a multidrug-resistant, fluoroquinolone-resistant clone were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. For moxifloxacin and trovafloxacin, at least 87% of isolates demonstrated MICs ≥3 twofold concentrations below the susceptibility breakpoints, in contrast to no more than 15% for levofloxacin, grepafloxacin, and sparfloxacin. Of the isolates that were multidrug resistant (7.4%), >98% remained susceptible to moxifloxacin. The modal MIC and MIC90 for M. catarrhalis (both 0.06 μg/ml) and for H. influenzae (both 0.03 μg/ml) were independent of β-lactamase production. These data demonstrate the in vitro activity of moxifloxacin and establish a baseline for future studies.
PMCID: PMC90129  PMID: 10991838
13.  In Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Pexiganan, an Analog of Magainin 
Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 μg/ml or less for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas spp., certain species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium spp. Comparison of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of pexiganan for 143 isolates representing 32 species demonstrated that for 92% of the isolates tested, MBCs were the same or within 1 twofold difference of the MICs, consistent with a bactericidal mechanism of action. Killing curve analysis showed that pexiganan killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa rapidly, with 106 organisms/ml eliminated within 20 min of treatment with 16 μg of pexiganan per ml. No evidence of cross-resistance to a number of other antibiotic classes was observed, as determined by the equivalence of the MIC50s and the MIC90s of pexiganan for strains resistant to oxacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and clindamicin versus those for strains susceptible to these antimicrobial agents. Attempts to generate resistance in several bacterial species through repeated passage with subinhibitory concentrations of pexiganan were unsuccessful. In conclusion, pexiganan exhibits properties in vitro which make it an attractive candidate for development as a topical antimicrobial agent.
PMCID: PMC89207  PMID: 10103181
14.  Comparative Surveillance Study of Telavancin Activity against Recently Collected Gram-Positive Clinical Isolates from across the United States ▿  
Telavancin is an investigational, rapidly bactericidal lipoglycopeptide antibiotic that is being developed to treat serious infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. A baseline prospective surveillance study was conducted to assess telavancin activity, in comparison with other agents, against contemporary clinical isolates collected from 2004 to 2005 from across the United States. Nearly 4,000 isolates were collected, including staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci (pneumococci, beta-hemolytic, and viridans). Telavancin had potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (MIC range, 0.03 to 1.0 μg/ml), independent of resistance to methicillin or to multiple agents. Telavancin activity was particularly potent against all streptococcal groups (MIC90s, 0.03 to 0.12 μg/ml). Telavancin had excellent activity against vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (MIC90, 1 μg/ml) and was active against VanB strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (MIC90, 2 μg/ml) but less active against VanA strains (MIC90, 8 to 16 μg/ml). Telavancin also demonstrated activity against vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus strains (MICs, 0.5 μg/ml to 1.0 μg/ml and 1.0 μg/ml to 4.0 μg/ml, respectively). These data may support the efficacy of telavancin for treatment of serious infections with a wide range of gram-positive organisms.
PMCID: PMC2443890  PMID: 18443115
15.  Factors Associated with Relative Rates of Antibiotic Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Tested in Clinical Laboratories in the United States from 1999 to 2002 
For the period from 1999 to 2002 in the United States, the in vitro susceptibilities of 52,637 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to 10 antimicrobial agents were evaluated. The isolates were from 29 laboratories, 11 of which participated in The Surveillance Network for four consecutive years. Isolates were collected from adult patients (≥18 years of age) in intensive care units (ICU), non-ICU inpatients, nursing home patients, and outpatients; data were analyzed to evaluate factors, such as year of isolation, patient age group, isolate specimen source, and patient type (hospitalized patients [ICU, non-ICU, or nursing home] or outpatients). Rates of resistance for the 4-year period were highest for isolates from patients in ICU and 18- to 39-year-old patients and for isolates from the lower respiratory tract. Resistance decreased with age. Resistance was lowest in isolates from outpatients, in isolates from ≥70-year-old patients, and from specimens from the upper respiratory tract. Multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance to three or more antimicrobial agents) accounted for 24.9% of all isolates. The MDR rate was highest in isolates from patients in nursing homes (29.9%) and ICU (29.5%).
PMCID: PMC434174  PMID: 15215091
16.  In Vitro Susceptibilities of Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Hospitalized Patients in Four European Countries, Canada, and the United States in 2000-2001 to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins and Comparator Antimicrobials: Implications for Therapy 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2003;47(10):3089-3098.
Access to current antimicrobial agent surveillance data is an important prerequisite for the optimal management of patients with hospital-acquired infections. The present study used data collected in 2000 to 2001 from 670 laboratories in Europe (France, Germany, Italy, and Spain), Canada, and the United States to report on the in vitro activities of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and comparative agents against >125,000 isolates of gram-negative bacteria from hospitalized patients. All but two isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (one isolate of Proteus mirabilis from France and one isolate of Morganella morganii from Canada) were susceptible to imipenem. The susceptibility of Escherichia coli to ceftriaxone or cefotaxime was ≥97% in each country, and for P. mirabilis, susceptibility was 99% in each country except Italy. In contrast, susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin varied from 80.5% (Spain) to 94.0% (France); levofloxacin susceptibility ranged from 75.2% (Spain) to 91.6% (United States). Among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime susceptibilities ranged from 86.6 to 98.7% and 83.5 to 99.7%, respectively, depending upon the country. Considerable geographic variation in the susceptibilities (generally 85 to 95% susceptible) of Serratia marcescens and M. morganii to ceftriaxone and cefotaxime were observed. For S. marcescens, susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam varied from 81.5% (France) to 94.1% (Italy) and susceptibility to ciprofloxacin ranged from 66.2% (Germany) to 90.7% (Spain). Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes were less susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefotaxime than were the other species of Enterobacteriaceae studied. The present study demonstrated that established parenteral expanded-spectrum cephalosporin antimicrobial agents retain significant in vitro activity against many clinically important gram-negative pathogens.
PMCID: PMC201113  PMID: 14506014
17.  Susceptibilities to Levofloxacin in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis Clinical Isolates from Children: Results from 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 TRUST Studies in the United States 
Among respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children, resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) increases on an annual basis. Pediatric patients who do not respond to conventional therapy for respiratory tract infections someday may be treated with fluoroquinolones. In this study, MICs of β-lactams, azithromycin, SXT, and levofloxacin were determined and interpreted by using NCCLS guidelines for isolates of S. pneumoniae (2,834 from children and 10,966 from adults), Haemophilus influenzae (629 from children and 2,281 from adults), and Moraxella catarrhalis (389 from children and 1,357 from adults) collected during the 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 respiratory illness seasons in the United States as part of the ongoing TRUST surveillance studies. Rates of resistance to penicillin, azithromycin, and SXT were ≥7.5% higher among patients ≤4 years old than among patients 5 to 10, 11 to 17, and ≥18 years old in both the 2000-2001 and the 2001-2002 respiratory illness seasons. Levofloxacin resistance was detected in 2 of 2,834 isolates (0.07%) from patients <18 years old. Levofloxacin MICs of 0.25 to 1 μg/ml accounted for 99.6, 99.5, 99.3, 99.7, 98.4, and 98.0% of isolates from patients <2, 2 to 4, 5 to 10, 11 to 17, 18 to 64, and >64 years old. Multidrug resistance was twice as common among patients ≤4 years old (25.3%) as among patients 5 to 10 years old (13.7%), 11 to 17 years old (11.9%), 18 to 64 years old (12.1%), and >64 years old (12.4%). The most common multidrug resistance phenotype in S. pneumoniae isolates for all age groups was resistance to penicillin, azithromycin, and SXT (70.3 to 76.6%). For H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates from patients <2, 2 to 4, 5 to 10, 11 to 17, 18 to 64, and >64 years old, levofloxacin MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited were 0.015 and 0.03 to 0.06 μg/ml, respectively, in the 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 respiratory illness seasons. In the 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 respiratory illness season surveillance studies in the United States, 99.9% of pediatric isolates of S. pneumoniae were susceptible to levofloxacin. If fluoroquinolones become a treatment option for pediatric patients, careful monitoring of fluoroquinolone susceptibilities will be increasingly important in future surveillance studies.
PMCID: PMC155851  PMID: 12760850
18.  Surveillance for Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii from Hospitalized Patients in the United States, 1998 to 2001 
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are the most prevalent nonfermentative bacterial species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients. A surveillance study of 65 laboratories in the United States from 1998 to 2001 found >90% of isolates of P. aeruginosa from hospitalized patients to be susceptible to amikacin and piperacillin-tazobactam; 80 to 90% of isolates to be susceptible to cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, and meropenem; and 70 to 80% of isolates to be susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, and ticarcillin-clavulanate. From 1998 to 2001, decreases in antimicrobial susceptibility (percents) among non-intensive-care-unit (non-ICU) inpatients and ICU patients, respectively, were greatest for ciprofloxacin (6.1 and 6.5), levofloxacin (6.6 and 3.5), and ceftazidime (4.8 and 3.3). Combined 1998 to 2001 results for A. baumannii isolated from non-ICU inpatients and ICU patients, respectively, demonstrated that >90% of isolates tested were susceptible to imipenem (96.5 and 96.6%) and meropenem (91.6 and 91.7%); fewer isolates from both non-ICU inpatients and ICU patients were susceptible to amikacin and ticarcillin-clavulanate (70 to 80% susceptible); and <60% of isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, or levofloxacin. From 1998 to 2001, rates of multidrug resistance (resistance to at least three of the drugs ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and imipenem) showed small increases among P. aeruginosa strains isolated from non-ICU inpatients (5.5 to 7.0%) and ICU patients (7.4 to 9.1%). From 1998 to 2001, rates of multidrug resistance among A. baumannii strains isolated from non-ICU inpatients (27.6 to 32.5%) and ICU patients (11.6 to 24.2%) were higher and more variable than those observed for P. aeruginosa. Isolates concurrently susceptible, intermediate, or resistant to both imipenem and meropenem accounted for 89.8 and 91.2% of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates, respectively, studied from 1998 to 2001. In conclusion, for aminoglycosides and most β-lactams susceptibility rates for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were constant or decreased only marginally (≤3%) from 1998 to 2001. Greater decreases in susceptibility rates were, however, observed for fluoroquinolones and ceftazidime among P. aeruginosa isolates.
PMCID: PMC153334  PMID: 12709340
19.  Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibilities among Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Hospitalized Patients in the United States from 1998 to 2001 
Longitudinal surveillance of Enterobacteriaceae for antimicrobial susceptibility is important because species of this family are among the most significant and prevalent human pathogens. To estimate rates of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility among hospitalized patients in the United States, data from The Surveillance Network were studied for 14 agents tested against 10 species of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 384,279) isolated from intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients and non-ICU inpatients from 1998 to 2001. Cumulative susceptibility (percent) data for all species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from ICU patients and non-ICU inpatients, respectively, were ranked as follows: ampicillin-sulbactam (45.5 and 57.2) ≪ ticarcillin-clavulanate (74.8 and 83.5) < trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (87.0 and 84.5) ≅ cefotaxime (82.9 and 92.6) = ceftazidime (82.3 and 91.0) = ceftriaxone (86.5 and 93.9) = piperacillin-tazobactam (83.5 and 90.5) < levofloxacin (89.3 and 90.6) = ciprofloxacin (91.0 and 91.7) < gentamicin (91.8 and 94.3) < cefepime (95.0 and 97.9) < amikacin (98.5 and 99.2) < imipenem (100 and 100) = meropenem (100 and 100). Of those agents studied only susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin (94 to 89%) and levofloxacin (93 to 89%) decreased in a stepwise manner from 1998 to 2001. Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility was most pronounced for Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterobacter cloacae. For all species of Enterobacteriaceae, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was more commonly observed in isolates with a single-drug resistance phenotype while gentamicin and fluoroquinolone resistances were more common in isolates resistant to at least one additional class of antimicrobial agent. Ongoing surveillance of Enterobacteriaceae will be particularly important to monitor changes in fluoroquinolone susceptibility, as well as changes in the prevalence of isolates resistant to multiple classes of antimicrobial agents.
PMCID: PMC153325  PMID: 12709339
20.  Baseline Study To Determine In Vitro Activities of Daptomycin against Gram-Positive Pathogens Isolated in the United States in 2000-2001 
The activity of daptomycin was assessed by using 6,973 gram-positive bacteria isolated at 50 United States hospitals in 2000 and 2001. Among the isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 1,163) collected, the rate of penicillin resistance was 16.1%; rates of oxacillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n = 1,018) and vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolates (n = 368) were 30.0 and 59.5%, respectively. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes (isolates resistant to three or more different chemical classes of antimicrobial agents) accounted for 14.2% of S. pneumoniae isolates, 27.1% of S. aureus isolates, and 58.4% of E. faecium isolates. For all gram-positive species tested, MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC90s) and MIC ranges for directed-spectrum agents (daptomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and linezolid) were identical or highly similar for isolates susceptible or resistant to other agents or MDR. Daptomycin had a MIC90 of 0.12 μg/ml for both penicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae. Against oxacillin-resistant S. aureus daptomycin had a MIC90 of 0.5 μg/ml, and it had a MIC90 of 4 μg/ml against both vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant E. faecium. The MIC90s for daptomycin and other directed-spectrum agents were unaffected by the regional or anatomical origin of isolates or patient demographic parameters (patient age, gender, and inpatient or outpatient care). Our results confirm the gram-positive spectrum of activity of daptomycin and that its activity is independent of susceptibility or resistance to commonly prescribed and tested antimicrobial agents. This study may serve as a baseline to monitor future changes in the susceptibility of gram-positive species to daptomycin following its introduction into clinical use.
PMCID: PMC153318  PMID: 12709341
22.  Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance among Urinary Tract Infection Isolates of Escherichia coli from Female Outpatients in the United States 
The Infectious Diseases Society of America advocates trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) as initial therapy for females with acute uncomplicated bacterial cystitis in settings where the prevalence of SXT resistance does not exceed 10 to 20%. To determine trends in the activities of SXT, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin among urine isolates of Escherichia coli from female outpatients, susceptibility testing data from The Surveillance Network (TSN) Database-USA (n = 286,187) from 1995 to 2001 were analyzed. Resistance rates among E. coli isolates to ampicillin (range, 36.0 to 37.4% per year), SXT (range, 14.8 to 17.0%), ciprofloxacin (range, 0.7 to 2.5%), and nitrofurantoin (range, 0.4 to 0.8%) varied only slightly over this 7-year period. Ciprofloxacin was the only agent studied that demonstrated a consistent stepwise increase in resistance from 1995 (0.7%) to 2001 (2.5%). In 2001, SXT resistance among E. coli isolates was >10% in all nine U.S. Bureau of the Census regions. At institutions testing ≥100 urinary isolates of E. coli (n = 126) in 2001, ampicillin (range, 27.3 to 98.8%) and SXT (range, 7.5 to 47.1%) resistance rates varied widely while ciprofloxacin (range, 0 to 12.9%) and nitrofurantoin (range, 0 to 2.8%) resistance rates were more consistent. In 2001, the most frequent coresistant phenotypes were resistance to ampicillin and SXT (12.0% of all isolates; 82.3% of coresistant isolates) and resistance to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and SXT (1.4% of all isolates; 9.9% of coresistant isolates). Coresistance less frequently included resistance to nitrofurantoin (3.5% of coresistant isolates) than resistance to ciprofloxacin (15.8%), SXT (95.7%), and ampicillin (98.1%). In conclusion, among urinary isolates of E. coli from female outpatients in the United States, national resistance rates to SXT were relatively consistent (14.8 to 17.0%) from 1995 to 2001 but demonstrated considerable regional and institutional variation in 2001. Therapies other than SXT may need to be considered in some locations.
PMCID: PMC127340  PMID: 12121930
23.  Activities of Faropenem, an Oral β-Lactam, against Recent U.S. Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis 
The in vitro activities of faropenem and other antimicrobial agents were determined against 4,725 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 2,614 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 1,193 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 273 U.S. laboratories during 1999. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.008, 0.25, and 1 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant S. pneumoniae strains, respectively; 0.5 and 1 μg/ml for β-lactamase-positive and -negative H. influenzae strains, respectively; and 0.12 and 0.5 μg/ml for β-lactamase-negative and -positive M. catarrhalis strains, respectively. Faropenem holds promise as an oral therapy for community-acquired respiratory tract infections.
PMCID: PMC127058  PMID: 11796376

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