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1.  Structure-activity studies of quinolone-penems in genetically defined strains of Escherichia coli. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1997;41(11):2570-2572.
Quinolonyl-beta-lactam antimicrobial agents (QLAs) contain quinolones chemically linked to beta-lactams, although the impact of linkage is poorly understood. Genetically defined Escherichia coli strains were used to determine structure-activity characteristics of three quinolone-penem QLAs. Results suggest that the leaving group resulting from beta-lactam hydrolysis may not be free quinolone.
PMCID: PMC164166  PMID: 9371371
2.  Rationale behind high-dose amoxicillin therapy for acute otitis media due to penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci: support from in vitro pharmacodynamic studies. 
To evaluate whether increased doses of amoxicillin should be used to treat acute pneumococcal otitis media, an in vitro pharmacokinetic model was used to evaluate the killing of pneumococci by amoxicillin when middle ear pharmacokinetics were simulated. Logarithmic-phase cultures were exposed to peak concentrations of 3, 6, and 9 microg of amoxicillin per ml every 12 h, and an elimination half-life of 1.6 h was simulated. Changes in viable bacterial counts were measured over 36 h. All three doses rapidly decreased the viable bacterial counts of penicillin-susceptible strains below the 10-CFU/ml limit of detection by 6 to 10 h and maintained counts below this limit through 36 h. The 3-microg/ml peak dose was much less effective against two of three strains with intermediate penicillin resistance and all three penicillin-resistant strains, with bacterial counts approaching those in drug-free control cultures by 12 h. The 6-microg/ml peak dose completely eliminated two of three strains with intermediate penicillin resistance and maintained viable counts of the other nonsusceptible strains at 1.5 to 2 logs below the initial inoculum through 36 h. The 9-microg/ml peak dose was most effective, completely eliminating all three strains with intermediate penicillin resistance and maintaining the viable counts of the resistant strains at 3 to 4 logs below the original inoculum. The pharmacodynamics observed in this study suggest that peak concentrations of amoxicillin of 6 to 9 microg/ml may be sufficient for the elimination of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal strains causing otitis media, especially those with intermediate resistance to amoxicillin. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies are needed to determine if these levels can be achieved in middle ear fluid with amoxicillin at 70 to 90 mg/kg/day divided into two daily doses. If these levels are reliably achieved, then clinical studies are warranted.
PMCID: PMC164037  PMID: 9303386
3.  Penicillin-binding proteins and induction of AmpC beta-lactamase. 
In competition assays for radiolabeled penicillin, penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 4, 7a, and 7b showed very high affinities for strong inducers of AmpC beta-lactamase. Loss of PBP 4 resulted in diminished inducibility. This suggests that if PBPs are involved in induction of AmpC beta-lactamase, there is probably a redundancy in function among the different PBPs.
PMCID: PMC164055  PMID: 9303404
4.  Importance of beta-lactamase inhibitor pharmacokinetics in the pharmacodynamics of inhibitor-drug combinations: studies with piperacillin-tazobactam and piperacillin-sulbactam. 
An in vitro pharmacokinetic model was used to study the pharmacodynamics of piperacillin-tazobactam and piperacillin-sulbactam against gram-negative bacilli producing plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases. Logarithmic-phase cultures were exposed to peak antibiotic concentrations observed in human serum after the administration of intravenous doses of 3 g of piperacillin and 0.375 g of tazobactam or 0.5 g of sulbactam. Piperacillin and inhibitor were either dosed simultaneously or piperacillin was dosed sequentially 0.5 h after dosing with the inhibitor. In studies with all four test strains, the pharmacodynamics observed after simultaneous dosing were similar to those observed with the sequential regimen. Since the ratio between piperacillin and tazobactam was in constant fluctuation after sequential dosing, these data suggest that the pharmacodynamics of the piperacillin-inhibitor combinations were not dependent upon maintenance of a critical ratio between the components. Furthermore, when regrowth was observed, the time at which bacterial counts began to increase was similar between the simultaneous and sequential dosing regimens. Since the pharmacokinetics of the inhibitors were the same for all regimens, these data suggest that the length of time that the antibacterial activity was maintained over the dosing interval with these combinations was dictated by the pharmacokinetics of the beta-lactamase inhibitor in the combination. The antibacterial activity of the combination appeared to be lost when the amount of inhibitor available fell below some critical concentration. This critical concentration varied depending upon the type and amount of enzyme produced, as well as the specific inhibitor used. These results indicate that the antibacterial activity of drug-inhibitor combinations, when dosed at their currently recommended ratios, is more dependent on the pharmacokinetics of the inhibitor than on those of the beta-lactam drug.
PMCID: PMC163782  PMID: 9087477
5.  Trovafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone with potent activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. 
An in vitro study of the activity of 15 antibacterial agents against 202 recent pediatric isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from urban and rural Nebraska and rural Kentucky identified trovafloxacin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin as the most active agents and equally active against both penicillin-susceptible and--resistant strains. In contrast, six beta-lactams, three macrolides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were less active overall, especially against penicillin-intermediate and--resistant strains. Trovafloxacin inhibited all strains at a concentration of < or = 0.25 micrograms/ml and was 8- to 16-fold more potent than ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin.
PMCID: PMC163735  PMID: 9021213
6.  Beta-lactamases and detection of beta-lactam resistance in Enterobacter spp. 
Enterobacter spp. are becoming increasingly frequent nosocomial pathogens, and beta-lactam-resistant strains are on the increase, especially among isolates recovered from intensive care units. Therefore, a study was designed to characterize the beta-lactamases produced by 80 isolates of E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, E. taylorae, E. gergoviae, E. sakazakii, E. asburiae, and E. agglomerans by induction studies, spectrophotometric hydrolysis assays, and isoelectric focusing. The ability of broth microdilution and disk diffusion susceptibility tests to detect resistance to 16 beta-lactam antibiotics among these species was also assessed. All species except E. agglomerans, E. gergoviae, and some isolates of E. sakazakii were found to produce a Bush group 1 cephalosporinase that was expressed inducibly or constitutively at high levels. In addition, some strains also produced a Bush group 2 beta-lactamase. In comparisons of broth microdilution and disk diffusion tests, disk diffusion tests failed to detect resistance in 1 of 25 isolates resistant to aztreonam and 2 of 30 isolates resistant to ceftazidime. These results indicate that species of Enterobacter can possess a variety of beta-lactamases that are responsible for beta-lactam resistance in this genus and that the disk diffusion test may occasionally miss resistance in some strains.
PMCID: PMC163656  PMID: 8980751
7.  Efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam is not dependent upon maintenance of a critical ratio between components: sulbactam pharmacokinetics in pharmacodynamic interactions. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1996;40(11):2468-2477.
An in vitro pharmacokinetic model (IVPM) and a mouse model of lethal bacteremia were used to compare the pharmacodynamics of ampicillin-sulbactam when the two components were dosed simultaneously and in sequence against TEM-1-producing Escherichia coli. The challenge isolates included three strains of E. coli producing various levels of beta-lactamase. Human pharmacokinetics of ampicillin-sulbactam (1.5- and 3.0-g intravenous doses) were simulated in each model, and pharmacodynamic interactions were evaluated over one 6-h dosing interval. Against all three strains, the sequential dosing of sulbactam prior to ampicillin did not alter the pharmacodynamics of these combinations from comparison with results obtained with the simultaneous administration of the two components. Similar pharmacodynamics were observed for the two dosing regimens regardless of the ampicillin-sulbactam dose used or whether the bacteria were treated in an immunocompetent mouse or in the absence of immune defenses in the IVPM. When antibacterial activity was lost and regrowth of the inoculum was observed, viable bacterial counts increased in both the simultaneous and sequential regimens at a point when sulbactam levels fell below a critical concentration. These data suggest that the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam is not dependent upon the maintenance of a constant 2:1 ratio for the two components. Rather, the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam appears to be dependent upon the maintenance of one or both components above a critical concentration. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of sulbactam, specifically, how long sulbactam levels remain above a minimum critical concentration, appears to dictate how long antibacterial activity is maintained with the combination.
PMCID: PMC163559  PMID: 8913448
8.  Sequencing and analysis of four new Enterobacter ampD Alleles. 
Sequences of ampD genes from wild-type, temperature-sensitive, and stably derepressed mutants of the wild-type strain of Enterobacter cloacae 029 and the hyperinducible strain E. cloacae 1194E were determined and compared with the ampD gene of the wild-type strain E. cloacae 14. Seventy nucleotide differences were found between the wild-type sequences, resulting in 13 amino acid changes. The deduced amino acid changes do not correspond to published AmpC regulation mutations and expand the number of known mutations leading to altered AmpC beta-lactamase expression in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
PMCID: PMC163450  PMID: 8843314
9.  New variant of TEM-10 beta-lactamase gene produced by a clinical isolate of proteus mirabilis. 
A clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis was found to produce a new variant of the TEM-10 beta-lactamase gene. This is the first report of TEM-10 production by P. mirabilis and the first report of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production by an isolate of this species recovered in the United States.
PMCID: PMC162712  PMID: 7625817
10.  Comparison of ampicillin-sulbactam regimens simulating 1.5- and 3.0-gram doses to humans in treatment of Escherichia coli bacteremia in mice. 
A mouse model of bacteremia was used to compare the efficacies of 1.5- and 3.0-g intravenous doses of ampicillin-sulbactam. Seven strains of Escherichia coli producing various levels of TEM-1 beta-lactamase were used as the challenge isolates. These strains included six clinical isolates (MICs from 2/1 micrograms/ml [with 2 and 1 microgram/ml being the respective concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam] to 32/16 micrograms/ml) with similar degrees of virulence in mice and a laboratory genetic transformant (E. coli AFE) which hyperproduces TEM-1 (MIC = 128/64 micrograms/ml). Human pharmacokinetics were simulated by injecting mice subcutaneously twice (1 h apart) with ampicillin-sulbactam at concentrations of 40 mg/kg of body weight (1.5 g) and 80 mg/kg (3.0 g). Against two clinical isolates for which ampicillin-sulbactam MICs were < or = 8/4 micrograms/ml, no difference was observed in either the rate or level of killing between the two doses, and both doses were 100% protective against lethal infection. Against the four clinical isolates for which ampicillin-sulbactam MICs were between 16/8 and 32/16 micrograms/ml, a slight delay in killing was noted with three of the strains. This delay was followed by a rapid 2- to 3-log drop in the level of bacteremia, and both doses of ampicillin-sulbactam were 100% protective against lethal septicemia. With strain AFE, no killing was observed with the 40-mg/kg dose compared with a 2-log killing with the 80-mg/kg dose. This difference in killing correlated with a decreased protective efficacy of the 40-mg/kg dose. These data suggest that the 1.5-g preparation of ampicillin-sulbactam is as effective as the 3.0-g dose in the treatment of experimentally induced E. coli bacteremia, as long as ampicillin-sulbactam MICs are 32/16 micrograms/ml or less.
PMCID: PMC162656  PMID: 7785998
11.  Development of test panel of beta-lactamases expressed in a common Escherichia coli host background for evaluation of new beta-lactam antibiotics. 
A test panel of 35 different beta-lactamases expressed in a common Escherichia coli host was created to compare the effect that each beta-lactamase had on susceptibility to various beta-lactam antibiotics. A comparison of the MICs obtained with this panel generally reflected differences in the substrate profiles of the various beta-lactamases examined. In addition, several strains of the panel were subjected to selection with porin-specific bacteriophages to obtain mutants lacking either the OmpC or OmpF porin protein. A mutation in either OmpC or OmpF did change the susceptibilities of certain strains expressing beta-lactamase to certain beta-lactam antibiotics. However, the loss of a single porin did not predictably alter susceptibility to any given beta-lactam drug. This panel of strains producing various beta-lactamases was found to be a useful tool for comparing the effects of different beta-lactamases and outer membrane permeability upon susceptibility to beta-lactam drugs.
PMCID: PMC162532  PMID: 7726487
12.  Characterization of beta-lactamases in situ on polyacrylamide gels. 
An inhibitor-based characterization system which allowed the identification of beta-lactamases after isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels was developed. This system, using potassium clavulanate and oxacillin, distinguished type I chromosomally mediated enzymes from other beta-lactamases of gram-negative bacteria.
PMCID: PMC180628  PMID: 3492960
13.  Dissociated resistance among fluoroquinolones. 
A panel of 190 clinical isolates of staphylococci, enterococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli were examined by agar dilution tests for susceptibility to five quinolones and six nonquinolone agents. Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and staphylococci were divided into subgroups according to their ciprofloxacin susceptibilities and were analyzed for cross-resistance to OPC-17116, ofloxacin, and temafloxacin. Although the MICs of all quinolones increased with increasing ciprofloxacin resistance, the MICs of OPC-17116, ofloxacin, and temafloxacin tended to increase less than those of ciprofloxacin, indicating that these agents were less affected by the mechanisms of quinolone resistance. An exception to this was the activity of OPC-17116 against highly ciprofloxacin-resistant staphylococci (MIC, > or = 8 micrograms/ml). Some of these staphylococci were equally resistant to OPC-17116, while others were fourfold more susceptible to ciprofloxacin than to OPC-17116. This indicated that in some strains OPC-17116 was more affected than ciprofloxacin by certain mechanisms responsible for high-level resistance. This was paralleled in single-step mutational studies in which 7 of 19 staphylococcal mutants exhibited large decreases in susceptibility to OPC-17116 (128- to 256-fold) but only modest decreases in susceptibility (4- to 16-fold) to the other quinolones. Such mutants were selected only from strains moderately resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC, > or = 1 microgram/ml). This heterogeneity in the resistance of staphylococci to fluoroquinolones has not been seen previously and suggests that certain mechanisms of resistance in staphylococci affect OPC-17116 to a much greater extent than other quinolones.
PMCID: PMC284690  PMID: 7811025
14.  Use of a predictor panel to evaluate susceptibility test methods proposed for piperacillin-tazobactam. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1993;37(12):2578-2583.
A predictor panel of clinical isolates that produce a variety of types and amounts of beta-lactamases was used to assess the accuracy of dilution and disk diffusion susceptibility tests for piperacillin-tazobactam. Combinations of piperacillin-tazobactam with a fixed ratio of 8:1 and with tazobactam held constant at 4 micrograms/ml were examined in dilution tests performed in agar. In addition, disks containing 100 and 10 micrograms of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, were examined in diffusion tests. Three very major discrepancies between MICs determined with an 8:1 ratio and MICs determined with tazobactam held constant at 4 micrograms/ml were noted. These involved strains that appeared to be susceptible in tests with the 8:1 ratio but resistant when tazobactam was held constant at 4 micrograms/ml. However, the differences were only twofold. Error rate-bounded analysis with the disk containing 100 and 10 micrograms of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, revealed low error rates, regardless of whether MICs were determined with an 8:1 ratio or tazobactam held constant at 4 micrograms/ml. Thus, a predictor panel was useful in the identification of accurate susceptibility test for piperacillin-tazobactam.
PMCID: PMC192743  PMID: 8109919
15.  Ceftazidime resistance in Hafnia alvei. 
Two morphotypes of Hafnia alvei differed in their susceptibilities to beta-lactam antibiotics. Both produced an inducible Bush group 1 beta-lactamase. Hyperinducibility of this enzyme was associated with reduced susceptibility in one morphotype.
PMCID: PMC187971  PMID: 8328790
16.  Decimal assay for additivity of drugs permits delineation of synergy and antagonism. 
Although there are many in vitro tests for drug interactions, few possess a linear, predictable dose-dependent end point or have a precise definition for additivity. Therefore, a new test with both of these features, the decimal assay for additivity, was developed. This test is based on a disk diffusion assay and the strict linear relationship between drug mass and size of the inhibition zone. When the decimal assay for additivity was applied to combinations known on a mechanistic basis to be additive, synergistic, or antagonistic, results of the new test always reflected the expected drug interaction. For example, synergy between trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was detected in tests with Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae, as was antagonism between cefoxitin and cefotaxime in tests with Enterobacter cloacae. Quinolones plus chloramphenicol appeared to be antagonistic. In addition to correctly identifying the drug interaction, the decimal assay for additivity identified the drug ratio producing the maximal drug interaction. These results suggest that the decimal assay for additivity should prove very useful in future studies of drug interactions.
PMCID: PMC187649  PMID: 8452356
17.  Use of a predictor panel to evaluate susceptibility testing methods for ampicillin-sulbactam. 
A predictor panel of clinical isolates that produce a variety of types and amounts of beta-lactamases was used to assess the accuracies of a variety of susceptibility tests for ampicillin-sulbactam. Combinations of ampicillin-sulbactam in ratios of 1:1 and 2:1 and with sulbactam held constant at concentrations of 4 and 8 micrograms/ml were examined in dilution tests performed in agar and broth. In addition, disks containing 10/10, 20/10, 20/20, and 20/30 micrograms of ampicillin-sulbactam were examined in diffusion tests. The results indicated that the MICs obtained in broth microdilution tests performed with each of the four combinations differed, on average, less than twofold. Of the disks tested, the 20/10-micrograms ampicillin-sulbactam disk provided the best separation between susceptible and resistant strains when interpretive criteria for resistance was a zone size of < or = 16 mm and that for susceptibility was a zone size of > or = 21 mm. This disk also gave the highest overall agreement with MICs, regardless of the combination used in the broth microdilution test. Discrepancies between agar and broth microdilution MICs were greater than twofold, on average, and this necessitated recommendation of separate criteria for the two methods. Thus, a predictor panel was very useful in identifying the parameters of susceptibility tests that were most accurate in identifying strains that were susceptible and resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam.
PMCID: PMC187648  PMID: 8452355
18.  Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae: comparison of the double-disk and three-dimensional tests. 
The three-dimensional and clavulanate double-disk potentiation tests were compared as procedures for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production in 32 strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, 31 of which produced TEM-1, TEM-2, TEM-3, TEM-4, TEM-5, TEM-7, TEM-8, TEM-9, TEM-10, TEM-12, TEM-101, SHV-1, SHV-2, SHV-3, SHV-4, SHV-5, CAZ-2, MIR-1, or an unidentified extended-spectrum beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.95, with some strains producing multiple beta-lactamases. The three-dimensional test, which was performed in conjunction with a routine disk diffusion test, detected extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production in 26 of 28 (93%) of the strains that produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The clavulanate double-disk potentiation test detected extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in only 22 of the 28 strains (79%) when it was performed as currently recommended. The three-dimensional test, when performed in conjunction with the disk diffusion test, offered the advantages of providing simultaneous information about both antibiotic susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production, coupled with a greater sensitivity and earlier detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.
PMCID: PMC192203  PMID: 1416878
20.  Use of a predictor panel for development of a new disk for diffusion tests with cefoperazone-sulbactam. 
The proper disk mass for diffusion susceptibility tests with cefoperazone-sulbactam was determined by using a predictor panel of clinical isolates that included staphylococci and gram-negative bacteria intrinsically susceptible, intrinsically resistant, and of various susceptibilities because of the production of different types and amounts of beta-lactamase. A primary panel of 24 isolates was used to screen various disk masses of cefoperazone and sulbactam in disk diffusion susceptibility tests. Regression analyses were performed for each combination by comparing MICs to zone diameters. Analysis of each component demonstrated that decreasing the disk mass of cefoperazone shifted the regression line to the left while decreasing the disk mass of sulbactam diminished the slope of the line. Ten candidate disks that adequately separated susceptible and resistant strains among the primary panel were identified, and these 10 disks, along with the previously proposed 75/30-micrograms disk, were then tested against an expanded panel of 265 isolates. Results indicated that a 30/20-micrograms cefoperazone-sulbactam disk provided the best separation between susceptible and resistant strains when interpretive criteria of less than or equal to 15 mm for resistance, 16 to 19 mm for moderate susceptibility, and greater than or equal to 20 mm for susceptibility were used. They also identified discrepancies between agar and broth microdilution MICs of sufficient size to warrant separate interpretive criteria for the two methods. Overall, the use of a predictor panel to develop interpretive criteria for susceptibility tests appeared to be a very useful approach, especially when antibiotics designed to be used against drug-resistant organisms are involved.
PMCID: PMC188447  PMID: 1605604
21.  In vitro studies with five quinolones: evidence for changes in relative potency as quinolone resistance rises. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1991;35(11):2329-2334.
A panel of 203 staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and miscellaneous nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli were chosen for their various susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin. On the basis of agar dilution susceptibilities, each of the four taxonomic groups was divided into ciprofloxacin-susceptible, moderately resistant, and highly resistant subgroups, and each subgroup was then further analyzed for its susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones CI-960, CI-990, sparfloxacin, and ofloxacin. Although the MICs of each quinolone increased as ciprofloxacin resistance increased, the potency of CI-960 appeared to increase relative to the potencies of the other quinolones. Similarly, the MICs of sparfloxacin and ofloxacin appeared to be less affected by ciprofloxacin resistance than were the MICs of ciprofloxacin or CI-990. Single-step mutants of representative clinical isolates with different levels of ciprofloxacin resistance were selected to determine whether the study quinolones differed in their propensity to select resistant mutants and whether the presence of preexisting ciprofloxacin resistance influenced the subsequent development of resistance. Each of the five fluoroquinolones and nalidixic acid selected mutants that exhibited generally modest decreases in quinolone susceptibility (4- to 16-fold). However, CI-960 inhibited significantly more mutants (80%) than did the other quinolones (39 to 59%) at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml. The presence of preexisting ciprofloxacin resistance appeared to be associated with higher mutational frequencies in coagulase-negative staphylococci exposed to each of the fluoroquinolones and in Serratia marcescens exposed to nalidixic acid. Preexisting ciprofloxacin resistance did not influence the development of resistance in the strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were studied. The results of this study suggest that quinolones are not affected equally by all resistance mechanisms, and although each one can select mutants, some quinolones may be active against these mutants at clinically achievable concentrations.
PMCID: PMC245380  PMID: 1804005
22.  Influence of beta-lactamase inhibitors on the potency of their companion drug with organisms possessing class I enzymes. 
The ability of beta-lactamase inhibitors to induce class I beta-lactamases in certain organisms in vitro suggests a potential for antagonism in vivo. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the ability of sulbactam and clavulanate to induce beta-lactamases in two strains each of Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa both in vitro and in vivo. Induction in vitro was observed only with S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa and generally only when inhibitor concentrations greater than 2 micrograms/ml were examined. A mouse model of lethal infection, designed to detect in vivo antagonism arising from beta-lactamase induction, was used to determine what effect sulbactam and clavulanate would have on the 50% protective doses (PD50s) of cefoperazone and ticarcillin. Antagonism (a significant increase in the PD50) was observed in only 4 of 32 tests. Three of these involved antagonism of cefoperazone by clavulanate, and one involved antagonism of cefoperazone by sulbactam. In 6 of 32 tests, enhancement of efficacy (a significant decrease in PD50) was observed. In four of these, sulbactam enhanced cefoperazone; in one, sulbactam enhanced ticarcillin; and in one, clavulanate enhanced ticarcillin. Four of the six cases of enhancement occurred when the beta-lactamase inhibitor was given at the time of challenge. None of these positive or negative in vivo effects were predicted by in vitro tests. These data suggest that beta-lactamase inhibitors can influence the in vivo potency of their companion drug in both a beneficial and detrimental fashion against organisms with class I beta-lactamases and that these effects cannot be predicted from in vitro assays.
PMCID: PMC245169  PMID: 1929291
23.  High-level resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Cleveland, Ohio. 
Two isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae possessing both TEM-1 and SHV-2 beta-lactamases were isolated from patients at the Cleveland Clinic in 1988. The beta-lactamases were discriminated and identified by using substrate hydrolysis data and an isoelectric focusing procedure in which the gel was overlaid with beta-lactamase inhibitors.
PMCID: PMC245146  PMID: 1854155
24.  Altered phenotypes associated with ampD mutations in Enterobacter cloacae. 
A study was done to determine the genetic locus responsible for altered expression of AmpC beta-lactamase in Enterobacter cloacae 1194E and several mutants derived from E. cloacae 029. These phenotypes were defined by units of enzyme activity found in sonic extracts of cells before and after induction with cefoxitin and included (units uninduced/units induced) the wild-type (7/219), high-level constitutive (10,911/10,862), temperature-sensitive (at 30 degrees C 82/706 and at 42 degrees C 5,031/6,020), and hyperinducible (19/1,688) phenotypes. When the ampD region of each E. cloacae strain was cloned and introduced into an ampD mutant Escherichia coli strain, the altered phenotypes were found to reside within this locus. Furthermore, transformants containing wild-type ampD were poorly inducible at 42 degrees C while those with high-level constitutive or hyperinducible ampD were unaffected by temperature. Since the source of ampD was the only variable in these E. coli transformants, these results suggested that ampD encodes a protein that is involved in sensing the inducer. To test this possibility, the responses to different inducers of E. coli transformants containing various ampD regions were assessed. In the presence of wild-type ampD, transformants responded equally to cefoxitin and cefotetan, regardless of temperature. In the presence of temperature-sensitive ampD, induction by cefotetan was similar to that by cefoxitin at 30 degrees C but greater than that by cefoxitin at 42 degrees C. These results suggest that ampD encodes a protein involved in induction of AmpC beta-lactamase in E. cloacae.
PMCID: PMC245005  PMID: 2024967
25.  Beta-lactamase production in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and resistance to beta-lactam-enzyme inhibitor combinations. 
Recent reports that members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that produce high levels of certain beta-lactamases are often resistant to ticarcillin-clavulanate prompted this study to assess the relationship between type and amount of enzyme produced and susceptibility to ticarcillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoperazone-sulbactam. Agar dilution MICs were determined by using 73 strains of Enterobacteriaceae that produced a single beta-lactamase that had been characterized and quantified and a beta-lactamase-negative control strain of Escherichia coli. For E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, MICs of each combination increased as levels of TEM, SHV-1, or class IV enzymes increased. However, the percentage of strains that were resistant was highest for ticarcillin-clavulanate (32%), with only 18 and 6% resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam, respectively. Strains producing PSE-1, regardless of level, were resistant or moderately susceptible to ticarcillin-clavulanate but were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam. HMS-1 and OHIO-1 beta-lactamases were associated with resistance to ticarcillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam, respectively. High levels of class IV enzymes in Klebsiella oxytoca were associated with resistance to all three combinations. These results indicate that the level and type of beta-lactamase produced by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae are important determinants of susceptibility to beta-lactam-inhibitor combinations, especially ticarcillin-clavulanate.
PMCID: PMC171654  PMID: 2344169

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