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1.  In vitro pharmacodynamics of piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin alone and in combination against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 
The time-kill curve methodology was used to determine the pharmacodynamics of piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and the combinations piperacillin-ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam. Kill curve studies were performed for piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin-tazobactam at concentrations of 0.25 to 50 times the MICs for 13 strains of bacteria: four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, three Enterobacter cloacae, three Klebsiella pneumoniae, and three Staphylococcus aureus isolates (tazobactam concentrations of 0.5, 4, and 12 micrograms/ml). By using a sigmoid Emax model and nonlinear least squares regression, the 50% lethal concentrations and the maximum lethal rates of each agent were determined for each bacterial strain. For piperacillin-ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam, kill curve studies were performed with concentrations obtained by the fractional maximal effect method (R. C. Li, J. J. Schentag, and D. E. Nix, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:523-531, 1993) and from individual 50% lethal concentrations and maximum lethal rates. Ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam was evaluated only against the four P. aeruginosa strains. Interactions between piperacillin and ciprofloxacin were generally additive. At physiologically relevant concentrations of piperacillin and ciprofloxacin, ciprofloxacin had the highest rates of killing against K. pneumoniae. Piperacillin-tazobactam (12 micrograms/ml) had the highest rate of killing against E. cloacae. Piperacillin-ciprofloxacin with relatively higher ciprofloxacin concentrations had the greatest killing rates against S. aureus. This combination had significantly higher killing rates than piperacillin (P < 0.002). For all the bacterial strains tested, killing rates by ciprofloxacin were significantly higher than those by piperacillin-tazobactam (4 and 12 micrograms/ml had significantly higher killing rates than piperacillin alone (P < 0.02 and P < 0.004, respectively). The effect of the combination of piperacillin-ciprofloxacin, in which piperacillin concentrations were relatively higher, was not statistically different from that of piperacillin alone (p > or = 0.71). The combination of ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam achieved greater killing than other combinations or monotherapies against P. aeruginosa. The reduction in the initial inoculum was 1 to 4 logs greater with ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam at 4 and 12 micrograms/ml than with any other agent or combination of agents. On the basis of the additive effects prevalently demonstrated in the in vitro study, the combinations of piperacillin-ciprofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam are rational therapeutic options. Greater killing of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated with ciprofloxacin-piperacillin--tazobactam. Since treatment failure of P. aeruginosa pneumonia is a significant problem, clinical studies are warranted.
PMCID: PMC162813  PMID: 7486906
2.  Amikacin and gentamicin accumulation pharmacokinetics and nephrotoxicity in critically ill patients. 
Twenty-five critically ill adults receiving blood level-adjusted doses of amikacin were prospectively studied with serum, urine, and, when possible, tissue amikacin concentrations. These data were fitted to a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Prolonged urine collections or postmortem tissues (or both) were used to confirm predicted tissue accumulation. Nephrotoxicity was also investigated. Patients were defined as having renal damage if they showed an increase in serum creatinine of greater than 0.5 mg/100 ml, an increase in urine beta 2-microglobulin of greater than 50 mg/day, and presence of urinary casts of greater than 500/ml. Renal damage was attributed to amikacin if there was, in addition to the above, tissue accumulation of amikacin of greater than 600 mg. These patients were matched with 25 patients treated with gentamicin during the same time period. There were no statistical differences between the gentamicin- and amikacin-treated patients in age, sex, weight, base-line creatinine clearance, concurrent cephalosporins or diuretics, treatment duration, site of infection, normalized (amikacin/gentamicin dosing ratio of 3:1) total dose, mortality, or tissue accumulation. More amikacin-treated patients (19 of 25) than gentamicin-treated patients (9 of 25) received prior aminoglycosides (P less than 0.01). The only pharmacokinetic parameter that differed between amikacin and gentamicin was a greater K21 for gentamicin. Nephrotoxicity was observed in 4 gentamicin was a greater K21 for gentamicin. Nephrotoxicity was observed in 4 gentamicin-treated patients (16%) and 5 amikacin-treated patients (20%). At a 3:1 dosing ratio, there were no significant differences between amikacin and gentamicin two-compartment pharmacokinetics and nephrotoxic potential in matched critically ill patients, but the trend of these data showed greater amikacin tissue accumulation. However, at an amikacin/gentamicin dosing ratio of 4:1, their tissue accumulation potential appeared to be almost identical.
PMCID: PMC181374  PMID: 7247354
3.  Modeling the response of pneumonia to antimicrobial therapy. 
The response to antimicrobial therapy in patients with pneumonia was assessed by using a previously developed pneumonia scoring system. Patients from two different clinical trials were evaluated. The first group (n = 22) was treated with cefmenoxime. For these patients, doses were adjusted to achieve an area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) above the MIC of 140 microg x h/ml and pneumonia response scores were evaluated retrospectively. The second group (n = 21) were treated with either ciprofloxacin (CIP) or ceftazidime (TAZ) in a randomized clinical trial. Here, doses were adjusted to achieve AUC from 0 to 24 h/MIC values that were > 250 SIT(-1) x h (estimate of the area under the curve of inverse serum inhibitory titer versus time) and pneumonia response scoring was concurrent. In both studies eradication of the pathogen was determined by serial endotracheal cultures and clinical parameters were scored daily. A decrease in total score was indicative of an improving clinical condition. The percent change in clinical daily score was determined for each day of treatment. The rate of clinical response was determined by linear regression of the percent change in daily clinical score versus time during the course of antimicrobial therapy. Factors predictive of time to eradication were explored by interval analysis. Logistic regression was used to determine the earliest time point in therapy at which treatment scores predicted outcome. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis, and significance was accepted at P < 0.05. There were no differences in baseline scores at day one for the patients treated with different antibiotics (P = 0.58). For patients with pathogen eradication, a significant difference between the two studies in time to eradication was found: 4.8 days for cefmenoxime-treated patients and 1.4 days for CIP- or TAZ-treated patients (P < 0.001). For patients experiencing bacterial eradication, the rates of clinical change for cefmenoxime and CIP or TAZ treatment were similar (P = 0.77). For patients with organisms that were not eradicated, the rates of change were similar (P = 0.14). There was a significant difference in the rate of change for patients experiencing eradication compared with that for patients in which the organism persisted (P << 0.01). Both treatment group and rate were found to be predictive of days to eradication. There was a significant difference in the percent change in clinical score on day 3 of therapy for patients with bacteria that were eradicated versus those with persistent organisms (P < 0.01). The percent change was more predictive of outcome with each subsequent day. Patients who demonstrated a > or = 10% reduction in clinical score after 72 h of treatment had an 88% probability of bacterial eradication. The clinical scoring system is a useful tool for modeling the response of pneumonia to antimicrobial therapy. The ability to predict outcome relatively early in therapy, by using a scoring system of clinical parameters which can be routinely monitored, will aid in assessing the response to antimicrobial therapy in clinical as well as in research settings.
PMCID: PMC163898  PMID: 9174182
4.  Pharmacodynamic modeling of the in vivo interaction between cefotaxime and ofloxacin by using serum ultrafiltrate inhibitory titers. 
The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of cefotaxime and ofloxacin and of their combination were examined in a three-period randomized crossover study involving 12 healthy adults. The PK of cefotaxime and ofloxacin were modeled. PD was assessed from the predicted concentrations in serum and serum untrafiltrate inhibitory titers for 10 test organisms. An inhibitory sigmoid Emax model based on the probability of bacterial growth was used, where Emax = 1 and EC50 is the concentration resulting in a 50% probability of growth. The total body clearance (CL(T)) and volume of distribution at steady state (V(SS)) for cefotaxime were 0.236 liters/kg/h and 0.207 liters/kg, respectively, for the monotherapy and 0.231 liters/kg/h and 0.208 liters/kg for the combination therapy. Ofloxacin exhibited PK parameters of 0.143 liters/kg/h for CL(T) and 1.20 liters/kg for V(SS) following the monotherapy and of 0.141 liters/kg/h for CL(T) and 1.16 liters/kg for V(SS) following combination therapy. For the combination therapy, an interaction term, theta, defined the type and relative extent of interaction. The range of observed theta values (-0.033 to 0.067) is consistent with an additive PD interaction according to standards similar to those used for the in vitro fractional inhibitory concentration index.
PMCID: PMC163858  PMID: 9145877
5.  Treatment of severe pneumonia in hospitalized patients: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial comparing intravenous ciprofloxacin with imipenem-cilastatin. The Severe Pneumonia Study Group. 
Intravenously administered ciprofloxacin was compared with imipenem for the treatment of severe pneumonia. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, which included an intent-to-treat analysis, a total of 405 patients with severe pneumonia were enrolled. The mean APACHE II score was 17.6, 79% of the patients required mechanical ventilation, and 78% had nosocomial pneumonia. A subgroup of 205 patients (98 ciprofloxacin-treated patients and 107 imipenem-treated patients) were evaluable for the major efficacy endpoints. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous treatment with either ciprofloxacin (400 mg every 8 h) or imipenem (1,000 mg every 8 h), and doses were adjusted for renal function. The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were bacteriological and clinical responses at 3 to 7 days after completion of therapy. Ciprofloxacin-treated patients had a higher bacteriological eradication rate than did imipenem-treated patients (69 versus 59%; 95% confidence interval of -0.6%, 26.2%; P = 0.069) and also a significantly higher clinical response rate (69 versus 56%; 95% confidence interval of 3.5%, 28.5%; P = 0.021). The greatest difference between ciprofloxacin and imipenem was in eradication of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (93 versus 65%; P = 0.009). Stepwise logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following factors to be associated with bacteriological eradication: absence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.01), higher weight (P < 0.01), a low APACHE II score (P = 0.03), and treatment with ciprofloxacin (P = 0.04). When P. aeruginosa was recovered from initial respiratory tract cultures, failure to achieve bacteriological eradication and development of resistance during therapy were common in both treatment groups (67 and 33% for ciprofloxacin and 59 and 53% for imipenem, respectively). Seizures were observed more frequently with imipenem than with ciprofloxacin (6 versus 1%; P = 0.028). These results demonstrate that in patients with severe pneumonia, monotherapy with ciprofloxacin is at least equivalent to monotherapy with imipenem in terms of bacteriological eradication and clinical response. For both treatment groups, the presence of P. aeruginosa had a negative impact on treatment success. Seizures were more common with imipenem than with ciprofloxacin. Monotherapy for severe pneumonia is a safe and effective initial strategy but may need to be modified if P. aeruginosa is suspected or recovered from patients.
PMCID: PMC284496  PMID: 8203853
6.  Pharmacodynamics of intravenous ciprofloxacin in seriously ill patients. 
Seventy-four acutely ill patients were treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin at dosages ranging between 200 mg every 12 h and 400 mg every 8 h. A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis relating drug exposure (and other factors) to infectious outcome was performed. Plasma samples were obtained and assayed for ciprofloxacin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples from patients were frequently cultured so that the day of bacterial eradication could be determined. The pharmacokinetic data were fitted by iterative two-stage analysis, assuming a linear two-compartment model. Logistic regression was used to model ciprofloxacin exposure (and other potential covariates) versus the probabilities of achieving clinical and microbiologic cures. The same variables were also modelled versus the time to bacterial eradication by proportional hazards regression. The independent variables considered were dose, site of infection, infecting organism and the MIC for it, percent time above the MIC, peak, peak/MIC ratio, trough, trough/MIC ratio, 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), AUC/MIC ratio (AUIC), presence of other active antibacterial agents, and patient characteristics. The most important predictor for all three measures of ciprofloxacin pharmacodynamics was the AUIC. A 24-h AUIC of 125 SIT-1.h (inverse serum inhibitory titer integrated over time) was found to be a significant breakpoint for probabilities of both clinical and microbiologic cures. At an AUIC below 125 (19 patients), the percent probabilities of clinical and microbiologic cures were 42 and 26%, respectively. At an AUIC above 125 (45 patients), the probabilities were 80% (P < 0.005) and 82% (P < 0.001), respectively. There were two significant breakpoints in the time-to-bacterial-eradication data. At an AUIC below 125 (21 patients), the median time to eradication exceeded 32 days; at an AUIC of 125 to 250 (15 patients), time to eradication was 6.6 days: and at AUIC above 250 (28 patients), the median time to eradication was 1.9 days (groups differed; P < 0.005). These findings, when combined with pharmacokinetic data reported in the companion article, provide the rationale and tools needed for targeting the dosage of intravenous ciprofloxacin to individual patients' pharmacokinetics and their bacterial pathogens' susceptibilities. An a priori dosing algorithm (based on MIC, patient creatine clearance and weight, and the clinician-specified AUIC target) was developed. This approach was shown, retrospectively, to be more precise than current guidelines, and it can be used to achieve more rapid bacteriologic and clinical responses to ciprofloxacin, as a consequence of targeting the AUIC.
PMCID: PMC187901  PMID: 8517694
7.  Development of a population pharmacokinetic model and optimal sampling strategies for intravenous ciprofloxacin. 
Data obtained from 74 acutely ill patients treated in two clinical efficacy trials were used to develop a population model of the pharmacokinetics of intravenous (i.v.) ciprofloxacin. Dosage regimens ranged between 200 mg every 12 h and 400 mg every 8 h. Plasma samples (2 to 19 per patient; mean +/- standard deviation = 7 +/- 5) were obtained and assayed (by high-performance liquid chromatography) for ciprofloxacin. These data and patient covariates were modelled by iterative two-stage analysis, an approach which generates pharmacokinetic parameter values for both the population and each individual patient. The final model was used to implement a maximum a posteriori-Bayesian pharmacokinetic parameter value estimator. Optimal sampling theory was used to determine the best (maximally informative) two-, three-, four-, five-, and six-sample study designs (e.g., optimal sampling strategy 2 [OSS2] was the two-sample strategy) for identifying a patient's pharmacokinetic parameter values. These OSSs and the population model were evaluated by selecting the relatively rich data sets, those with 7 to 10 samples obtained in a single dose interval (n = 29), and comparing the parameter estimates (obtained by the maximum a posteriori-Bayesian estimator) based on each of the OSSs with those obtained by fitting all of the available data from each patient. Distributional clearance and apparent volumes were significantly related to body size (e.g., weight in kilograms or body surface area in meters squared); plasma clearance (CLT in liters per hour) was related to body size and renal function (creatinine clearance [CLCR] in milliliters per minute per 1.73 m2) by the equation CLT = (0.00145.CLCR + 0.167).weight. However, only 30% of the variance in CLT was explained by this relationship, and no other patient covariates were significant. Compared with previously published data, this target population had smaller distribution volumes (by 30%; P < 0.01) and CLT (by 44%; P < 0.001) than weight- and CLCR- matched stable volunteers. OSSs provided parameter estimates that showed good to excellent estimates of CLT (or area under the concentrations-time curve [AUC]) were unbiased and precise (e.g., r2 for AUC for all data versus AUC for OSS2 was > 0.99) and concentration-time profiles were accurately reconstructed. These results will be used to model the pharmacodynamic relationships between ciprofloxacin exposure and response and to aid in developing algorithms for individual optimization of ciprofloxacin dosage regimens.
PMCID: PMC187899  PMID: 8517693
8.  The fractional maximal effect method: a new way to characterize the effect of antibiotic combinations and other nonlinear pharmacodynamic interactions. 
The checkerboard technique leading to the fractional inhibitory concentration indexes and the killing curve method are currently the most widely used methods to study antibiotic combinations. For both methods, experimental conditions and interpretation criteria are somewhat arbitrary. The relevance of the fractional inhibitory concentration index computation, in the classic case of additivity [P = d1/(D1)p + d2/(D2)p, where d1 and d2 are the doses of drugs 1 and 2 in combination to produce an effect at a percent level (P) and (D1)p and (D2)p are the doses required for the two respective drugs alone to produce the same effect] relies on the assumption of a linear relationship between the MIC and the concentration of the test antibiotics. In addition, there is no consensus as to the definition of synergy in killing curve interpretation. The fractional maximal effect (FME) method is a new approach which was developed to handle the nonlinear pharmacodynamics exhibited by antibiotics and other drugs. This method relies on the mathematical linearization of the nonlinear concentration-effect scales and eventual construction of an isobologram-type data plot. The FME method was applied to study interactions between several antibiotic combinations: amoxicillin and tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, and ticarcillin and tobramycin. These combinations were selected because the pharmacologic basis for their interactions has been previously described. The FME method correctly identified antagonism for the first two combinations and synergism for the last combination. Conclusions were reproducible across the range of concentrations studied. Besides providing information on the nature of the interaction, the method can rapidly explore the effect of changing concentration ratios of two antimicrobial agents on the degrees of interaction. The FME method may be applied to interactions between drugs or agents with either a linear or nonlinear endpoint measurement. Methods frequently used for drug combination testing are also discussed in the paper.
PMCID: PMC187702  PMID: 8460921
9.  New turbidimetric assay for quantitation of viable bacterial densities. 
A turbidimetric assay was developed and validated against Escherichia coli for the quantitation of viable bacterial densities. The Abbott MS-2 research system was employed for continuous 5-min measurements of optical density. A linear standard curve was obtained by regressing the initial bacterial density (log CFU per milliliter) against the time required for bacterial growth causing a 5% decrease in optical transmittance. Slope and intercept values obtained from eight standard curves showed excellent assay reproducibility. Results obtained by the turbidimetric assay compared favorably to those obtained by the conventional pour plate assay. Prior to the application of the new assay, possible interferences of postantibiotic effect induced by the test antibiotics were excluded. The turbidimetric assay, which is presumably more efficient and less expensive, was implemented for the time-kill studies of three different beta-lactams against E. coli.
PMCID: PMC187673  PMID: 8452373
12.  Effects of ranitidine and sucralfate on ketoconazole bioavailability. 
Ketoconazole is an oral imidazole antifungal agent useful in the treatment of opportunistic fungal infections. Gastrointestinal absorption of this agent is variable and dependent on the presence of gastric acid. This study compared the effects of concomitant sucralfate administration with ranitidine administration on the pharmacokinetic disposition of a 400-mg ketoconazole dose. Six healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive 400 mg of ketoconazole alone, 1.0 g of sucralfate concomitantly with a 400-mg ketoconazole dose, or ranitidine, administered 2 h prior to a 400-mg ketoconazole dose to titrate to a gastric pH of 6. All subjects received all three regimens in crossover fashion. Gastric pH was measured continuously for 4 h after ketoconazole administration in all subjects by using a Heidelberg radiotelemetry pH capsule. Relative ketoconazole bioavailability was compared between treatments. With sucralfate, five of six subjects demonstrated a decrease in the peak drug concentration in serum as well as an increase in the time to peak concentration, indicating a delay in ketoconazole absorption. The mean area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h for ketoconazole following gastric alkalinization was significantly different from that of either ketoconazole alone or ketoconazole with sucralfate (P less than 0.01). Continuous gastric pH monitoring allowed correlation between the decrease in ketoconazole bioavailability observed with ranitidine and the increase in gastric pH. The apparent decrease in ketoconazole bioavailability observed with sucralfate appears to be caused by an alternative mechanism since a change in gastric pH was not observed. On the basis of these findings, separating the administration of ketoconazole and sucralfate should be considered to decrease the potential for interaction of sucralfate on ketoconazole bioavailability.
PMCID: PMC245265  PMID: 1952845
13.  Kinetics and dynamics of tobramycin action in patients with bacteriuria given single doses. 
We studied the effect of a single intravenous dose of tobramycin on the rate of bacterial eradication from urine in 10 patients with bladder catheters. The catheter was replaced 4 to 6 h after the tobramycin dose. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 7 of the 10 patients, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae accounted for the remaining pathogens. The MIC for each bacterium was determined in both broth and urine. Tobramycin eradicated the bacteria from eight patients. Bacteriuria resolved in 21.8 +/- 18.0 h, and urine bactericidal activity persisted for 43.4 +/- 20.3 h after the dose of tobramycin. Most patients were recolonized by another bacterial species if use of Foley catheters was resumed on a continuous basis. Two patients required additional doses of tobramycin to eradicate the original pathogen. There were significant temporal relationships between the pharmacokinetics of tobramycin and the change in colony count of bacteria in urine.
PMCID: PMC284309  PMID: 1929261
14.  Comparative evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of N-methylthiotetrazole following administration of cefoperazone, cefotetan, and cefmetazole. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(12):2369-2374.
The comparative pharmacokinetics and in vivo production of N-methylthiotetrazole (NMTT) were evaluated following administration of cefoperazone, cefotetan, and cefmetazole. In a randomized-crossover manner, 11 healthy male volunteers received single 2-g intravenous doses of each agent and serial blood and urine samples were collected. Concentrations of NMTT and the parent compound in plasma, urine, and the reconstituted antibiotic solution were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The amounts of NMTT administered were 6.06 +/- 0.46, 14.4 +/- 0.87, and 17.4 +/- 1.06 mg for cefoperazone, cefotetan, and cefmetazole, respectively (P less than 0.05). The mean NMTT plasma concentration-time profiles following administration of each cephalosporin were markedly different. Six hours after dosing, NMTT concentrations in plasma following cefoperazone administration were higher than those following administration of cefmetazole and cefotetan. Urinary recoveries of NMTT averaged 137.0 +/- 37.1, 38.3 +/- 6.98, and 25.2 +/- 5.95 mg following administration of cefoperazone, cefotetan, and cefmetazole, respectively (P less than 0.01). The apparent amount of NMTT produced in vivo, calculated by subtracting the amount of NMTT administered from the amount of NMTT excreted in urine, was significantly lower following cefmetazole administration than after administration of cefoperazone and cefotetan (P less than 0.01). The discrepancy between in vitro NMTT production (cefmetazole greater than cefotetan greater than cefoperazone) and the amount of NMTT formed in vivo and excreted unchanged (cefoperazone greater than cefotetan greater than cefmetazole) suggests that in vivo production of NMTT is dependent on the disposition of the parent cephalosporin. These results further suggest that cephalosporins which undergo extensive biliary excretion, such as cefoperazone, are associated with the greatest amount of in vivo NMTT release, whereas cephalosporins which are primarily renally excreted, such as cefmetazole, are associated with the lowest in vivo production of NMTT.
PMCID: PMC172063  PMID: 2088192
15.  In vitro selection of resistant Helicobacter pylori. 
Four strains of Helicobacter pylori were subjected to an in vitro serial passage technique to compare the propensity of the organisms to develop resistance to seven classes of antibacterial agents. The passages were made on serially doubling concentrations of antibacterial agents incorporated into agar starting at one-half the base-line MIC. The frequency of spontaneous resistance was also determined for each strain at four and eight times the MIC of each antibacterial agent. Strains resistant to ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, erythromycin, and tobramycin were isolated. The experiments failed to select organisms resistant to bismuth subsalicylate, furazolidone, or amoxicillin, although the MIC of amoxicillin was increased 4- to 16-fold. With the exception of erythromycin, organisms with the selected resistance were stable after at least three passages on antibacterial agent-free medium. Spontaneous resistance rates were generally of a low magnitude and were not predictive of the serial passage results.
PMCID: PMC171897  PMID: 2285275
16.  Comparison of N-methylthiotetrazole dispositions in healthy volunteers following single intravenous doses of moxalactam, cefoperazone, and cefotetan. 
The N-methylthiotetrazole side chain (NMTT) that is present on several cephalosporins has been implicated in the development of antibiotic-associated hypoprothrombinemia. A randomized three-way crossover trial was conducted to compare the release of the NMTT side chain from three NMTT-containing antibiotics. Single 2-g doses of moxalactam, cefoperazone, and cefotetan were given, followed by serial blood and urine sampling. The concentrations of the parent compound and the NMTT side chain in plasma, urine, and the reconstituted antibiotic solution were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Peak NMTT concentrations ranged from 0.42 to 16.50 micrograms/ml and were significantly higher after moxalactam administration than after cefoperazone or cefotetan administration (P less than 0.01). The NMTT trough concentrations (12.5 h) ranged from nondetectable to 2.47 micrograms/ml and tended to be greater following cefoperazone administration. The amounts of NMTT administered (e.g., the amount in the reconstituted antibiotic solution) were 25.8 +/- 1.4, 15.2 +/- 0.9, and 22.1 +/- 3.0 mg following moxalactam, cefoperazone, and cefotetan administration, respectively (P less than 0.01). In contrast, urinary recoveries of NMTT were 57.4 +/- 26.2, 73.6 +/- 44.3, and 29.7 +/- 22.9 mg following moxalactam, cefoperazone, and cefotetan, respectively. The amount of NMTT formed in vivo and excreted unchanged, as assessed by subtracting in vitro NMTT formation from NMTT urinary recovery, was significantly higher after cefoperazone than after moxalactam or cefotetan administration (P less than 0.05). The discrepancy between in vitro NMTT production (moxalactam > cefotetan > cefoperazone) and the amount of NMTT formed in vivo and excreted unchanged (cefoperazone > moxalactam > cefotetan) demonstrated that the in vivo production of NMTT is dependent on the disposition of the parent cephalosporin.
PMCID: PMC284245  PMID: 2764537
17.  Inhibition of enoxacin absorption by antacids or ranitidine. 
Ten normal volunteers participated in a randomized, five-way crossover study to determine the effect of concurrent enoxacin and antacid or ranitidine administration on enoxacin absorption. The bioavailability of a single oral 400-mg enoxacin dose was significantly decreased, by 73 and 49%, when Maalox TC was administered 0.5 and 2 h before enoxacin, respectively. Enoxacin bioavailability was not significantly altered when the antacid was given 8 h before or 2 h after enoxacin administration. Ranitidine, administered intravenously 2 h before enoxacin, also significantly decreased enoxacin bioavailability, by 40%. The correlation between the proximity of antacid administration and the magnitude of the decrease in enoxacin bioavailability supports complexation as the mechanism of the antacid-enoxacin interaction. However, reduction of enoxacin bioavailability by ranitidine suggests that elevated gastric pH may also play a role in the antacid-enoxacin drug-drug interaction.
PMCID: PMC172500  PMID: 2751276
18.  Sucralfate reduces the gastrointestinal absorption of norfloxacin. 
The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of norfloxacin after single 400-mg doses of norfloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy males. Subjects received each of the following treatments in random sequence: (i), norfloxacin, 400 mg alone; (ii) sucralfate, 1 g, concurrently with norfloxacin, 400 mg; and (iii) sucralfate, 1 g, followed by norfloxacin, 400 mg, 2 h later. One day before administration of treatments 2 and 3, 1 g of sucralfate was given at 7 a.m., 11 a.m., 5 p.m., and 10 p.m. Blood samples were collected immediately before the norfloxacin dose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h postdose. Urine was collected in divided intervals: from 0 to 12, from 12 to 24, and from 24 to 48 h. Norfloxacin concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mean area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) after norfloxacin was given with and 2 h after sucralfate. The relative bioavailabilities were 1.8% when norfloxacin was taken with sucralfate and 56.6% when it was taken 2 h after sucralfate. After norfloxacin was given alone, the mean norfloxacin concentrations in urine collected during intervals of 0 to 12, 12 to 24, and 24 to 28 h were 118.9 +/- 72.3, 18.8 +/- 12.5, and 2.4 +/- 2.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. After norfloxacin was given with sucralfate, however, the mean norfloxacin concentrations in urine collected during the same time intervals were 6.8 +/- 4.7, 1.8 +/- 1.4, and 0 +/- 0 microgram/ml, respectively. Because of low pH and relatively high magnesium concentration in urine, susceptibilities of bacteria in urine are 8- to 32-fold lower than in broth. This fact, in combination with the reduced bioavailability of norfloxacin in the presence of sucralfate or antacids, is likely to result in treatment failure. The effect of sucralfate given after norfloxacin was not examined, nor was the effect of sucralfate given more than 2 h before norfloxacin. Administration or norfloxacin with sucralfate should therefore by avoided.
PMCID: PMC171428  PMID: 2712548
19.  Pharmacokinetics of cefoperazone (2.0 g) and sulbactam (1.0 g) coadministered to subjects with normal renal function, patients with decreased renal function, and patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. 
The single-dose pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered cefoperazone (2.0 g) and sulbactam (1.0 g) were studied in normal subjects and in patients with various degrees of renal failure. In an open, parallel experimental design, six normal subjects (creatinine clearance, greater than 90 ml/min), two patients with mild renal failure (creatinine clearance, 31 to 60 ml/min), eight patients with moderate renal failure (creatinine clearance, 7 to 30 ml/min), and four functionally anephric patients (creatinine clearance, less than 7 ml/min) were studied. The functionally anephric patients were given two test doses to allow study of drug disposition both on and off hemodialysis. Serial blood and urine samples were collected from time zero to 12 h after dosing in normal subjects and from 0 to 72 h in renal patients. Serum concentrations of both drugs declined biexponentially. For cefoperazone, the terminal elimination half-lives averaged from 1.6 to 3.0 h and were similar in subjects and patients. No cefoperazone pharmacokinetic parameters were appreciably altered by renal failure or hemodialysis, and there was no correlation between the total body clearance of cefoperazone and estimated creatinine clearance. In contrast, the sulbactam total body clearance was highly correlated with estimated creatinine clearance (r = 0.92, P less than 0.01) and was significantly higher in normal volunteers than in the renally impaired groups (P less than 0.01). The sulbactam terminal elimination half-life in functionally anephric patients (9.7 +/- 5.3 h) differed significantly from that of normal volunteers (1.0 +/- 0.2 h) and patients with mild renal failure (1.7 +/- 0.7 h, P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC172210  PMID: 3377461
20.  Single-dose accumulation pharmacokinetics of tobramycin and netilmicin in normal volunteers. 
The two-compartment tissue accumulation pharmacokinetics of tobramycin and netilmicin were compared in 11 normal volunteers by using a crossover design. After each 1.0-mg/kg (body weight) dose, serum was collected for 96 h, and complete 24-h urine collections were obtained for a total of 30 days. Two months of washout were required before crossover. Concentrations in serum and urine were measured by radioimmunoassay, and concentrations in serum and urinary excretion rates were simultaneously fitted to a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Netilmicin exhibited significantly lower total body clearance (48 versus 90 ml/min) and longer terminal elimination half-life (161 versus 96 h) than tobramycin. As a result of these pharmacokinetic differences, the predicted tissue accumulation of netilmicin at steady state was significantly higher than that of tobramycin (P less than 0.05). Relative rates of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity probably depend on both the differential tissue uptake (accumulation) and the concentration of the aminoglycoside which produces intracellular toxicity. Because the steady-state tissue accumulation of netilmicin is nearly 2.5 times greater than that of tobramycin, its potency in the production of intracellular toxicity needs to be that much less for the two agents to produce the same incidence of clinical nephrotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC174785  PMID: 3606064
21.  Inhibition of theophylline clearance by coadministered ofloxacin without alteration of theophylline effects. 
The influence of multiple doses of ofloxacin (ORF 18489) on the disposition of theophylline was studied in 15 male volunteers. Subjects were confined in the Clinical Research Unit for 13 days and given a xanthine-free diet. A single dose (3 mg/kg) of theophylline was given orally, and blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals for 36 h. The concentrations of theophylline were measured with TDX (Abbott Diagnostics, Irving, Tex.), and clearance was calculated. Theophylline clearance was used to individualize subsequent doses to achieve average steady-state theophylline concentrations in plasma of 10 mg/liter. Individualized theophylline doses were administered every 8 h until steady-state conditions were reached. Theophylline clearance was determined again at steady state and on days 7 and 8. On day 8, ofloxacin (400 mg every 12 h) was given concomitantly with theophylline. Theophylline clearance was measured again on day 12, after the last theophylline dose. Administration of ofloxacin for 1 day did not change theophylline clearance, but coadministration for 4 days significantly decreased theophylline clearance by 12.1% (P less than 0.05). The area under the concentration-time curve for theophylline increased 9.9% (P less than 0.05), and average steady-state concentrations in plasma increased 10.3% (P less than 0.05). Despite changes in clearance, adverse effects of theophylline did not increase during coadministration of ofloxacin. Although statistically significant, the interaction between ofloxacin and theophylline is unlikely to be of major clinical importance.
PMCID: PMC174735  PMID: 3472488
22.  Pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime in patients with renal insufficiency. 
The pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime were studied in 14 adult volunteers with different degrees of renal function. The elimination of ceftazidime was totally dependent on renal excretion. The clearance of ceftazidime ranged from 7.5 to 145.1 ml/min and correlated with both renal ceftazidime clearance and creatinine clearance (ClCR). It is recommended that 0.5 to 2.0 g of ceftazidime be given in extended dosages, with intervals dependent on the renal function of the patient. Patients with a ClCR of greater than 50 ml/min should be given ceftazidime every 8 h, those with a ClCR of 30 to 50 ml/min should be given the drug every 12 h, those with a ClCR of 15 to 30 ml/min should be given the drug once a day, and individuals with a ClCR of less than 15 ml/min should be given the drug on a day, and individuals with a ClCR of less than 15 ml/min should be given the drug on a 36- to 48-h regimen.
PMCID: PMC185474  PMID: 6370127
23.  High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis and single-dose disposition of tobramycin in human volunteers. 
A sensitive and specific fluorometric high-pressure liquid chromatography technique was developed to measure both tobramycin and an internal standard (gentamicin C2). The assay utilizes direct extraction of the o-phthalaldehyde derivatives from serum and urine. Coefficients of variation were 7.9% (serum) and 6.0% (urine) at a tobramycin concentration of 1.0 microgram/ml. The lower limit of assay sensitivity was 0.2 microgram/ml. Results obtained from high-pressure liquid chromatography were in excellent agreement with those from radioimmunoassay for both serum (r = 0.97) and urine (r = 0.91). No other aminoglycoside antibiotics and no other antibiotics that were tested caused interfering peaks. Tobramycin (1 mg/kg intravenous bolus) was administered to three healthy volunteers. Tobramycin concentrations were detectable for 10 h in serum and for 240 h in urine after a 1-mg/kg intravenous dose. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was required to describe the tobramycin disposition. Urinary recovery of tobramycin over a 10-day period accounted for 95.8, 94.3, and 83.1% of the administered dose. High-pressure liquid chromatography methodology is sufficiently sensitive to determine single-dose, two-compartment tobramycin pharmacokinetics from urinary excretion data, thus verifying the prolonged excretion of tobramycin after a single dose. The analytical methodology and pharmacokinetic techniques described may be useful in studying other aminoglycosides.
PMCID: PMC283846  PMID: 7396455
24.  Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities of ciprofloxacin against strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for which MICs are similar. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1994;38(12):2730-2737.
The serum bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for which MICs are similar (0.4 microgram/ml) was assessed with serum ultrafiltrates from five healthy volunteers receiving ciprofloxacin at 400 mg intravenously every 8 h. In addition, human serum was supplemented with ciprofloxacin to achieve a mean steady-state concentration (Css) that might be achieved in patients with renal failure, with total clearances of 3 to 4 liters/h (elimination rate constant, 0.08 h-1). The area under the inhibitory titer curve from 0 to 24 h (AUIC24) and the area under the bactericidal titer curve from 0 to 24 h (AUBC24) were both measured and predicted as the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC24)/MIC and AUC24/MBC, respectively. We previously demonstrated that a breakpoint AUC24/MIC of 125 for ciprofloxacin had a significantly higher probability of treatment success than lower values, with 250 to 500 being optimal. Volunteer sera (mean Css, 1.55 to 2.48 micrograms/ml) achieved AUC24/MICs of 90 to 145. Supplemented serum (mean Css, 6.00 to 7.42 micrograms/ml) achieved AUC24/MICs of 350 to 450. Correlation coefficients for measured and predicted values of AUC24/MIC and AUC24/MBC were 0.826 and 0.941, respectively. The mean percent errors were not significantly different from zero for either AUIC24 or AUBC24 values (P > 0.1, P > 0.4). Time-kill curve studies were performed with low (1.55 to 2.48 micrograms/ml), intermediate (6.00 to 7.42 micrograms/ml), and high (15 to 25 micrograms/ml) concentrations of ciprofloxacin for the three organisms. At low concentrations (3 to 6 times the MIC) AUC24/MICs were <125 for two of five volunteers and the killing rates were considerably more rapid for P. aeruginosa than for S. pneumoniae or S.aureus. Intermediate concentrations (15 to 18 times the MIC) achieved optimal AUC24/MICs, and the killing rates were similar for the three organisms. A paradoxical decrease in the killing rate was seen at high concentrations (35 to 60 times the MIC). At clinically achievable concentrations, ciprofloxacin killed P. aeruginosa more rapidly than it did either S. pneumoniae or S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC188277  PMID: 7695254
25.  Pharmacokinetics of lomefloxacin in renally compromised patients. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1990;34(12):2364-2368.
The single-dose pharmacokinetics of orally administered lomefloxacin (400 mg) were studied in normal subjects and in patients with various degrees of renal function. The subjects were classified by creatinine clearance (CLCR) normalized for body surface area: group 1, CLCR of greater than 80 ml/min/1.73 m2; group 2, CLCR of 80 to greater than 40 ml/min/1.73 m2; group 3, CLCR of 40 to greater than 10 ml/min/1.73 m2; and group 4, CLCR of less than or equal to 10 ml/min/1.73 m2. Each group consisted of eight subjects. The pharmacokinetics of lomefloxacin were significantly influenced by renal function. There were significant differences in the elimination rate constant, half-life, area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity, apparent total drug clearance, renal clearance, and apparent nonrenal drug clearance between the four renal function groups. Mean half-lives for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 8.09, 9.11, 20.90, and 44.25 h, respectively. There were no significant differences between the renal groups for maximum concentration of the drug in serum and apparent volume of distribution. Age had no apparent effect on lomefloxacin disposition. There was a significant relationship between CLCR and lomefloxacin total body clearance (r = 0.92, P = 0.001) and renal clearance (r = 0.94, P = 0.001). Despite a predominate renal route of elimination, nonrenal lomefloxacin clearance significantly decreased with decreasing renal function (r = 0.72, P = 0.001). Mean lomefloxacin excretion rates over 48 h were 60.7, 56.0, 29.1, and 1.0% of the administered dose for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Mean glucuronide excretion rates over 48 h were 7.8, 6.3, 10.0, and 0.6% of the administered dose for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Hemodialysis had no effect on lomefloxacin concentrations in plasma. In patients with normal to moderate renal function, 400 mg of lomefloxacin per day should provide therapeutic concentrations in blood. The lomefloxacin dose should be reduced to 200 mg/day as the CL(CR) falls below 30 ml/min/1.73 m2. No additional dosage adjustments appear to be necessary for hemodialysis patients.
PMCID: PMC172062  PMID: 2088191

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