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2.  Bactericidal Effect and Pharmacodynamics of Cethromycin (ABT-773) in a Murine Pneumococcal Pneumonia Model 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2002;46(10):3185-3192.
Cethromycin (ABT-773), a new ketolide, possesses potent in vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo bactericidal activity of cethromycin against macrolide-susceptible and -resistant S. pneumoniae in a murine pneumonia model and to describe the pharmacodynamic (PD) profile of cethromycin. Eight (two macrolide susceptible, six macrolide resistant) clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were investigated. Cyclophosphamide administration rendered ICR mice transiently neutropenic prior to intratracheal inoculation with 0.05 ml of an S. pneumoniae suspension containing 107 to 108 CFU/ml. Oral cethromycin was initiated 12 to 14 h postinoculation over a dosage range of 0.1 to 800 mg/kg of body weight/day. Lungs from seven to eight mice per treatment and control groups were collected at 0 and 24 h posttherapy to assess bacterial density. The cumulative mortality (n = 12 to 13) was assessed at 120 h (end of therapy) and at 192 h (3 days posttherapy). Recovery of pneumococci from the lungs of infected animals prior to the initiation of therapy ranged from 4.6 to 7.2 log10 CFU. Growth in untreated control animals over a 24-h study period increased 0.3 to 2.7 log10 CFU. Cethromycin demonstrated a substantial bactericidal effect, regardless of macrolide susceptibility. Correlation between changes in bacterial density (24 h) and survival over both 120 and 192 h were statistically significant. All three PD parameters demonstrated a significant correlation with changes in log10 CFU/lung (Spearman's correlation coefficient, P < 0.001); however, the goodness of fit as assessed with the maximum effect (Emax) model revealed that the maximum concentration of free drug in serum (Cmax free)/MIC and the area under the free drug concentration-time curve (AUCfree)/MIC best explained the relationship between drug exposure and reductions in viable bacterial counts. These data reveal that an approximate cethromycin AUCfree/MIC of 50 or Cmax free/MIC of 1 results in bacteriostatic effects, while higher values (twofold) maximize survival.
PMCID: PMC128791  PMID: 12234843
3.  Pharmacokinetics of Oritavancin in Plasma and Skin Blister Fluid following Administration of a 200-Milligram Dose for 3 Days or a Single 800-Milligram Dose 
Oritavancin is a novel glycopeptide currently being developed for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), including those caused by multidrug resistant gram-positive pathogens. The disposition of oritavancin in skin structures was investigated using a cantharide-induced blister fluid model. Seventeen healthy male subjects received oritavancin, but only 16 subjects were evaluated after one subject discontinued study drug. Each subject (eight per dose group) received 200 mg of oritavancin once a day for 3 days (group A) or 800 mg as one single dose (group B). Group A plasma samples and exudates from blister fluid were collected on days 3, 4, 7, 9, and 12 and on days 3, 4, 7, and 9, respectively. Group B samples and exudates were collected on days 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 and on days 1, 2, 5, and 7, respectively. Drug concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay and, subsequently, pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Differences between treatment groups in ratios for area under the concentration-time curve for blister fluid and plasma (AUCblister fluid/AUCplasma ratios) were evaluated using a t test (α = 0.05). Mean maximum concentration of drug in plasma or blister fluid was approximately 8-fold and 11-fold higher in plasma than in blister fluid following the 200- or 800-mg doses of oritavancin, respectively. Mean AUCblister fluid/AUCplasma ratios at 24 h were 0.190 (standard deviation [SD], 0.052) and 0.182 (SD, 0.062) for groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.791). To place these results in a clinical context, mean drug concentrations in blister fluid exceed the oritavancin MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited of Staphylococcus aureus (2 μg/ml) by approximately 2- to 5.5-fold at 12 h and 1.5- to 3-fold at 24 h following administration of both dosing regimens. These results support the potential use of oritavancin for the treatment of cSSSI.
PMCID: PMC538852  PMID: 15616289
5.  Pharmacodynamics of Moxifloxacin and Levofloxacin at Simulated Epithelial Lining Fluid Drug Concentrations against Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Recent clinical failures associated with levofloxacin treatment for Streptococcus pneumoniae infections and growing evidence of frequent mutations in the isolate population have led to increased concerns regarding fluoroquinolone resistance. Our objective was to characterize the efficacies of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin against various genotypes of S. pneumoniae after simulated bronchopulmonary exposures. An in vitro model was used to simulate a levofloxacin concentration of 500 mg and a moxifloxacin concentration of 400 mg, which were previously determined to be the concentrations in the epithelial lining fluid of older adults receiving once-daily dosing. The effects of the drugs were tested against six S. pneumoniae containing various mutations. Bacterial density and resistance were quantitatively assessed over 48 h. The S. pneumoniae isolate with no mutation displayed a 4-log reduction in CFU after treatment with both agents and did not develop resistance. Isolates containing the parC or parE mutation or both mutations regrew and developed resistance when they were exposed to levofloxacin, despite an unbound area under the concentration-time curve (AUC):MIC ratio of ∼100. When the isolate containing the parC and gyrA mutations was exposed to levofloxacin, there was a half-log reduction in the number of CFU compared to that for the control, but the isolate subsequently regrew. Likewise, levofloxacin did not kill the isolate containing the parC, gyrA, and parE mutations. Moxifloxacin sustained the killing of all bacterial isolates tested without the development of resistance. Levofloxacin did not sustain bacterial killing and did not prevent the emergence of further resistance in mutants with the parC or parE mutation or both mutations, even though an unbound AUC:MIC ratio for exposure well above the breakpoint of 30 to 40 established in the literature for S. pneumoniae was maintained. Moxifloxacin was effective against all isolates tested, despite the presence of isolates with two- and three-step mutations, for which the MICs were increased.
PMCID: PMC375308  PMID: 15047522
6.  Phase I, Open-Label, Safety and Pharmacokinetic Study To Assess Bronchopulmonary Disposition of Intravenous Eravacycline in Healthy Men and Women 
This study evaluated the pulmonary disposition of eravacycline in 20 healthy adult volunteers receiving 1.0 mg of eravacycline/kg intravenously every 12 h for a total of seven doses over 4 days. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h on day 4, with each subject randomized to undergo a single bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h. Drug concentrations in plasma, BAL fluid, and alveolar macrophages (AM) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the urea correction method was used to calculate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by noncompartmental methods. Penetration for ELF and AM was calculated by using a ratio of the area under the concentration time curve (AUC0–12) for each respective parameter against free drug AUC (fAUC0–12) in plasma. The total AUC0–12 in plasma was 4.56 ± 0.94 μg·h/ml with a mean fAUC0–12 of 0.77 ± 0.14 μg·h/ml. The eravacycline concentrations in ELF and AM at 2, 4, 6, and 12 h were means ± the standard deviations (μg/ml) of 0.70 ± 0.30, 0.57 ± 0.20, 0.34 ± 0.16, and 0.25 ± 0.13 with a penetration ratio of 6.44 and 8.25 ± 4.55, 5.15 ± 1.25, 1.77 ± 0.64, and 1.42 ± 1.45 with a penetration ratio of 51.63, respectively. The eravacycline concentrations in the ELF and AM achieved greater levels than plasma by 6- and 50-fold, respectively, supporting further study of eravacycline for patients with respiratory infections.
PMCID: PMC4023791  PMID: 24468780
7.  Efficacies of Ceftazidime-Avibactam and Ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Murine Lung Infection Model 
This study aimed to determine the efficacy of human-simulated plasma exposures of 2 g ceftazidime plus 0.5 g avibactam every 8 h administered as a 2-h infusion or a ceftazidime regimen that produced a specific epithelial lining fluid (ELF) percentage of the dosing interval in which serum free drug concentrations remain above the MIC (fT>MIC) against 28 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates within a neutropenic murine pneumonia model and to assess the impact of host infection on pulmonary pharmacokinetics. The fT>MIC was calculated as the mean and upper end of the 95% confidence limit. Against the 28 P. aeruginosa strains used, the ceftazidime-avibactam MICs were 4 to 64 μg/ml, and those of ceftazidime were 8 to >128 μg/ml. The change in log10 CFU after 24 h of treatment was analyzed relative to that of 0-h controls. Pharmacokinetic studies in serum and ELF were conducted using ceftazidime-avibactam in infected and uninfected mice. Humanized ceftazidime-avibactam doses resulted in significant exposures in the lung, producing reductions of >1 log10 CFU against P. aeruginosa with ceftazidime-avibactam MICs of ≤32 μg/ml (ELF upper 95% confidence limit for fT>MIC [ELF fT>MIC] of ≥19%), except for one isolate with a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of 16 μg/ml. No efficacy was observed against the isolate with a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of 64 μg/ml (ELF fT>MIC of 0%). Bacterial reductions were observed with ceftazidime against isolates with ceftazidime MICs of 32 μg/ml (ELF fT>MIC of ≥12%), variable efficacy at ceftazidime MICs of 64 μg/ml (ELF fT>MIC of ≥0%), and no activity at a ceftazidime MIC of 128 μg/ml, where the ELF fT>MIC was 0%. ELF fT>MICs were similar between infected and uninfected mice. Ceftazidime-avibactam was effective against P. aeruginosa, with MICs of up to 32 μg/ml with an ELF fT>MIC of ≥19%. The data suggest the potential utility of ceftazidime-avibactam for treatment of lung infections caused by P. aeruginosa.
PMCID: PMC3957844  PMID: 24342641
8.  Efficacy of Humanized Carbapenem and Ceftazidime Regimens against Enterobacteriaceae Producing OXA-48 Carbapenemase in a Murine Infection Model 
Enterobacteriaceae producing the OXA-48 carbapenemase are emerging worldwide, leaving few treatment options. Efficacy has been demonstrated in vivo with ceftazidime against a ceftazidime-susceptible OXA-48 isolate but not with imipenem despite maintaining susceptibility. The relationship between phenotype and in vivo efficacy was assessed for OXA-48 producers using humanized regimens of 2 g doripenem every 8 h (q8h; 4 h infusion), 1 g ertapenem q24h, 2 g ceftazidime q8h (2 h inf), and 500 mg levofloxacin q24h. Each regimen was evaluated over 24 h against an isogenic pair (wild-type and OXA-48 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains) and six clinical OXA-48 isolates with and without other extended-spectrum β-lactamases in immunocompetent and neutropenic murine thigh infection models. Efficacy was determined using the change in bacterial density versus 24-h growth controls in immunocompetent studies and 0-h controls in neutropenic studies. Bacterial reductions of ≥1 log CFU were observed with all agents for the wild-type strain. Consistent with low MICs, ceftazidime and levofloxacin exhibited efficacy against the isogenic OXA-48 strain, whereas doripenem did not, despite having a susceptible MIC; no activity was observed with ertapenem, consistent with a resistant MIC. Similar trends were observed for the clinical isolates evaluated. Ceftazidime, levofloxacin, and ertapenem efficacy against isogenic and clinical OXA-48-producing strains correlated well with phenotypic profiles and pharmacodynamic targets, whereas efficacy with doripenem was variable over the MIC range studied. These data suggest that carbapenems may not be a reliable treatment for treating OXA-48 producers and add to previous observations with KPC and NDM-1 suggesting that genotype may better predict activity of the carbapenems than the phenotypic profile.
PMCID: PMC3957853  PMID: 24379200
9.  Clinical Pharmacodynamics of Antipseudomonal Cephalosporins in Patients with Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia 
Advanced-generation cephalosporins are frequently used for empirical coverage of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to their activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Providing optimal antibiotic exposure is essential to achieving successful response in patients with VAP. We evaluated exposures of two antipseudomonal cephalosporins, ceftazidime and cefepime, in patients with VAP due to Gram-negative bacilli to identify the pharmacodynamic parameter predictive of microbiological success. Population pharmacokinetic models were used to estimate individual free drug exposures. Pharmacodynamic indices were determined for each patient using the baseline Gram-negative bacilli with the highest drug MIC. Classification and regression tree analysis was utilized to partition exposure breakpoints, and multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of microbiological success. A total of 73 patients (18 receiving ceftazidime therapy and 55 receiving cefepime therapy) were included. MICs ranged widely from 0.047 to 96 μg/ml. The microbiological success rate was 58.9%. Predictive breakpoints were identified for all pharmacodynamic parameters, including a serum fT > MIC greater than 53% (P = 0.02). When controlling for APACHE II (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.93 to 1.09; P = 0.85) and combination therapy (OR, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 2.19; P = 0.59), achieving a greater than 53% fT > MIC remained a significant predictor of success (OR, 10.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 92.3; P = 0.04). In patients with VAP due to Gram-negative bacilli, serum exposure of greater than 53% fT > MIC was found to be a significant predictor of favorable microbiological response for antipseudomonal cephalosporins. These data are useful when determining dosing regimens for cephalosporin agents under development for pneumonia.
PMCID: PMC3957877  PMID: 24342637
10.  In Vivo Efficacy of Human Simulated Regimens of Carbapenems and Comparator Agents against NDM-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae 
Doripenem and ertapenem have demonstrated efficacy against several NDM-1-producing isolates in vivo, despite having high MICs. In this study, we sought to further characterize the efficacy profiles of humanized regimens of standard (500 mg given every 8 h) and high-dose, prolonged infusion of doripenem (2 g given every 8 h, 4-h infusion) and 1 g of ertapenem given intravenously every 24 h and the comparator regimens of ceftazidime at 2 g given every 8 h (2-h infusion), levofloxacin at 500 mg every 24 h, and aztreonam at 2 g every 6 h (1-h infusion) against a wider range of isolates in a murine thigh infection model. An isogenic wild-type strain and NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and eight clinical NDM-1-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested in immunocompetent- and neutropenic-mouse models. The wild-type strain was susceptible to all of the agents, while the isogenic NDM-1-producing strain was resistant to ceftazidime, doripenem, and ertapenem. Clinical NDM-1-producing strains were resistant to nearly all five of the agents (two were susceptible to levofloxacin). In immunocompetent mice, all of the agents produced ≥1-log10 CFU reductions of the isogenic wild-type and NDM-1-producing strains after 24 h. Minimal efficacy of ceftazidime, aztreonam, and levofloxacin against the clinical NDM-1-producing strains was observed. However, despite in vitro resistance, ≥1-log10 CFU reductions of six of eight clinical strains were achieved with high-dose, prolonged infusion of doripenem and ertapenem. Slight enhancements of doripenem activity over the standard doses were obtained with high-dose, prolonged infusion for three of the four isolates tested. Similar efficacy observations were noted in neutropenic mice. These data suggest that carbapenems are a viable treatment option for infections caused by NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
PMCID: PMC3957895  PMID: 24379195
11.  In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Polymyxin B and Tigecycline Alone and in Combination against Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii 
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is increasing in prevalence. Polymyxin B and tigecycline are among the most active antibiotics used against this pathogen in vitro. Past in vitro studies, however, neglected the importance of simulating exposures observed in humans to determine their antibacterial effects. In this study, four carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates were evaluated using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Free-drug exposures using 1 mg/kg of body weight of polymyxin B every 12 h (q12h), 100 and 200 mg tigecycline q12h, and the combination of these regimens were simulated. The microbiological responses to these treatments were measured by the change in log10 CFU/ml over 24 h and the area under the bacterial killing and regrowth curve (AUBC). Resistance was assessed by a population analysis profile (PAP) conducted after 24 h of treatment. Polymyxin B achieved a reduction on the order of −2.05 ± 0.68 log10 CFU/ml against these A. baumannii isolates, while all isolates grew to control levels with tigecycline monotherapy. Combination therapy with polymyxin B plus 200 mg tigecycline q12h achieved a greater reduction in bacterial density than did therapy with polymyxin B alone (−3.31 ± 0.71 versus −2.05 ± 0.68 log10 CFU/ml, P < 0.001) but not significantly different than combination therapy with 100 mg tigecycline q12h (−2.45 ± 1.00 log10 CFU/ml, P = 0.370). Likewise, combination therapy with polymyxin B plus 200 mg tigecycline q12h significantly reduced the AUBC compared to that with polymyxin B alone (62.8 ± 8.9 versus 79.4 ± 10.5 log10 CFU/ml, P < 0.05). No changes in the PAP from baseline were observed for either antibiotic alone. In this study, combination therapy with simulated exposures of polymyxin B and tigecycline at an aggressive dose of 200 mg q12h produced synergistic or additive effects on humans against these multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains.
PMCID: PMC3910875  PMID: 24277022
12.  In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Human Simulated Exposures of Ceftaroline and Daptomycin against MRSA, hVISA, and VISA with and without Prior Vancomycin Exposure 
The effects of prior vancomycin exposure on ceftaroline and daptomycin therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have not been widely studied. Humanized free-drug exposures of vancomycin at 1 g every 12 h (q12h), ceftaroline at 600 mg q12h, and daptomycin at 10 mg/kg of body weight q24h were simulated in a 96-h in vitro pharmacodynamic model against three MRSA isolates, including one heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) isolate and one VISA isolate. A total of five regimens were tested: vancomycin, ceftaroline, and daptomycin alone for the entire 96 h, and then sequential therapy with vancomycin for 48 h followed by ceftaroline or daptomycin for 48 h. Microbiological responses were measured by the changes in log10 CFU during 96 h from baseline. Control isolates grew to 9.16 ± 0.32, 9.13 ± 0.14, and 8.69 ± 0.28 log10 CFU for MRSA, hVISA, and VISA, respectively. Vancomycin initially achieved ≥3 log10 CFU reductions against the MRSA and hVISA isolates, followed by regrowth beginning at 48 h; minimal activity was observed against VISA. The change in 96-h log10 CFU was largest for sequential therapy with vancomycin followed by ceftaroline (−5.22 ± 1.2, P = 0.010 versus ceftaroline) and for sequential therapy with vancomycin followed by ceftaroline (−3.60 ± 0.6, P = 0.037 versus daptomycin), compared with daptomycin (−2.24 ± 1.0), vancomycin (−1.40 ± 1.8), and sequential therapy with vancomycin followed by daptomycin (−1.32 ± 1.0, P > 0.5 for the last three regimens). Prior exposure of vancomycin at 1 g q12h reduced the initial microbiological response of daptomycin, particularly for hVISA and VISA isolates, but did not affect the response of ceftaroline. In the scenario of poor vancomycin response for high-inoculum MRSA infection, a ceftaroline-containing regimen may be preferred.
PMCID: PMC3910832  PMID: 24217694
13.  Characterizing In Vivo Pharmacodynamics of Carbapenems against Acinetobacter baumannii in a Murine Thigh Infection Model To Support Breakpoint Determinations 
Pharmacodynamic profiling data of carbapenems for Acinetobacter spp. are sparse. This study aimed to determine the pharmacodynamic targets of carbapenems for Acinetobacter baumannii based on a range of percentages of the dosing interval in which free drug concentrations remained above the MIC (fT>MIC) in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model. fT>MIC values of 23.7%, 32.8%, and 47.5% resulted in stasis, 1-log reductions, and 2-log reductions in bacterial density after 24 h, respectively. The pharmacodynamic targets of carbapenems for A. baumannii demonstrated in vivo are similar to those of other Gram-negative bacteria.
PMCID: PMC3910748  PMID: 24165174
14.  Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Cefazolin in Patients with Lower Limb Infections 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2013;57(11):5679-5683.
Cefazolin, a first-generation cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci, is often used to treat lower limb infections caused by these pathogens. Antimicrobial penetration is often limited in these patients due to compromised vasculature. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the exposure profile of cefazolin in serum and tissue in patients with lower limb infections. An in vivo microdialysis catheter was inserted into the tissue near the margin of the wound and constantly perfused with lactated Ringer's solution. Steady-state serum and tissue samples were simultaneously collected over a dosing interval. Serum protein binding was also assessed. Serum concentrations were analyzed by noncompartmental analysis. Tissue concentrations were corrected for percent in vivo recovery by using the retrodialysis technique. Seven patients with a mean weight of 95.45 ± 18.51 kg and a mean age of 54 ± 19 years were enrolled. Six patients received 1 g every 8 h, and one patient received 2 g every 24 h due to acute kidney injury. The free area under the curve from 0 to 8 h (fAUC0–8) values for serum and wound were 48.0 ± 18.66 and 56.35 ± 41.17 μg · h/ml, respectively, for the patients receiving 1 g every 8 h. The fAUC0–24 values for serum and wound were 1,326.1 and 253.9 μg · h/ml, respectively, for the single patient receiving 2 g every 24 h. The mean tissue penetration ratio (tissue/serum fAUC ratio) was 1.06. These data suggest that the amount of time that free-drug concentrations remain above the MIC (fT>MIC) for cefazolin in wound tissue is adequate to treat patients with lower limb infections.
PMCID: PMC3811311  PMID: 24041887
15.  In Vivo Efficacy of Humanized Ceftaroline Fosamil-Avibactam Exposures in a Polymicrobial Infection Model 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2013;57(11):5674-5678.
Although Gram-positive cocci are the most common pathogens in diabetic foot infections, these infections often are polymicrobial. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a simulated human dose of 600 mg ceftaroline fosamil–600 mg avibactam every 8 h as a 1-h infusion in a polymicrobial in vivo murine model. Seven isolates were used (3 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] isolates, 1 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] isolate, 1 Escherichia coli isolate, 1 Enterobacter cloacae isolate, and 1 Bacteroides fragilis isolate) in various combinations in an immunocompromised polymicrobial tissue infection to assess the efficacy of the simulated regimen. Each infection was comprised of at least one S. aureus isolate with a MIC of 0.25 to 1 μg/ml and one Enterobacteriaceae isolate with a MIC of 1 or 4 μg/ml. Eight of 16 infections also included B. fragilis, with a MIC of 0.5 μg/ml, as a third organism. Efficacy was evaluated after 24 h as the change in log10 CFU from the level of 0-h controls. Efficacy was seen against all isolate combinations, with at least a 1-log kill against Enterobacteriaceae and a minimum of a 2-log kill against S. aureus and B. fragilis isolates. These bacterial reductions correlate with free drug concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) produced by the humanized regimen of 100, 86, and 56% at MICs of 1, 2, and 4 μg/ml, respectively. The humanized regimen of 600 mg ceftaroline fosamil–600 mg avibactam every 8 h as a 1-h infusion showed predictable efficacy against all infections tested in this model. These data support further clinical investigation of ceftaroline fosamil-avibactam for the treatment of polymicrobial tissue infections.
PMCID: PMC3811285  PMID: 24041891
16.  Adaptation-Based Resistance to Siderophore-Conjugated Antibacterial Agents by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has become so threatening to human health that new antibacterial platforms are desperately needed to combat these deadly infections. The concept of siderophore conjugation, which facilitates compound uptake across the outer membrane by hijacking bacterial iron acquisition systems, has received significant attention in recent years. While standard in vitro MIC and resistance frequency methods demonstrate that these compounds are potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents whose activity should not be threatened by unacceptably high spontaneous resistance rates, recapitulation of these results in animal models can prove unreliable, partially because of the differences in iron availability in these different methods. Here, we describe the characterization of MB-1, a novel siderophore-conjugated monobactam that demonstrates excellent in vitro activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa when tested using standard assay conditions. Unfortunately, the in vitro findings did not correlate with the in vivo results we obtained, as multiple strains were not effectively treated by MB-1 despite having low MICs. To address this, we also describe the development of new in vitro assays that were predictive of efficacy in mouse models, and we provide evidence that competition with native siderophores could contribute to the recalcitrance of some P. aeruginosa isolates in vivo.
PMCID: PMC3754284  PMID: 23774440
17.  Efficacy of Humanized Carbapenem Exposures against New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase (NDM-1)-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in a Murine Infection Model 
Enterobacteriaceae producing the novel carbapenemase New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) are emerging worldwide. While these organisms often display high levels of in vitro resistance to multiple antibiotics, in vivo efficacy data are lacking. Here, the activities of humanized ertapenem and doripenem exposures were characterized against a wild-type K. pneumoniae and its derived isogenic strains harboring either an NDM-1 or KPC-2 plasmid in immunocompetent mice. In addition, four clinical isolates expressing NDM-1 were evaluated. Human-simulated regimens of ertapenem at 1 g every 24 h and high-dose, prolonged infusion of doripenem at 2 g every 8 h as a 4-h infusion were evaluated over 24 h, and efficacy was determined by the change in bacterial density compared to that in 24-h growth controls. CFU reductions in bacterial density of greater than 1 log unit were observed against the wild-type strain as well as the derived isogenic NDM-1 strain, while no reduction was observed against the derived KPC-2 strain. Postexposure MICs confirmed the in vitro maintenance of the ertapenem resistance marker in both the NDM-1 and KPC-2 strains. Similar to the case for the isogenically derived NDM-1 strain, bacterial density was reduced at 24 h against all four clinical NDM-1 isolates showing variable levels of MICs for carbapenems, with near-maximal activity of both agents occurring when the doripenem MIC was ≤8 μg/ml. While carbapenem monotherapy does not appear to be an option against KPC-based infections, these data suggest that carbapenem monotherapy may be a viable option for treating NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae under certain conditions, and this warrants further in vivo exploration.
PMCID: PMC3719754  PMID: 23733463
18.  Human Simulated Studies of Aztreonam and Aztreonam-Avibactam To Evaluate Activity against Challenging Gram-Negative Organisms, Including Metallo-β-Lactamase Producers 
Secondary to the stability of aztreonam against metallo-β-lactamases, coupled with avibatam's neutralizing activity against often coproduced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC enzymes, the combination of aztreonam and avibactam has been proposed as a principal candidate for the treatment of infections with metallo-β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative organisms. Using the neutropenic-mouse thigh infection model, we evaluated the efficacy of human simulated doses of aztreonam-avibactam and aztreonam against 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 13 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which 25 produced metallo-β-lactamases. Additionally, six P. aeruginosa isolates were also evaluated in immunocompetent animals. A humanized aztreonam dose of 2 g every 6 h (1-h infusion) was evaluated alone and in combination with avibactam at 375 or 600 mg every 6 h (1-h infusion), targeting the percentage of the dosing interval in which free-drug concentrations remained above the MIC (fT>MIC). Efficacy was evaluated as the change in bacterial density after 24 h compared with the bacterial density at the initiation of dosing. Aztreonam monotherapy resulted in reductions of two of the Enterobacteriaceae bacterial isolates (aztreonam MIC, ≤32 μg/ml; fT>MIC, ≥38%) and minimal activity against the remaining isolates (aztreonam MIC, ≥128 μg/ml; fT>MIC, 0%). Alternatively, aztreonam-avibactam therapy resulted in the reduction of all 14 Enterobacteriaceae isolates (aztreonam-avibactam MICs, ≤16 μg/ml; fT>MIC, ≥65%) and no difference between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was noted. Similar pharmacodynamically predictable activity against P. aeruginosa was noted in studies with neutropenic and immunocompetent mice, with activity occurring when the MICs were ≤16 μg/ml and variable efficacy noted when the MICs were ≥32 μg/ml. Again, no difference in efficacy between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was observed. Aztreonam-avibactam represents an attractive treatment option for infections with metallo-β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative pathogens that coproduce ESBLs or AmpC.
PMCID: PMC3697389  PMID: 23650162
19.  In Vitro Activity of Novel Gyrase Inhibitors against a Highly Resistant Population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
The activity of five novel gyrase inhibitors was evaluated against 303 nonduplicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains collected from 53 North American institutions. The most active compound, GP-2, displayed MIC50 and MIC90 values of 1 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Cross-resistance to other commercially available antipseudomonal compounds was not evident, as no major change was observed in the gyrase inhibitor MIC distribution when stratified by nonsusceptible phenotypes, including the fluoroquinolones and those isolates classified as multidrug resistant (MDR).
PMCID: PMC3716190  PMID: 23571537
20.  Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of P-873 versus Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Neutropenic Murine Thigh Infection Model 
P-873 is a novel compound in the RX-04 pyrrolocytosine series of protein synthesis inhibitors currently under development by Rib-X Pharmaceuticals. We evaluated the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of this compound against Klebsiella pneumoniae using a murine neutropenic thigh infection model. P-873 demonstrated potent and rapid in vivo activity against this organism with enhanced penetration and duration of exposure in thigh tissue.
PMCID: PMC3623370  PMID: 23357768
21.  Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Linezolid in Moderately to Morbidly Obese Adults 
The pharmacokinetics of linezolid was assessed in 20 adult volunteers with body mass indices (BMI) of 30 to 54.9 kg/m2 receiving 5 intravenous doses of 600 mg every 12 h. Pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted using compartmental and noncompartmental methods. The mean (±standard deviation) age, height, and weight were 42.2 ± 12.2 years, 64.8 ± 3.5 in, and 109.5 ± 18.2 kg (range, 78.2 to 143.1 kg), respectively. Linezolid pharmacokinetics in this population were best described by a 2-compartment model with nonlinear clearance (original value, 7.6 ± 1.9 liters/h), which could be inhibited to 85.5% ± 12.2% of its original value depending on the concentration in an empirical inhibition compartment, the volume of the central compartment (24.4 ± 9.6 liters), and the intercompartment transfer constants (K12 and K21) of 8.04 ± 6.22 and 7.99 ± 5.46 h−1, respectively. The areas under the curve for the 12-h dosing interval (AUCτ) were similar between moderately obese and morbidly obese groups: 130.3 ± 60.1 versus 109.2 ± 25.5 μg · h/ml (P = 0.32), and there was no significant relationship between the AUC or clearance and any body size descriptors. A significant positive relationship was observed for the total volume of distribution with total body weight (r2 = 0.524), adjusted body weight (r2 = 0.587), lean body weight (r2 = 0.495), and ideal body weight (r2 = 0.398), but not with BMI (r2 = 0.171). Linezolid exposure in these obese participants was similar overall to that of nonobese patients, implying that dosage adjustments based on BMI alone are not required, and standard doses for patients with body weights up to approximately 150 kg should provide AUCτ values similar to those seen in nonobese participants.
PMCID: PMC3591894  PMID: 23254421
22.  KPC Presence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Has Minimal Impact on the In Vivo Efficacy of Carbapenem Therapy 
While reports of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) production among Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains have emerged from a number of countries worldwide, outcome data are lacking. This is the first report evaluating how KPC production in P. aeruginosa impacts the efficacy of carbapenems by using the murine thigh infection model. Our findings suggest that the impact of KPC-2 in vivo is less pronounced than would be anticipated based on the in vitro potency.
PMCID: PMC3553679  PMID: 23254422
23.  Tigecycline Displays In Vivo Bactericidal Activity against Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae after 72-Hour Exposure Period 
Progressively enhanced activity of a humanized tigecycline (TGC) regimen was noted over 3 days against an extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolate and an ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. Bacterial density reduction approximated 3 log10 approaching bactericidal activity at 72 h. This level of activity has not been previously noted for compounds such as tetracyclines, normally considered bacteriostatic antimicrobials. Extended regimen studies in vivo may aid in better delineation of antimicrobial effects, producing improved correlation with clinical outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3535914  PMID: 23114764
24.  Efficacy of Ceftaroline Fosamil in a Staphylococcal Murine Pneumonia Model 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(12):6160-6165.
Ceftaroline fosamil is a cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship of ceftaroline fosamil against S. aureus in an immunocompromised murine pneumonia model, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of the humanized regimen of 600 mg intravenously (i.v.) every 12 h. Seventeen S. aureus (2 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus [MSSA], 15 MRSA) isolates with ceftaroline MICs of 0.5 to 4 μg/ml were utilized. The pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline in serum and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were evaluated to determine bronchopulmonary exposure profiles in infected and uninfected animals, using single and human-simulated doses. Serum fT>MIC (the percentage of time that free drug concentrations remain above the MIC) of 17% to 43% was required to produce a 1-log10 kill in the dose-ranging studies. These targets were readily achieved with the humanized exposure profile, where decreases of 0.64 to 1.95 log10 CFU were observed against 13 MRSA and both MSSA isolates tested. When taken as a composite, the fT>MICs required for stasis and a 1-log10 kill were 16% and 41%, respectively. ELF concentrations were similar to serum concentrations across the dosing interval in infected and uninfected animals. The serum fT>MIC targets required in this lung infection model were similar to those observed with ceftaroline against S. aureus in a murine thigh infection model. Exposures simulating the human dose of 600 mg i.v. every 12 h achieved pharmacodynamic targets against MRSA and MSSA considered susceptible by current U.S. FDA breakpoints.
PMCID: PMC3497181  PMID: 22985880
25.  Comparative In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacies of Human Simulated Doses of Ceftazidime and Ceftazidime-Avibactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(12):6137-6146.
The combination of ceftazidime and avibactam possesses potent activity against resistant Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We compared the efficacies of human simulated doses of ceftazidime and ceftazidime-avibactam using a hollow-fiber system and neutropenic and immunocompetent murine thigh infection models. Twenty-seven clinical P. aeruginosa isolates with ceftazidime MICs of 8 to 128 mg/liter and ceftazidime-avibactam MICs of 4 to 32 mg/liter were utilized in neutropenic mouse studies; 15 of the isolates were also evaluated in immunocompetent mice. Six isolates were studied in both the hollow-fiber system and the neutropenic mouse. In both systems, the free drug concentration-time profile seen in humans given 2 g of ceftazidime every 8 h (2-h infusion), with or without avibactam at 500 mg every 8 h (2-h infusion), was evaluated. In vivo activity was pharmacodynamically predictable based on the MIC. Ceftazidime decreased bacterial densities by ≥0.5 log unit for 10/27 isolates, while ceftazidime-avibactam did so for 22/27 isolates. In immunocompetent animals, enhancements in activity were seen for both drugs, with ceftazidime achieving reductions of ≥0.3 log unit for 10/15 isolates, whereas ceftazidime-avibactam did so against all 15 isolates. In vitro, ceftazidime resulted in regrowth by 24 h against all isolates, while ceftazidime-avibactam achieved stasis or better against 4/7 isolates. Mutants with elevated ceftazidime-avibactam MICs appeared after 24 h from 3/7 isolates studied in vitro; however, no resistant mutants were detected in vivo. Against this highly ceftazidime-nonsusceptible population of P. aeruginosa, treatment with human simulated doses of ceftazidime-avibactam resulted in pharmacodynamically predictable activity, particularly in vivo, against isolates with MICs of ≤16 mg/liter, and this represents a potential new option to combat these difficult-to-treat pathogens.
PMCID: PMC3497209  PMID: 22985878

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