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1.  Molecular Characterization of OXA-20, a Novel Class D β-Lactamase, and Its Integron from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mus clinical isolate produces OXA-18, a pI 5.5 class D extended-spectrum β-lactamase totally inhibited by clavulanic acid (L. N. Philippon, T. Naas, A.-T. Bouthors, V. Barakett, and P. Nordmann, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:2188–2195, 1997). A second β-lactamase was cloned, and the recombinant Escherichia coli clone pPL10 expressed a pI 7.4 β-lactamase which conferred high levels of amoxicillin and ticarcillin resistance and which was partially inhibited by clavulanic acid. The 2.5-kb insert from pPL10 was sequenced, and a 266-amino-acid protein (OXA-20) was deduced; this protein has low amino acid identity with most of the class D β-lactamases except OXA-2, OXA-15, and OXA-3 (75% amino acid identity with each). OXA-20 is a restricted-spectrum oxacillinase and is unusually inhibited by clavulanic acid. OXA-20 is a peculiar β-lactamase because its translation initiates with a TTG (leucine) codon, which is rarely used as a translational origin in bacteria. Exploration of the genetic environment of oxa20 revealed the presence of the following integron features: (i) a second antibiotic resistance gene, aacA4; (ii) an intI1 gene; and (iii) two 59-base elements, each associated with either oxa20 or aacA4. This integron is peculiar because it lacks the 3′ conserved region, and therefore is not a sul1-associated integron like most of them, and because its 3′ end is located within tnpR, a gene involved in the transposition of Tn5393, a gram-negative transposon. P. aeruginosa Mus produces two novel and unrelated oxacillinases, OXA-18 and OXA-20, both of which are inhibited by clavulanic acid.
PMCID: PMC105865  PMID: 9687410
2.  Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of the Chromosomal Class A β-Lactamases of Raoultella (formerly Klebsiella) planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica 
Enterobacterial strains of Raoultella spp. display a penicillinase-related β-lactam resistance pattern suggesting the presence of a chromosomal bla gene. From whole-cell DNA of Raoultella planticola strain ATCC 33531T and Raoultella ornithinolytica strain ATCC 31898T, bla genes were cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli. Each gene encoded an Ambler class A β-lactamase, named PLA-1 and ORN-1 for R. planticola and R. ornithinolytica, respectively. These β-lactamases (291 amino acids), with the same pI value of 7.8, had a shared amino acid identity of 94%, 37 to 47% identity with the majority of the chromosome-encoded class A β-lactamases previously described for Enterobacteriaceae, and 66 to 69% identity with the two β-lactamases LEN-1 and SHV-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, the highest identity percentage (69 to 71%) was found with the plasmid-mediated β-lactamase TEM-1. PLA-1, which displayed very strong hydrolytic activity against penicillins, also displayed significant hydrolytic activity against cefepime and, to a lesser extent, against cefotaxime and aztreonam, but there was no hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime. Such a substrate profile suggests that the Raoultella β-lactamases PLA-1 and ORN-1 should be classified into the group 2be of the β-lactamase classification of K. Bush, G. A. Jacoby, and A. A. Medeiros (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:1211-1233, 1995). The highly homologous regions upstream of the blaPLA-1A and blaORN-1A genes comprised a nucleotide sequence identical to the −35 region and another one very close to the −10 region of the blaLEN-1 gene. From now on, as the bla gene sequences of the most frequent Raoultella and Klebsiella species are available, the bla gene amplification method can be used to differentiate these species from each other, which the biochemical tests currently carried out in the clinical laboratory are unable to do.
PMCID: PMC310189  PMID: 14693555
16.  Further Proofs of Concept for the Carba NP Test 
PMCID: PMC3910897  PMID: 24470491

Results 1-25 (203)