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1.  In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of a new carbapenem, SM-7338. 
SM-7338, a new carbapenem, inhibited most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae at MICs of 0.015 to 0.25 microgram/ml, including Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Proteus vulgaris isolates resistant to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, piperacillin, and gentamicin. It was two- to eightfold more active than imipenem, but it inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1 to 8 micrograms/ml, which was comparable to the activity of imipenem. Haemophilus, Neisseria, and Branhamella species were inhibited by less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml, which was superior to the activity of imipenem. SM-7338 inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci at 0.25 microgram/ml, but for methicillin-resistant isolates MICs were 4 to 16 micrograms/ml. Group A, B, and C streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae were inhibited by less than or equal to 0.03 microgram/ml. Bacteroides species, including clindamycin-resistant isolates, were inhibited by 0.25 microgram/ml. There was no major inoculum size effect, and the MBCs were within a dilution of the MICs. SM-7338 was more active than imipenem at an acid pH under anaerobic conditions. Plasmid beta-lactamases of TEM-1, TEM-2, TEM-3, TEM-5, SHV-1, SHV-2, PSE-1, PSE-2, PSE-3, OXA-2, OXA-3, OXA-4, OXA-5, and OXA-7; Staphylococcus aureus enzymes; and the chromosomal beta-lactamases P-99 and K-1; Morganella species; and Proteus vulgaris did not hydrolyze SM-7338. The repeated transfer of organisms increased the MICs of SM-7338, as it did the MICs of imipenem.
PMCID: PMC176054  PMID: 2789493
2.  In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of a new monobactam, B0-1165. 
B0-1165 is a 1-carboxy-1-cyclopropoxyamino,4-fluoromethyl monobactam. It inhibited the majority of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter diversus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia rettgeri, Providencia stuartii, Yersinia enterocolitica, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Salmonella and Shigella species at less than or equal to 0.125 microgram/ml. Overall, its in vitro activity was similar to that of aztreonam, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime, with minor differences in the MICs for individual isolates. Enterobacter species and Citrobacter freundii which were derepressed for beta-lactamase production and had higher MICs of aztreonam and ceftazidime had MICs that ranged from 4 to 32 micrograms/ml. B0-1165 had activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa similar to that of aztreonam but lower than that of ceftazidime and carumonam. Pseudomonas maltophilia and other Pseudomonas species were resistant or had MICs of 32 micrograms/ml, as did Acinetobacter species. B0-1165 did not inhibit streptococcal, staphylococcal, or anaerobic species, such as Clostridium and Bacteroides species. B0-1165 was not hydrolyzed to any appreciable extent by common plasmid- and chromosomally Richmond-Sykes type 1a-, 1c-, and 1d-mediated beta-lactamases. It inhibited the Enterobacter cloacae P99 and inducible Pseudomonas aeruginosa beta-lactamases. B0-1165 was a poor inducer of beta-lactamase, but exposing E. cloacae and C. freundii to B0-1165 selected for resistant isolates. Overall, B0-1165 had in vitro properties similar to those of other monobactams currently available or under investigation.
PMCID: PMC174767  PMID: 3300528
3.  In vitro activity of the new fluoroquinolone CP-99,219. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1994;38(11):2615-2622.
The in vitro activity of the new fluoroquinolone CP-99,219 [7-(3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexyl)naphthyridone] was compared with those of four other quinolones against 541 gram-negative, 283 gram-positive, and 70 anaerobic bacterial isolates. CP-99,219 inhibited 90% of many isolates in the family Enterobacteriaceae at a concentration of < or = 0.25 micrograms/ml (range, < 0.008 to 1 microgram/ml), an activity comparable to those of tosufloxacin and sparfloxacin and two times greater than that of temafloxacin. Ninety percent of the Proteus vulgaris, Providencia rettgeri, Providencia stuartii, and Serratia marcescens isolates were inhibited by 0.5 to 2 micrograms of CP-99,219 per ml. CP-99,219 inhibited 90% of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Haemophilus influenzae isolates at 1 and 0.015 micrograms/ml, respectively. The compound inhibited methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus at 0.06 micrograms/ml, whereas a ciprofloxacin concentration of 1 microgram/ml was required to inhibit these organisms. CP-99,219 inhibited 90% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates at a concentration of < or = 4 micrograms/ml, while ciprofloxacin and temafloxacin had MICs against these isolates of > 16 micrograms/ml. Streptococci were inhibited by < or = 0.25 micrograms/ml, an activity comparable to that of tosufloxacin. CP-99,219 was eight times more active than ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacteroides species were inhibited by CP-99,219 at a concentration of 2 micrograms/ml, whereas inhibition of these species required 4- and 16-microgram/ml concentrations of tosufloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. The MBCs of CP-99,219 ranged from two to four times the MICs, and inoculum size had a minimal effect on MIC. CP-99,219 was active against P. aeruginosa at pH 5.5, with only a fourfold increase in MIC compared with values obtained at pH 7.5. The addition of up to 9 mM Mg(2+) increased the MIC range from 0.03 to 0.06 microgram/ml to 0.12 to 0.5 microgram/ml. In view of its excellent in vitro activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, CP-99,219 merits further study to determine it's clinical pharmacologic properties and potential for therapeutic use.
PMCID: PMC188251  PMID: 7872757
4.  In vitro activity of MC-352, a new 16-membered macrolide. 
The in vitro activity of MC-352, 3,4'-dideoxy-5-O-mycaminosyltylonolide, was compared with those of erythromycin, clarithromycin, and rokitamycin. The MC-352 MIC90 (MIC for 90% of isolates) for erythromycin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml, similar to those of the other agents. The MC-352 MIC50 for erythromycin-resistant S. aureus was 2 micrograms/ml, similar to that of rokitamycin. The MC-352 MIC90 (0.12 micrograms/ml) for Streptococcus pyogenes was similar to those of erythromycin and clarithromycin and superior to that of rokitamycin, and the MC-352 MIC90 for group B, C, and G streptococci was 0.25 microgram/ml. MC-352 and clarithromycin had an MIC90 of 0.12 microgram/ml for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Erythromycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis was inhibited by MC-352 at 1 microgram/ml, but the MIC for constitutively erythromycin-resistant isolates was greater than 16 micrograms/ml. Legionella pneumophila was inhibited by less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml. MC-352 was the most active agent against Bacteroides fragilis, with an MIC90 of 8 micrograms/ml, and was more active than the other agents against Haemophilus influenzae, with an MIC90 of 4 micrograms/ml. Moraxella spp. were inhibited by MC-352 at less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml. The MIC90 for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Serratia spp. was greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml. MC-352 was bactericidal for S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae, and its activity was not altered by human serum.
PMCID: PMC192033  PMID: 1416853
5.  In vitro activity of sparfloxacin. 
Sparfloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, inhibited the majority of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae at less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml. It was less active than ciprofloxacin but more active than ofloxacin. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it was less active than ciprofloxacin but twofold more active than ofloxacin. It inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and most Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes isolates at 0.25 micrograms/ml, whereas ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin inhibited these isolates at 2 micrograms/ml. Bacteroides fragilis was inhibited by less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Sparfloxacin was less active at an acidic pH and in the presence of Mg2+. Resistance to sparfloxacin was produced by repeated exposure, although the frequency of single-step mutants was less than 10(-9).
PMCID: PMC245051  PMID: 2039209
6.  In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of GR69153, a new long-acting cephalosporin. 
GR69153, a new parenteral cephalosporin, inhibited 90% of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter diversus, shigellae, and salmonellae at less than 0.25 micrograms/ml (MIC90). It had activity comparable to those of ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefepime, and E-1040. Against cephalosporinase-producing Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens, MICs ranged from 0.12 to greater than 32 micrograms/ml, and cefpirome and cefepime were the most active agents against these species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly susceptible to GR69153, and for this organism the MIC90 was less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml, which was similar to the E-1040 MIC90, but most Pseudomonas cepacia and Xanthomonas maltophilia isolates were resistant. GR69153 inhibited Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella branhamella at less than or equal to 0.5 micrograms/ml. For Staphylococcus aureus GR69153 MICs were similar to those of ceftazidime and E-1040. Enterococci and listeriae were resistant to GR69153, but Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae were inhibited by 0.5 micrograms/ml. The activity of GR69153 was not affected by serum. GR69153 was not inactivated by the beta-lactamases of Staphylococcus aureus, TEM-1, TEM-2, SHV-1, and BRO-1, but it was hydrolyzed by TEM-3, TEM-9, and morganellae. GR69153 had overall activity comparable to those of commercially available parenteral cephalosporins or those found in clinical investigations. It is more active against bacteroides than most available aminothiazolyl parenteral cephalosporins are. GR69153 is hydrolyzed by the new plasmid beta-lactamases, and thus, its primary value may be related to its pharmacological properties.
PMCID: PMC244988  PMID: 2024959
7.  In vitro activity of dirithromycin (LY 237216) compared with activities of other macrolide antibiotics. 
Dirithromycin inhibited Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and other hemolytic streptococci at concentrations of less than or equal to 0.03 to 0.12 micrograms/ml, with 90% inhibition at 0.12 micrograms/ml, which is comparable to results using erythromycin. Group A streptococci, listeriae, and enterococci resistant to erythromycin were resistant to dirithromycin. Erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci were inhibited by 0.5 micrograms/ml, but for erythromycin-resistant isolates MICs were greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml. For Haemophilus influenzae, MICs were greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml, two- to fourfold greater than for erythromycin. The activity of dirithromycin against staphylococci and streptococci was not decreased by the addition of human serum.
PMCID: PMC171944  PMID: 2126695
8.  In vitro activity of Ro 23-9424, a dual-action cephalosporin, compared with activities of other antibiotics. 
The in vitro activity of Ro 23-9424, which is desacetyl-cefotaxime linked to fleroxacin, was compared with the activities of cefotaxime, desacetyl-cefotaxime, fleroxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. It inhibited the majority of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, except for some Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae strains, at less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml and had an MIC for 90% of strains tested (MIC90) of 8 micrograms/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Most group A, B, C, and G streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae were inhibited at less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml. Ninety percent of the staphylococci were inhibited at less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml, except for some methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The MIC90S of Ro 23-9424 for Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes were greater than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml. Ninety percent of Clostridium perfringens isolates were inhibited by less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml, whereas Bacteroides fragilis had an MIC90 of 32 micrograms/ml. There was a minimal inoculum size effect. The MICs and MBCs were either identical or within a twofold dilution. The MICs of Ro 23-9424 for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus increased 16- to 128-fold after 2 weeks of transfer in the presence of Ro 23-9424, showing that the presence of two agents does not prevent resistance.
PMCID: PMC171554  PMID: 2327765
9.  Comparative in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of FK482, a new oral cephalosporin. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1989;33(10):1795-1800.
FK482 is an oral aminothiazolyl hydroxyimino cephalosporin with a C-3 vinyl group. Its activity was compared with those of cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefixime, and amoxicillin-clavulanate. FK482 inhibited 90% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates at 1 micrograms/ml and 90% of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates at less than or equal to 0.012 micrograms/ml, superior to cephalexin and cefuroxime and similar to cefixime. It did not inhibit oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. FK482 inhibited 90% of Enterococcus faecalis isolates at 8 micrograms/ml. Although 90% of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella species, and Shigella species isolates were inhibited by less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml, FK482 was less active than cefixime against Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Morganella, Serratia, and Providencia species, with MICs for many isolates of greater than 8 micrograms/ml. FK482 inhibited Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at concentrations comparable to that of cefixime and superior to those of cephalexin and cfaclor. Bacteroides and Pseudomonas species were resistant. FK482 was not hydrolyzed by the TEM-1 and TEM-2 beta-lactamases but was hydrolyzed by TEM-3 and the Proteus vulgaris enzyme. It had a high affinity for chromosomal beta-lactamases.
PMCID: PMC172757  PMID: 2589845
10.  In vitro activity of S-ofloxacin. 
S-Ofloxacin, the optically active form of ofloxacin, was twice as active as the S,R mixture of ofloxacin against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and gram-positive species. Of the Enterobacteriaceae, 90% were inhibited by less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml and 90% of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes isolates were inhibited by 0.5 microgram/ml. Bacteroides fragilis was inhibited by 4 micrograms/ml. Organisms resistant to ofloxacin were resistant to S-ofloxacin. Like ofloxacin activity, the activity of S-ofloxacin was reduced by Mg2+ and by acid pH. Spontaneous mutational resistance to S-ofloxacin was similar to that to ofloxacin.
PMCID: PMC176070  PMID: 2506805
11.  In vitro activity of E-1040, a novel cephalosporin with potent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1988;32(11):1666-1675.
The in vitro activity of E-1040 [(6R,7R)-3-[(4-carbamoyl-1-quinuclidinio)methyl]-7-[2-(5-amino-1,2 ,4- thiadiazol-3-yl)-(Z)-2-methoxyiminoacetoamido]-8-oxo-5-thia- 1- azabicyclo(4,2,0)oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate], a novel cephalosporin, was compared with that of ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefepime, imipenem, and gentamicin. E-1040 inhibited 50% of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus and Neisseria species at less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml, and the MIC for 90% of strains tested ranged from 0.06 to 2 micrograms/ml. It was two- to fourfold more active than ceftazidime and similar in activity to cefepime and cefpirome. It inhibited Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Serratia, and Morganella species that were resistant to ceftazidime. E-1040 inhibited imipenem-, piperacillin-, aztreonam-, and tobramycin-resistant P. aeruginosa. It was less active against Xanthomonas maltophilia and P. cepacia but inhibited other Pseudomonas species. The activity of E-1040 against staphylococci and hemolytic streptococci was similar to that of ceftazidime, but E-1040 was less active than cefepime and cefpirome. It did not inhibit Bacteroides spp. There was no inoculum effect or medium effect, and MBCs were within a dilution of MICs. Plasmid beta-lactamases TEM-1, TEM-2, TEM-3 (CTX-1), SHV-1, Staphylococcus aureus, PSE, and CARB did not hydrolyze E-1040. Chromosomal beta-lactamases P99 and K-1 did not hydrolyze E-1040; E-1040 had poor affinity for these enzymes, with a Ki of greater than 100 microM.
PMCID: PMC175949  PMID: 3150915
12.  In vitro activity of an oral iminomethoxy aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, R-3746. 
The in vitro activity of R-3746, an iminomethoxy aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with a CH2OCH3 moiety at position 3, was compared with those of other antibiotics. R-3746 inhibited the majority of hemolytic streptococci (groups A, B, C, F, and G) and Streptococcus pneumoniae at less than 0.06 micrograms/ml, which was comparable to the activity of amoxicillin, 2- to 8-fold more active than cefixime, and 16- to 64-fold more active than cefaclor and cephalexin. Ninety percent of beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were inhibited at a concentration 0.25 micrograms/ml, but it was less active against Branhamella spp. It did not inhibit (MIC, greater than 16 micrograms/ml) enterococci, viridans group streptococci, or methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The MICs of R-3746 for 90% of strains tested for Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Citrobacter diversus; Proteus mirabilis; and Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia spp. were less than or equal to 1 micrograms/ml. It was two- to eightfold less active than cefixime but was markedly superior to cefaclor, cephalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. R-3746 inhibited 50% of Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, Morganella spp., Providencia spp., Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens at less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml. Pseudomonas spp. were resistant. Fifty percent of Clostridium spp. were inhibited by 0.5 micrograms/ml, but MICs for Bacteroides spp. were greater than 128 micrograms/ml. R-3746 was not appreciably hydrolyzed by most chromosomal and plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases.
PMCID: PMC172250  PMID: 3260766
13.  Comparative in vitro activity of a new fluorinated 4-quinolone, T-3262 (A-60969). 
The in vitro activity of a new quinolone, T-3262 [A-60969; DL-7-(3-amino-1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-6-fluoro-1-, 4-dihydro-4-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid monohydrate], was compared with those of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, ceftazidime, imipenem, and gentamicin. T-3262 inhibited 90% of isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae at a concentration of less than or equal to 0.25 micrograms/ml. It was two to four times more active than ofloxacin and similarly or slightly less active than ciprofloxacin. Ninety percent of isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inhibited at 0.5 micrograms/ml. It was 4- to 8-fold more active than ciprofloxacin and 8- to 16-fold more active than ofloxacin against Pseudomonas cepacia and Pseudomonas maltophilia, which were resistant to imipenem and gentamicin. Most Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Branhamella catarrhalis isolates were inhibited at concentrations of less than or equal to 0.008 micrograms/ml. The MIC for 90% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, was 0.12 micrograms/ml; that for Staphylococcus epidermidis was 0.5 micrograms/ml, as was that for Enterococcus faecalis. It inhibited 90% of Bacteroides fragilis isolates at 2 micrograms/ml, considerably more active than ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. The frequency of spontaneous point mutational resistance was less than 10(-10) for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. Resistant strains could be selected by repeated subculture. Similar to other quinolones, its activity could be affected by culture conditions. T-3262 showed a postantibiotic suppressive effect on Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC172249  PMID: 3293524
14.  Activity of A-56268 compared with that of erythromycin and other oral agents against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. 
A-56268 was compared with erythromycin, roxithromycin (RU 28965), and perorally administered antimicrobial agents. Its in vitro activity was similar to that of erythromycin and slightly greater than that of roxithromycin, with beta-hemolytic streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae inhibited by less than 2 micrograms of A-56268 per ml (50% inhibited by 0.06 microgram/ml). Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. Pneumoniae, and S. faecalis resistant to erythromycin were resistant to A-56268, and 4 micrograms/ml inhibited 90% of Haemophilus influenzae isolates.
PMCID: PMC174754  PMID: 2953303
15.  In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of two oral cephalosporins, ceftetrame (Ro 19-5247) and cefetamet (Ro 15-8074). 
Ceftetrame (Ro 19-5247) and cefetamet (Ro 15-8074), two new orally administered aminothiazolyl imimomethoxy cephalosporins, inhibited hemolytic streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae at less than or equal to 0.5 micrograms/ml but were less active against staphylococci than were cephalexin and cefaclor. They did not inhibit S. faecalis, S. faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Corynebacterium JK species, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Haemophilus influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including ampicillin-resistant isolates, were inhibited at less than 0.25 micrograms/ml. Both agents inhibited Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Citrobacter diversus, and Aeromonas hydrophila resistant to ampicillin, cephalexin, and cefaclor at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml, although many isolates of Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens resistant to cefotaxime were not inhibited by these agents. A marked inoculum effect was noted for Enterobacteriaceae carrying the Richmond-Sykes type 1A chromosomally mediated beta-lactamases, but plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases did not hydrolyze the compounds. Both drugs inhibited the chromosomally mediated beta-lactamase of E. cloacae, P99.
PMCID: PMC180573  PMID: 3490827
16.  Factors influencing the in vitro activity of two new aryl-fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents, difloxacin (A-56619) and A-56620. 
The in vitro activity of difloxacin (A-56619) and A-56620, two new aryl-difluoroquinolones, was decreased by magnesium at 9 mM and in assay at pH 5.5 or in urine. Resistance was seen with members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus repeatedly exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of the compounds. The frequency of resistance was similar to that found for other new quinolones.
PMCID: PMC176452  PMID: 3752975
17.  Antimicrobial activity and beta-lactamase stability of foramidocillin. 
Foramidocillin is a 6-alpha-formamido penicillin with a 6-beta-acylureido side chain. The majority of the Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited by less than or equal to 1 microgram of foramidocillin per ml, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inhibited by 4 micrograms/ml. Foramidocillin had activity comparable to those of ceftazidime, imipenem, and aztreonam against beta-lactamase-producing members of the Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, and it inhibited organisms resistant to piperacillin. Foramidocillin did not inhibit gram-positive species or anaerobic gram-negative bacteria. Foramidocillin was not hydrolyzed by the common plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases TEM-1, TEM-2, OXA-2, PSE-4, and SHV-1, by the chromosomal beta-lactamases P99 of Enterobacter cloacae and K1 of Klebsiella oxytoca, or by the Sabath-Abraham enzyme of P. aeruginosa.
PMCID: PMC284152  PMID: 3488017
18.  Comparative antibacterial activity of an arylglycyl oral cephalosporin, LY164846. 
LY164846 is a semisynthetic arylglycyl cephalosporin which can be absorbed orally. It had in vitro activity comparable to that of cefaclor against beta-hemolytic streptococcal species and was two- to fourfold more active than cephalexin. Enterococci and Listeria species were resistant, and its activity against staphylococci was similar to that of other oral cephalosporins. Although some Bacteroides species were inhibited, the MICs for 25% were greater than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml. LY164846 was hydrolyzed by Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase and by cephalosporinases, but it was more stable than cefaclor.
PMCID: PMC180471  PMID: 3486632
19.  In vitro comparison of the activity of RU 28965, a new macrolide, with that of erythromycin against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. 
RU 28965, a novel macrolide antibiotic, inhibited most gram-positive species at concentrations similar to that of erythromycin but was not active, even at alkaline pH, against Pseudomonas spp. or members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Staphylococci and streptococci resistant to erythromycin were resistant to RU 28965. RU 28965 inhibited Haemophilus influenzae, including a number of beta-lactamase, ampicillin-resistant isolates, and Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at concentrations similar to those of erythromycin. Against anaerobic species, Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridia and Fusobacterium spp., RU 28965 was less active than erythromycin, but its activity against Campylobacter and Legionella spp. was similar to that of erythromycin.
PMCID: PMC185573  PMID: 6732223
20.  Ciprofloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid compound active against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. 
The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of norfloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, ceftazidime, moxalactam, amoxicillin, and methicillin and other agents, as appropriate. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for 90% of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria spp., and Bacteroides fragilis were between 0.005 and 0.8 micrograms/ml, whereas streptococci and staphylococci were all inhibited by less than or equal to 6.3 micrograms/ml. Ciprofloxacin was 4- to 32-fold more active than norfloxacin and inhibited gentamicin-, ameikacin-, cefotaxime-, and moxalactam-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The activity of ciprofloxacin was not affected by serum but decreased in the presence of acid urine. The frequency of resistance to ciprofloxacin was between 10(-7) and 10(-9).
PMCID: PMC185508  PMID: 6232895
21.  Pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in patients with renal failure and in those undergoing hemodialysis. 
The pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftriaxone in eight patients with end-stage renal disease were determined during dialysis and during the interdialysis period. The mean half-life, clearance, and apparent volume of distribution during dialysis were 16 h, 722 ml/h, and 16.7 liters, respectively. During the interdialysis period, the half-life was 14 h, clearance was 739 ml/h, and volume of distributions was 14 liters. Individual variability in plasma concentrations occurred even in patients with apparently normal hepatic function. Based on these parameters, a dose of 1 g every 24 h would yield concentrations in excess of the concentrations needed to inhibit most gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic species.
PMCID: PMC185368  PMID: 6316845
22.  In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of U-63196E, a novel cephalosporin. 
The in vitro activity of U-63196E, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, was studied against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and compared with the in vitro activities of cefotaxime, moxalactam, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, and aztreonam. Although U-63196E inhibited many ampicillin-resistant bacteria and its activity against gram-negative species was similar to cefoperazone, it was much less active than the other agents. U-63196E was less active than cefazolin against gram-positive species, and it was less active than cefoxitin or moxalactam against Bacteroides fragilis. U-63196E did not inhibit most cefoperazone- or cefsulodin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a difference between minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations for isolates which contained beta-lactamases. Plasmid beta-lactamases of the TEM, HSV, OXA, and PSE types hydrolyzed U-63196E. But U-63196E was relatively stable against hydrolysis by the chromosomal beta-lactamases.
PMCID: PMC185328  PMID: 6605719
23.  Antibacterial activity of DL 473, a C3-substituted rifamycin derivative. 
DL 473 is a 3-[(4-cyclopentyl-1-piperazinyl)iminomethyl] rifamycin SV derivative which inhibited staphylococci, streptococci (including Streptococcus faecalis, Listeria species, and Bacteroides species. DL 473 was less active than rifampin against these species. DL 473 did not inhibit Enterobacteriaceae nor most Pseudomonas species. A combination of DL 473 and vancomycin or nafcillin tested against staphylococci was primarily additive and antagonism was not encountered.
PMCID: PMC185348  PMID: 6639006
24.  In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of cefodizime, an aminothiazolyl iminomethoxy cephalosporin. 
Cefodizime, an iminomethoxy aminothiazolyl cephalosporin similar to moxalactam and ceftazidime, was less active (minimal inhibitory concentration, 1.6 to 12 micrograms) than cefazolin or cefotaxime against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. It inhibited Haemophilus and Neisseria spp. at less than 0.5 microgram/ml. It did not inhibit methicillin-resistant staphylococci, enterococci, or Listeria spp. and was 8- to 32-fold less active than cefotaxime, moxalactam, or ceftazidime against Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia spp., and Serratia spp. Cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris were resistant to cefodizime. Cefodizime was less active than cefoxitin or moxalactam against Bacteroides fragilis. Cefodizime was not hydrolyzed by common plasmid or chromosomal beta-lactamases, and it inhibited type I beta-lactamases.
PMCID: PMC185001  PMID: 6311090
25.  beta-Lactamase inhibitory activity of iodopenicillanate and bromopenicillanate. 
Iodopenicillanate and bromopenicillanate were shown to be effective inhibitors of a variety of beta-lactamases. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were synergistically inhibited by iodopenicillanate and bromopenicillanate combined with ampicillin. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not synergistically inhibited. Escherichia coli which possessed TEM beta-lactamase activity had a reduction in ampicillin minimal inhibitory concentration, but an E. coli isolate which had chromosomal beta-lactamase and a low ampicillin minimal inhibitory concentration showed no reduction in ampicillin minimal inhibitory concentration with either iodopenicillanate or bromopenicillanate. Of the Klebsiella isolates tested, 80% were synergistically inhibited by both iodopenicillanate and bromopenicillanate. Most Morganella isolates were synergistically inhibited by either iodopenicillanate or bromopenicillanate combined with ampicillin, as were many Salmonella, Shigella, Citrobacter diversus, and Citrobacter freundii isolates. No Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were synergistically inhibited by iodopenicillanate or bromopenicillanate. Preincubation did not improve the inhibitory activity of iodopenicillanate or bromopenicillanate.
PMCID: PMC184618  PMID: 6299186

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