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1.  Antimicrobial Activities of Ceragenins against Clinical Isolates of Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿  
The rise in the rates of glycopeptide resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates is concerning and underscores the need for the development of novel potent compounds. Ceragenins CSA-8 and CSA-13, cationic steroid molecules that mimic endogenous antimicrobial peptides, have previously been demonstrated to possess broad-spectrum activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria. We examined the activities of CSA-8 and CSA-13 against clinical isolates of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA), as well as vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and compared them to those of daptomycin, linezolid, and vancomycin by susceptibility testing and killing curve analysis. We also examined CSA-13 for its concentration-dependent activity, inoculum effect, postantibiotic effect (PAE), and synergy in combination with various antimicrobials. Overall, the MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations of CSA-13 were fourfold lower than those of CSA-8. Time-kill curve analysis of the VRSA, VISA, and hVISA clinical isolates demonstrated concentration-dependent bactericidal killing. An inoculum effect was also observed when a higher starting bacterial density was used, with the time required to achieve 99.9% killing reaching 1 h with a 6-log10-CFU/ml starting inoculum, whereas it was ≥24 h with a 8- to 9-log10-CFU/ml starting inoculum with 10× the MIC (P ≤ 0.001). A concentration-dependent PAE was demonstrated with CSA-13, nearly doubling from 2× to 4× the MIC (P = 0.03). With respect to the CSA-13 antimicrobial combinations, time-kill curve analysis showed no difference in the log10 CFU/ml at 24 h for the majority of the organisms tested. However, early synergy at 4 to 8 h was detected against the VRSA Pennsylvania strain (2002) when CSA-13 was tested in combination with gentamicin, while early additivity was demonstrated against all of the other organisms.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01325-06
PMCID: PMC1855519  PMID: 17210765
2.  Activities of Trovafloxacin and Ampicillin-Sulbactam Alone or in Combination versus Three Strains of Vancomycin- Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model 
The recent isolation of clinical strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with intermediate susceptibility (MICs, 8 μg/ml) to vancomycin (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus [VISA]) emphasizes the importance of developing novel antimicrobial regimens and/or agents for future treatment. We studied the activities of ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin alone or in combination against three unique strains of VISA in an in vitro infection model. Two VISA strains were trovafloxacin susceptible (MICs, ≤2 μg/ml); one VISA strain was trovafloxacin resistant (MIC, 4 μg/ml). Trovafloxacin was administered to simulate a dose of 200 or 400 mg every 24 h. Ampicillin-sulbactam was administered to simulate a dose of 3 g every 6 h. Samples were removed from the infection models over 48 h, and reductions in colony counts were compared between regimens. Trovafloxacin (200 mg) produced rapid killing of a control MRSA strain over the 48-h experiment but produced only slight killing of all three VISA strains. The higher dose of trovafloxacin improved killing but did not produce bactericidal activity at 48 h. Ampicillin-sulbactam produced rapid bactericidal activity against all four strains tested, and colony counts at 8 h were at the limits of detection. However, regrowth occurred by 48 h for each strain. The combination of ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin provided additive activity against two of the three VISA strains. In conclusion, trovafloxacin or ampicillin-sulbactam alone did not provide adequate activity against the VISA strains for the 48-h evaluation period, but the combination could help improve activity against some strains of VISA.
PMCID: PMC89837  PMID: 10770744
3.  Daptomycin Dose-Effect Relationship against Resistant Gram-Positive Organisms 
Daptomycin exhibits in vitro bactericidal activity against clinically significant gram-positive bacteria. We employed pharmacodynamic modeling to determine a once-daily dosing regimen of daptomycin that correlates to pharmacodynamic endpoints for different resistant gram-positive clinical strains. An in vitro pharmacodynamic model with an initial inoculum of 6 log10 CFU/ml was used to simulate daptomycin regimens ranging in dose from 0 to 9 mg/kg of body weight/day, with corresponding exposures reflecting free-daptomycin concentrations in serum. Bacterial density was profiled over 48 h for two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-67 and -R515), two glycopeptide intermediate-resistant S. aureus (GISA-992 and -147398), and two vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF-12366 and -SF12047) strains. A sigmoid dose-response model was used to estimate the effective dose required to achieve 50% (ED50) and 80% (ED80) bacterial density reduction at 48 h. Daptomycin MICs for study isolates ranged from 0.125 to 4 μg/ml. Model fitting resulted in an r2 of >0.80 for all tested isolates. Control growths at 48 h ranged from 7.3 to 8.5 log10 CFU/ml. Sigmoid relationships were not superimposable between categorical resistant species: ED50 and ED80 values were 1.9 and 3.1, 4.2 and 5.6, and 5.4 and 6.8 mg/kg for MRSA, GISA, and VREF isolates, respectively. Doses required to achieve ED50 and ED80 values correlated with MIC differences between tested organisms. Corresponding area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h/MIC exposure ratios demonstrated a wide range of ED80 values among the tested isolates. Doses ranging between 3 and 7 mg/kg produced significant bactericidal activity (ED80) against these multidrug-resistant S. aureus and E. faecium isolates.
doi:10.1128/AAC.47.5.1598-1603.2003
PMCID: PMC153299  PMID: 12709328
4.  Activities of LY333328 and Vancomycin Administered Alone or in Combination with Gentamicin against Three Strains of Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(11):2991-2998.
Staphylococcus aureus with intermediate glycopeptide susceptibility (glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus [GISA]) has been isolated from patients with apparent therapy failures. We studied the killing activity of vancomycin over a range of simulated conventional doses (1 to 1.5 g every 12 h) against three of these GISA strains in an in vitro pharmacodynamic infection model. We also studied the activity of a new glycopeptide (LY333328) at a simulated dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h or 5 mg/kg every 24 h, as well as the potential for vancomycin and gentamicin synergy against these GISA strains. Four doses of vancomycin with or without gentamicin or two doses of LY333328 were administered over the 48-h study period. The vancomycin and LY333328 MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for the three GISA strains (strains 14379, 992, and Mu50) were 8 and 8 μg/ml and 1 and 2 μg/ml, respectively, for GISA 14379, 6 and 6 μg/ml and 1 and 1 μg/ml, respectively, for GISA 992, and 8 and 12 μg/ml and 2 and 8 μg/ml, respectively, for GISA Mu50. Vancomycin and LY333328 MICs and MBCs were 0.75 and 1.0 μg/ml and 1 and 1 μg/ml, respectively for a vancomycin-susceptible comparator strain (methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] 494). The addition of albumin to the growth medium increased the LY333328 MICs and MBCs approximately 8- to 16-fold. Vancomycin was bacteriostatic against the three GISA strains at doses of 1, 1.125, and 1.25 g every 12 h. Vancomycin was bactericidal at the dose of 1.5 g every 12 h against all strains; bactericidal activity occurred against the GISA strains at 8- to 10-fold lower ratios of the peak concentration to the MIC and the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC0–24) to the MIC compared to those for the vancomycin-sensitive control strain. Overall, vancomycin activity was significantly correlated with the AUC0–24 (R2 = 0.79; P < 0.001) by multiple stepwise regression analyses. The addition of gentamicin did not significantly affect killing activity against any strain. LY333328 was bactericidal against GISA strains 14379 and 992 and against MRSA 494 only with the 5-mg/kg/day dose simulations. The higher dose of LY333328 also prevented regrowth over the 48-h experiments for all strains tested. Higher doses of vancomycin (1.5 g every 12 h) and LY333328 (5 mg/kg every 24 h) may represent potential treatment options for infections caused by GISA strains.
PMCID: PMC101591  PMID: 11036011
5.  Evaluation of Vancomycin Population Susceptibility Analysis Profile as a Predictor of Outcomes for Patients with Infective Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Infective endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA IE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Vancomycin continues to be the primary treatment for this disease. The emergence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA), defined as a modified population analysis profile (PAP) of ≥0.9, may affect patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of vancomycin subpopulation susceptibility and the clinical outcomes of MRSA IE. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients treated with vancomycin for MRSA IE from 2002 to 2013 at the Detroit Medical Center. A modified PAP was used to measure the vancomycin PAP MIC and the PAP-to-area under the curve (AUC) ratio. Treatment failure was defined as bacteremia for ≥7 days or death attributed to MRSA. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to select a failure breakpoint between the PAP-AUC ratios and the PAP MIC. A total of 202 patients were included in the study. Twenty-seven percent of the patients had left-sided IE, 19% of the strains were hVISA, and 70% of the strains were staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) type IV. Overall treatment failure was observed in 64%; 59% had persistent bacteremia, and the 30-day attributable mortality rate was 21%. The CART breakpoint between failure and success in terms of the PAP-AUC ratio was 0.9035. On logistic regression analysis, intensive care unit (ICU) admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5.2) and a PAP MIC of ≥4 mg/liter (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 8.4) were associated with failure (P = 0.001 and 0.015, respectively). A PAP MIC of ≥4 mg/liter and ICU admission were significant for treatment failure for patients with MRSA IE. The PAP-AUC ratio of ≥0.9035 predicted failure consistent with the hVISA definition. The role of population MIC analysis in predicting outcome with MRSA infections warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02820-13
PMCID: PMC4136033  PMID: 24890596
6.  Impact of Different Antimicrobial Therapies on Clinical and Fiscal Outcomes of Patients with Bacteremia Due to Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci 
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a growing health problem, and uncertainties exist regarding the optimal therapy for bloodstream infection due to VRE. We conducted systematic comparative evaluations of the impact of different antimicrobial therapies on the outcomes of patients with bloodstream infections due to VRE. A retrospective study from January 2008 to October 2010 was conducted at Detroit Medical Center. Unique patients with blood cultures due to VRE were included and reviewed. Three major therapeutic classes were analyzed: daptomycin, linezolid, and β-lactams. Three multivariate models were conducted for each outcome, matching for a propensity score predicting the likelihood of receipt of one of the therapeutic classes. A total of 225 cases of bacteremia due to VRE were included, including 86 (38.2%) cases of VR Enterococcus faecalis and 139 (61.8%) of VR Enterococcus faecium. Bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis was more frequent among subjects treated with β-lactams than among those treated with daptomycin or linezolid. The median dose of daptomycin was 6 mg/kg of body weight (range, 6 to 12 mg/kg). After controlling for propensity score and bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis, differences in mortality were nonsignificant among the treatment groups. Therapy with daptomycin was associated with higher median variable direct cost per day than that for linezolid. This large study revealed the three therapeutic classes (daptomycin, linezolid, and β-lactams) are similarly efficacious in the treatment of bacteremia due to susceptible strains of VRE.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02943-14
PMCID: PMC4068570  PMID: 24798267
7.  Evaluation of Ceftaroline, Vancomycin, Daptomycin, or Ceftaroline plus Daptomycin against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model of Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin has few adequate therapeutic options. Ceftaroline (CPT) is bactericidal against daptomycin (DAP)-nonsusceptible (DNS) and vancomycin-intermediate MRSA, but supporting data are limited for IE. This study evaluated the activities of ceftaroline, vancomycin, daptomycin, and the combination of ceftaroline plus daptomycin against DNS MRSA in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model of simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs). Simulations of ceftaroline-fosamil (600 mg) every 8 h (q8h) (maximum concentration of drug in serum [Cmax], 21.3 mg/liter; half-life [t1/2], 2.66 h), daptomycin (10 mg/kg of body weight/day) (Cmax, 129.7 mg/liter; t1/2, 8 h), vancomycin (1 g) q8h (minimum concentration of drug in serum [Cmin], 20 mg/liter; t1/2, 5 h), and ceftaroline plus daptomycin were evaluated against 3 clinical DNS, vancomycin-intermediate MRSA in a two-compartment, in vitro, PK/PD SEV model over 96 h with a starting inoculum of ∼8 log10 CFU/g. Bactericidal activity was defined as a ≥3-log10 CFU/g reduction from the starting inoculum. Therapeutic enhancement of combinations was defined as ≥2-log10 CFU/g reduction over the most active agent alone. MIC values for daptomycin, vancomycin, and ceftaroline were 4 mg/liter, 4 to 8 mg/liter, and 0.5 to 1 mg/liter, respectively, for all strains. At simulated exposures, vancomycin was bacteriostatic, but daptomycin and ceftaroline were bactericidal. By 96 h, ceftaroline monotherapy offered significantly improved killing compared to other agents against one strain. The combination of DAP plus CPT demonstrated therapeutic enhancement, resulting in significantly improved killing versus either agent alone against 2/3 (67%) strains. CPT demonstrated bactericidal activity against DNS, vancomycin-intermediate MRSA at high bacterial densities. Ceftaroline plus daptomycin may offer more rapid and sustained activity against some MRSA in the setting of high-inoculum infections like IE and should also be considered.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00088-14
PMCID: PMC4068431  PMID: 24663016
8.  Large Retrospective Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety of Ceftaroline Fosamil Therapy 
Ceftaroline has been approved for acute bacterial skin infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Limited clinical experience exists for use outside these indications. The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of patients treated with ceftaroline for various infections. Retrospective analyses of patients receiving ceftaroline ≥72 h from 2011 to 2013 were included. Clinical and microbiological outcomes were analyzed. Clinical success was defined as resolution of all signs and symptoms of infection with no further need for escalation while on ceftaroline treatment during hospitalization. A total of 527 patients received ceftaroline, and 67% were treated for off-label indications. Twenty-eight percent (148/527) of patients had bacteremia. Most patients (80%) were initiated on ceftaroline after receipt of another antimicrobial, with 48% citing disease progression as a reason for switching. The median duration of ceftaroline treatment was 6 days, with an interquartile range of 4 to 9 days. A total of 327 (62%) patients were culture positive, and the most prevalent pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus, with a frequency of 83% (271/327). Of these patients, 88.9% (241/271) were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Clinically, 88% (426/484) achieved clinical success and hospital mortality was seen in 8% (40/527). While on ceftaroline, adverse events were experienced in 8% (41/527) of the patients and 9% (28/307) were readmitted within 30 days after discharge for the same infection. Patients treated with ceftaroline for both FDA-approved and off-label infections had favorable outcomes. Further research is necessary to further describe the role of ceftaroline in a variety of infections and its impact on patient outcomes.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02371-13
PMCID: PMC3993242  PMID: 24550331
9.  A Novel Approach Utilizing Biofilm Time-Kill Curves To Assess the Bactericidal Activity of Ceftaroline Combinations against Biofilm-Producing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Medical device infections frequently require combination therapy. Beta-lactams combined with glycopeptides/lipopeptides are bactericidal against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Novel macrowell kill-curve methods tested synergy between ceftaroline or cefazolin plus daptomycin, vancomycin, or rifampin against biofilm-producing MRSA. Ceftaroline combinations demonstrated the most pronounced bacterial reductions. Ceftaroline demonstrated greatest kill with daptomycin (4.02 ± 0.59 log10 CFU/cm2), compared to combination with vancomycin (3.36 ± 0.35 log10 CFU/cm2) or rifampin (2.68 ± 0.61 log10 CFU/cm2). These data suggest that beta-lactam combinations are useful against MRSA biofilms.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02764-13
PMCID: PMC3993275  PMID: 24614378
10.  Ceftaroline plus Avibactam Demonstrates Bactericidal Activity against Pathogenic Anaerobic Bacteria in a One-Compartment In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model 
Anaerobic pathogens are often associated with polymicrobial infections, such as diabetic foot infections. Patients with these infections are often treated with broad-spectrum, multidrug therapies targeting resistant Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes. The broad-spectrum, non-beta-lactam, beta-lactamase inhibitor avibactam has been combined with ceftaroline and may provide a single-product alternative for complicated polymicrobial infections. We compared the activity of ceftaroline-avibactam (CPA) to that of ertapenem (ERT) against common anaerobic pathogens in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model. Simulations of doses of ceftaroline-fosamil at 600 mg every 8 h (q8h) (maximum free drug concentration [fCmax], 17.04 mg/liter, and half-life [t1/2], 2.66 h) plus avibactam at 600 mg q8h (fCmax, 11.72 mg/liter, and t1/2, 1.8 h) and of ertapenem at 1 g q24h (fCmax, 13 mg/liter, and t1/2, 4 h) were evaluated against two strains of Bacteroides fragilis, one strain of Prevotella bivia, and one strain of Finegoldia magna in an anaerobic one-compartment in vitro PK/PD model over 72 h with a starting inoculum of ∼8 log10 CFU/ml. Bactericidal activity was defined as a reduction of ≥3 log10 CFU/ml from the starting inoculum. Both CPA and ERT were bactericidal against all four strains. CPA demonstrated improved activity against Bacteroides strains compared to that of ERT but had similar activity against Finegoldia magna and P. bivia, although modest regrowth was observed with CPA against P. bivia. No resistance emerged from any of the models. The pharmacokinetics achieved were 92 to 105% of the targets. CPA has potent in vitro activity against common anaerobic pathogens at clinically relevant drug exposures and may be a suitable single product for the management of complicated polymicrobial infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01358-13
PMCID: PMC3910785  PMID: 24217692
11.  Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection 
The prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) infections varies in the literature, a problem complicated by the lack of routine screening procedures; however, limited data suggest that hVISA has been associated with persistent bloodstream infections (BSI) and vancomycin failure, yet these studies have been confounded by design issues. We conducted this study to compare the characteristics of patients with BSI caused by hVISA with those with vancomycin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA) treated with vancomycin. This retrospective, multicenter matched (1:1) cohort study compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hVISA and VSSA. Patients with hVISA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) BSI from 2004 to 2012 were matched to VSSA-MRSA BSI patients. The primary outcome was failure of vancomycin treatment, defined as a composite of persistent bacteremia (≥7 days), persistent signs and symptoms, change of MRSA antibiotic, recurrent BSI, or MRSA-related mortality. We identified 122 matched cases. The overall vancomycin failure rate was 57% (82% hVISA versus 33% VSSA; P < 0.001). The individual components of failure in hVISA versus VSSA were persistent bacteremia, 59% versus 21% (P < 0.001); change in MRSA therapy, 54% versus 25% (P = 0.001); MRSA-related mortality, 21% versus 10% (P = 0.081); and recurrence of BSI, 26% versus 2% (P < 0.001). Using logistic regression analysis and adjusting for covariates, hVISA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3 to 28.7) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11.6) were still independently associated with vancomycin failure. Relative to VSSA BSI, patients with hVISA were more likely to experience failure of vancomycin treatment, including persistent bacteremia and recurrence. Our results indicate that hVISA was responsible for considerable morbidity.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00380-13
PMCID: PMC3754327  PMID: 23796929
12.  Multicenter Study of High-Dose Daptomycin for Treatment of Enterococcal Infections 
Enterococci are among the leading pathogens isolated in hospital-acquired infections. Current antimicrobial options for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are limited. Prior data suggest that daptomycin at >6 mg/kg of body weight/day may be used to treat enterococcal infections. We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness and safety of high-dose daptomycin (HD-daptomycin) therapy (>6 mg/kg) in a multicenter cohort of adult patients with enterococcal infections to describe the characteristics and outcomes. Two hundred forty-five patients were evaluated. Enterococcus faecium was identified in 175 (71%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis in 49 (20%) and Enterococcus spp. in 21 (9%); overall, 204 (83%) isolates were VRE. Enterococcal infections included bacteremia (173, 71%) and intra-abdominal (35, 14%) and bone and joint (25, 10%) infections. The median dosage and duration of HD-daptomycin were 8.2 mg/kg/day (interquartile range [IQR], 7.7 to 9.7) and 10 days (IQR, 6 to 15), respectively. The overall clinical success rate was 89% (193/218), and microbiological eradication was observed in 93% (177/191) of patients. The median time to clearance of blood cultures on HD-daptomycin was 3 days (IQR, 2 to 5). The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 27%, and 5 (2%) patients developed daptomycin-nonsusceptible enterococcal strains while on HD-daptomycin. Seven patients (3%) had creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation, yet no HD-daptomycin regimen was discontinued due to an elevated CPK and all patients were asymptomatic. Overall, there was a high frequency of clinical success and microbiological eradication in patients treated with HD-daptomycin for enterococcal infections, even in patients with complicated and difficult-to-treat infections. No adverse event-related discontinuation of HD-daptomycin was noted. HD-daptomycin may be an option for the treatment of enterococcal infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00526-13
PMCID: PMC3754344  PMID: 23774437
13.  Evaluation of Ceftaroline Activity against Heteroresistant Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Intermediate Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Strains in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model: Exploring the “Seesaw Effect” 
A “seesaw effect” in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been demonstrated, whereby susceptibility to β-lactam antimicrobials increases as glyco- and lipopeptide susceptibility decreases. We investigated this effect by evaluating the activity of the anti-MRSA cephalosporin ceftaroline against isogenic pairs of MRSA strains with various susceptibilities to vancomycin in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model. The activities of ceftaroline at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) (targeted free maximum concentration of drug in serum [fCmax], 15.2 μg/ml; half-life [t1/2], 2.3 h) and vancomycin at 1 g q12h (targeted fCmax, 18 μg/ml; t1/2, 6 h) were evaluated against 3 pairs of isogenic clinical strains of MRSA that developed increased MICs to vancomycin in patients while on therapy using a two-compartment hollow-fiber PK/PD model with a starting inoculum of ∼107 CFU/ml over a 96-h period. Bacterial killing and development of resistance were evaluated. Expression of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 2 and 4 was evaluated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The achieved pharmacokinetic parameters were 98 to 119% of the targeted values. Ceftaroline and vancomycin were bactericidal against 5/6 and 1/6 strains, respectively, at 96 h. Ceftaroline was more active against the mutant strains than the parent strains, with this difference being statistically significant for 2/3 strain pairs at 96 h. The level of PBP2 expression was 4.4× higher in the vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain in 1/3 pairs. The levels of PBP2 and PBP4 expression were otherwise similar between the parent and mutant strains. These data support the seesaw hypothesis that ceftaroline, like traditional β-lactams, is more active against strains that are less susceptible to vancomycin even when the ceftaroline MICs are identical. Further research to explore these unique findings is warranted.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02308-12
PMCID: PMC3716128  PMID: 23545533
15.  Epidemiology of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis: a Case-Case-Control Study 
Although much is known about vancomycin-resistant (VR) Enterococcus faecium, little is known about the epidemiology of VR Enterococcus faecalis. The predilection of VR E. faecalis to transfer the vancomycin resistance determinant to Staphylococcus aureus is much greater than that of VR E. faecium. The epidemiology of VR E. faecalis has important implications regarding the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA); 8 of 13 reported VRSA cases have been from Michigan. A retrospective case-case-control study was conducted at the Detroit Medical Center, located in southeastern Michigan. Unique patients with VR E. faecalis infection were matched to patients with strains of vancomycin-susceptible (VS) E. faecalis and to uninfected controls at a 1:1:1 ratio. Five hundred thirty-two VR E. faecalis cases were identified and were matched to 532 VS E. faecalis cases and 532 uninfected controls. The overall mean age of the study cohort (n = 1,596) was 63.0 ± 17.4 years, and 747 (46.8%) individuals were male. Independent predictors for the isolation of VR E. faecalis (but not VS E. faecalis) compared to uninfected controls were an age of ≥65 years, nonhome residence, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, exposure to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones in the prior 3 months, and immunosuppressive status. Invasive procedures and/or surgery, chronic skin ulcers, and indwelling devices were risk factors for both VR E. faecalis and VS E. faecalis isolation. Cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone exposures were unique, independent predictors for isolation of VR E. faecalis. A majority of case patients had VR E. faecalis present at the time of admission. Control of VR E. faecalis, and ultimately VRSA, will likely require regional efforts focusing on infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01271-12
PMCID: PMC3535915  PMID: 23070173
16.  Ceftaroline Increases Membrane Binding and Enhances the Activity of Daptomycin against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in a Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model 
New antimicrobial agents and novel combination therapies are needed to treat serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reduced susceptibility to daptomycin and vancomycin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combination of ceftaroline plus daptomycin or vancomycin in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. Simulations of ceftaroline-fosamil at 600 mg per kg of body weight every 8 h (q8h) (maximum free-drug concentration in serum [fCmax], 15.2 mg/liter; half-life [t1/2], 2.3 h), daptomycin at 10 mg/kg/day (fCmax, 11.3 mg/liter; t1/2, 8 h), vancomycin at 2 g q12h (fCmax, 30 mg/liter; t1/2, 6 h), ceftaroline plus daptomycin, and ceftaroline plus vancomycin were evaluated against a clinical, isogenic MRSA strain pair: D592 (daptomycin susceptible and heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate) and D712 (daptomycin nonsusceptible and vancomycin intermediate) in a one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model over 96 h. Therapeutic enhancement of combinations was defined as ≥2 log10 CFU/ml reduction over the most active single agent. The effect of ceftaroline on the membrane charge, cell wall thickness, susceptibility to killing by the human cathelicidin LL37, and daptomycin binding were evaluated. Therapeutic enhancement was observed with daptomycin plus ceftaroline in both strains and vancomycin plus ceftaroline against D592. Ceftaroline exposure enhanced daptomycin-induced depolarization (81.7% versus 72.3%; P = 0.03) and killing by cathelicidin LL37 (P < 0.01) and reduced cell wall thickness (P < 0.001). Fluorescence-labeled daptomycin was bound over 7-fold more in ceftaroline-exposed cells. Whole-genome sequencing and mutation analysis of these strains indicated that change in daptomycin susceptibility is related to an fmtC (mprF) mutation. The combination of daptomycin plus ceftaroline appears to be potent, with rapid and sustained bactericidal activity against both daptomycin-susceptible and -nonsusceptible strains of MRSA.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01586-12
PMCID: PMC3535972  PMID: 23070161
17.  Evaluation of the Novel Combination of High-Dose Daptomycin plus Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Using an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model of Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):5709-5714.
Daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) Staphylococcus aureus is found in difficult-to-treat infections, and the optimal therapy is unknown. We investigated the activity of high-dose (HD) daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole de-escalated to HD daptomycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against 4 clinical DNS methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of simulated endocardial vegetations (109 CFU/g). Simulated regimens included HD daptomycin at 10 mg/kg/day for 14 days, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole at 160/800 mg every 12 h for 14 days, HD daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 14 days, and the combination for 7 days de-escalated to HD daptomycin for 7 days and de-escalated to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 7 days. Differences in CFU/g (at 168 and 336 h) were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Tukey's post hoc test. Daptomycin MICs were 4 μg/ml (SA H9749-1, vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus; R6212, heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus) and 2 μg/ml (R5599 and R5563). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole MICs were ≤0.06/1.19 μg/ml. HD daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole displayed rapid bactericidal activity against SA H9749-1 (at 7 h) and R6212 (at 6 h) and bactericidal activity against R5599 (at 72 h) and R5563 (at 36 h). A ≥8 log10 CFU/g decrease was observed with HD daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against all strains (at 48 to 144 h), which was maintained with de-escalation to HD daptomycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole at 336 h. The combination for 14 days and the combination for 7 days de-escalated to HD daptomycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was significantly better than daptomycin monotherapy (P < 0.05) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole monotherapy (P < 0.05) at 168 and 336 h. Combination therapy followed by de-escalation offers a novel bactericidal therapeutic alternative for high-inoculum, serious DNS MRSA infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01185-12
PMCID: PMC3486589  PMID: 22908167
18.  Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Vertebral Osteomyelitis Cases Complicated by Bacteremia Treated with High-Dose Daptomycin and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):5990-5993.
We report two cases of daptomycin (DAP)-nonsusceptible (DNS) vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) vertebral osteomyelitis cases complicated by bacteremia treated with high-dose daptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Both patients responded rapidly and favorably to this combination. The clinical isolates from the two patients were tested post hoc in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to confirm the bactericidal activity and enhancement of daptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The combination of high-dose daptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should be explored further for the treatment of DNS VISA strains.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01046-12
PMCID: PMC3486608  PMID: 22869580
19.  Evaluation of Standard- and High-Dose Daptomycin versus Linezolid against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Isolates in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Daptomycin MICs for enterococci are typically 1- to 2-fold higher than those for Staphylococcus aureus, and there is an imminent need to establish the optimal dose for appropriate treatment of enterococcal infections. We investigated the bactericidal activity of daptomycin at various dose exposures compared to that of linezolid against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model utilizing simulated endocardial vegetations over 96 h. Daptomycin at doses of 6, 8, 10, and 12 mg/kg of body weight/day and linezolid at a dose of 600 mg every 12 h were evaluated against two clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains (EFm11499 and 09-184D1051), one of which was linezolid resistant (09-184D1051), and one clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strain (EFs11496). Daptomycin MICs were 4, 2, and 0.5 μg/ml for EFm11499, 09-184D1051, and EFs11496, respectively. Bactericidal activity, defined as a ≥3 log10 CFU/g reduction from the initial colony count, was demonstrated against all three isolates with all doses of daptomycin; however, bactericidal activity was not sustained with the daptomycin 6- and 8-mg/kg/day regimens. Linezolid was bacteriostatic against EFm11499 and displayed no appreciable activity against 09-184D1051 or EFs11496. Concentration-dependent killing was displayed with more sustained reduction in colony count (3.58 to 6.46 and 5.89 to 6.56 log10 CFU/g) at 96 h for the simulated regimen of daptomycin at doses of 10 and 12 mg/kg/day, respectively (P ≤ 0.012). No E. faecium mutants with reduced susceptibility were recovered at any dosage regimen; however, the E. faecalis strain developed reduced daptomycin susceptibility with daptomycin at 6, 8, and 10 but not at 12 mg/kg/day. Daptomycin displayed a dose-dependent response against three VRE isolates, with high-dose daptomycin producing sustained bactericidal activity. Further research is warranted.
doi:10.1128/AAC.06439-11
PMCID: PMC3370794  PMID: 22470111
20.  Evaluation of Ceftaroline Activity versus Ceftriaxone against Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with Various Susceptibilities to Cephalosporins in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model 
Drug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a frequent pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia, is increasing. Ceftaroline (active metabolite of ceftaroline fosamil) is a broad-spectrum intravenous cephalosporin with activity in vitro against drug-resistant Gram-positive organisms. We investigated ceftaroline at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) (maximum concentration of the free, unbound drug in serum [fCmax] is 15.2 μg/ml, and half-life [T1/2] is 2.5 h) versus ceftriaxone at 1 g q24h (fCmax = 23 μg/ml, T1/2 = 8 h) against six clinical S. pneumoniae isolates in a one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic 96-h model (starting inoculum of 107 CFU/ml). Differences in CFU/ml (at 24 to 96 h) were evaluated by analysis of variance with a Tukey's post hoc test. Bactericidal activity was defined as a ≥3 log10 CFU/ml decrease from the initial inoculum. Ceftaroline MICs were 0.06, 0.015, ≤0.008, 0.25, 0.25, and 0.5 μg/ml, and ceftriaxone MICs were 0.5, 0.25, 0.25, 4, 4, and 8 μg/ml for SP 1477, SP 669, SP 132, SP 211, SP 90, and SP 1466, respectively. Against the ceftaroline- and ceftriaxone-susceptible strain SP 1477, ceftaroline displayed sustained bactericidal activity (3 to 96 h, −5.49 log10 CFU/ml) and was significantly (P ≤ 0.012) better than ceftriaxone (72 to 96 h, −2.03 log10 CFU/ml). Against the ceftriaxone-resistant strains, ceftaroline displayed sustained bactericidal activity at 96 h and was significantly better than ceftriaxone (SP211 [−5.91 log10 CFU/ml, P ≤ 0.002], SP 90 [−5.26 log10 CFU/ml, P ≤ 0.008], and SP1466 [−5.14 log10 CFU/ml, P ≤ 0.042]). Ceftaroline was the more effective drug and displayed sustained bactericidal activity. Ceftaroline fosamil may provide a therapeutic option to treat ceftriaxone-resistant S. pneumoniae infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.06185-11
PMCID: PMC3346590  PMID: 22354289
21.  Comparison of the Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes Associated with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Vancomycin-Resistant E. faecium Bacteremia 
In published studies, cohorts of patients with bacteremia due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) have predominantly been infected with Enterococcus faecium. Little is known about the epidemiology and outcomes associated with bacteremia due to VR Enterococcus faecalis. A retrospective study of isolates obtained from January 2008 to October 2010 was conducted at Detroit Medical Center (DMC). Unique patients with blood cultures positive for VRE were reviewed. Outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression. During the study period, 105 cases of bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis and 197 cases of bacteremia due to VR E. faecium were identified. The mean age in the study cohort was 61.5 ± 15 years; 162 subjects (53.6%) were male. After controlling for a propensity score, bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis was associated with >2-fold-lower in-hospital mortality than bacteremia due to VR E. faecium. Interestingly, bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis was associated with longer hospital stay after VRE isolation, although total length of stay was similar for groups with VR E. faecalis and VR E. faecium. Bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis was associated with a >2-fold-lower risk for mortality than bacteremia due to VR E. faecium, possibly due to the availability of β-lactam therapeutics for treatment of VR E. faecalis.
doi:10.1128/AAC.06299-11
PMCID: PMC3346609  PMID: 22354290
22.  Evaluation of Ceftaroline Activity versus Daptomycin (DAP) against DAP-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model ▿ † 
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of ceftaroline, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin, as a therapeutic option for the treatment of daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Four clinical DNS MRSA strains, R5717, R5563, R5996 (heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus) and R5995 (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus) were evaluated in a two-compartment hollow-fiber in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model at a starting inoculum of 107 CFU/ml for 96 h. Simulated regimens were ceftaroline at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) (maximum free-drug concentration [fCmax], 15.2 μg/ml; serum half-life [t1/2], 2.3 h), daptomycin at 6 mg/kg q24h (fCmax, 7.9 μg/ml; t1/2, 8 h), and daptomycin at 10 mg/kg q24h (fCmax, 15.2 μg/ml; t1/2, 8 h). Differences in CFU/ml between 24 and 96 h were evaluated by analysis of variance with Tukey's post-hoc test. Bactericidal activity was defined as a ≥3-log10 CFU/ml decrease in the colony count from the initial inoculum. The ceftaroline MIC values were 0.25, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.5 μg/ml, and the daptomycin MIC values were 2, 2, 4, and 4 μg/ml for R5717, R5563, R5996, and R5995, respectively. Ceftaroline displayed sustained bactericidal activity against 3 of the 4 strains at 96 h (R5717, −3.1 log10 CFU/ml; R5563, −2.5 log10 CFU/ml; R5996, −5.77 log10 CFU/ml; R5995, −6.38 log10 CFU/ml). Regrowth occurred during the daptomycin at 6-mg/kg q24h regimen (4 strains) and the daptomycin at 10-mg/kg q24h regimen (3 strains). At 96 h, ceftaroline was significantly more active, resulting in CFU/ml counts lower than those obtained with daptomycin at 6 mg/kg q24h (4 strains, P ≤ 0.008) and daptomycin at 10 mg/kg q24 h (3 strains, P ≤ 0.001). Isolates with increased MIC values for daptomycin (all 4 strains) but not for ceftaroline were recovered. Ceftaroline was effective against the 4 isolates tested and may provide a clinical option for the treatment of DNS MRSA infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00347-11
PMCID: PMC3122384  PMID: 21576449
23.  Impact of High-Inoculum Staphylococcus aureus on the Activities of Nafcillin, Vancomycin, Linezolid, and Daptomycin, Alone and in Combination with Gentamicin, in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(12):4665-4672.
We evaluated the impact of high (9.5 log10 CFU/g) and moderate (5.5 log10 CFU/g) inocula of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively) on the activities of nafcillin, linezolid, vancomycin, and daptomycin, alone and in combination with gentamicin in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations over 72 h. Human therapeutic dosing regimens for nafcillin, daptomycin, vancomycin, linezolid, and gentamicin were simulated. At a moderate inoculum, nafcillin (MSSA only), vancomycin, and daptomycin demonstrated equivalent and significant (P < 0.01) bactericidal (99.9% kill) activities (decreases of 3.34 ± 1.1, 3.28 ± 0.4, and 3.34 ± 0.8 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Bactericidal activity was demonstrated at 4 h for nafcillin and daptomycin and at 32 h for vancomycin. Linezolid demonstrated bacteriostatic activity over the course of the study period. At a high inoculum, daptomycin exhibited bactericidal activity against both MSSA and MRSA by 24 h (decrease of 5.51 to 6.31 ± 0.10 log10 CFU/g). Nafcillin (versus MSSA), vancomycin, and linezolid (MSSA and MRSA) did not achieve bactericidal activity throughout the 72-h experiment. The addition of gentamicin increased the rate of 99.9% kill to 8 h for daptomycin (P < 0.01) and 48 h for nafcillin (MSSA only) (P = 0.01). The addition of gentamicin did not improve the activity of vancomycin or linezolid for either isolate for the 72-h period. Overall, high-inoculum Staphylococcus aureus had a significant impact on the activities of nafcillin and vancomycin. In contrast, daptomycin was affected minimally and linezolid was not affected by inoculum.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.12.4665-4672.2004
PMCID: PMC529225  PMID: 15561842
24.  In Vitro Activities of a Novel Cephalosporin, CB-181963 (CAB-175), against Methicillin-Susceptible or -Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Glycopeptide-Intermediate Susceptible Staphylococci 
We examined the activity of CB-181963, a novel cephalosporin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n = 200), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) (n = 50), glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus species (GISS) (n = 47), and VRSA (n = 2) isolates. CB-181963 exhibited MIC profiles similar to those of linezolid against MRSA and GISS; however, activity against MSSA was similar to that of vancomycin. Time-kill study results of investigations of activity against MRSA, MSSA, and GISS at 24 h were as follows: CB-181963 activity = vancomycin activity > linezolid activity (P < 0.001); CB-181963 = quinupristin-dalfopristin = vancomycin > linezolid (P < 0.05); CB-181963 > linezolid (P = 0.003); and CB-181963 = quinupristin-dalfopristin = vancomycin. CB-181963 may provide an alternative treatment for multidrug-resistant staphylococci.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.7.2719-2723.2004
PMCID: PMC434184  PMID: 15215134
25.  Bactericidal Activities of Daptomycin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, and Linezolid against Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2003;47(12):3960-3963.
In search of treatment alternatives against vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations incorporating protein and a high inoculum was used to simulate daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and vancomycin against the Michigan VRSA strain. Daptomycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin exhibited the greatest bacterial reductions, and all tested agents except vancomycin exhibited bactericidal activity against the VRSA.
doi:10.1128/AAC.47.12.3960-3963.2003
PMCID: PMC296181  PMID: 14638509

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