Doripenem (formerly S-4661), a new 1-β-methyl carbapenem, was challenged with a worldwide collection of 394 drug-refractory isolates. For endemic extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and stably derepressed AmpC-producing enteric bacilli, the doripenem MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) were 0.03 to 0.5 μg/ml, generally lower than those of comparator carbapenems. A greater proportion of strains among carbapenem-resistant nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli were inhibited by doripenem at ≤4 μg/ml, and doripenem was the most active carbapenem (MIC90, 1 to 4 μg/ml) against penicillin-resistant streptococci.
The antimicrobial activity of BMS 284756, a novel des-F(6)-quinolone, was comparatively evaluated against 257 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 198 Haemophilus influenzae, and 88 Moraxella catarrhalis strains isolated in Latin America between July and September of 1999 as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Nearly 28.0% of S. pneumoniae strains were nonsusceptible to penicillin. The rank order of quinolone potency versus S. pneumoniae was BMS 284756 (MIC at which 90% of isolates were inhibited [MIC90], 0.12 μg/ml) > trovafloxacin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) > gatifloxacin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) > levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 1 to 2 μg/ml). All S. pneumoniae strains that were not susceptible to other quinolones were inhibited by BMS 284756 at ≤2 μg/ml. The overall prevalence of β-lactamase production was 15.2% in H. influenzae and 98.9% in M. catarrhalis. BMS 284756 showed excellent potency and spectrum against this group of pathogens, inhibiting all isolates at ≤0.12 μg/ml. BMS 284756 exhibited activity similar to those displayed by the new fluoroquinolones, such as levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, or gatifloxacin, and could be a therapeutic option for empirical treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections.
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and nontyphoidal Salmonella remain major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol no longer provide reliable coverage of Salmonella, and fluoroquinoloes have emerged as first-line treatment options. Due to mounting evidence of decreased in vitro susceptibility and diminished clinical response to fluoroquinolone therapy, it has been suggested that the NCCLS breakpoints for the salmonellae be reevaluated. We utilized an in vitro infection model to determine which pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) measure was most closely linked to fluoroquinolone activity against salmonellae and the magnitude that was predictive of efficacy. Monte Carlo simulation was utilized to determine the probability of attaining potential susceptibility breakpoints for three fluoroquinolones. The free-drug area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h/MIC ratio was the PK-PD measure most predictive of efficacy, and a ratio of 105 corresponded to 90% of maximal activity. Simulation results suggested susceptible breakpoints of 0.12 μg/ml for ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin and 0.25 μg/ml for levofloxacin. These proposed breakpoints correspond to the MIC separating the wild-type susceptible organism population from those strains possessing single-step mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region. These results that integrate PK-PD measures and fluoroquinolone MIC distributions in the genetic context of examined Salmonella isolates clearly demonstrate that the prudent use of a lower susceptibility breakpoint minimizes the probability of clinical failure or delayed response in fluoroquinolone-treated patients.
LB 11058 is a novel parenteral cephalosporin with a C-3 pyrimidinyl-substituted vinyl sulfide group and a C-7 2-amino-5-chloro-1,3-thiazole group. This study evaluated the in vitro activity and spectrum of LB 11058 against 1,245 recent clinical isolates, including a subset of gram-positive strains with specific resistant phenotypes. LB 11058 was very active against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The novel cephalosporin was 8- to 16-fold more potent than ceftriaxone, cefepime, or amoxicillin-clavulanate against both penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae. LB 11058 was also very active against both β-hemolytic streptococci (MIC at which 90% of isolates were inhibited [MIC90], ≤0.008 μg/ml) and viridans group streptococci (MIC90, 0.03 to 0.5 μg/ml), including penicillin-resistant strains. Among oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, LB 11058 MIC results varied from 0.06 to 0.25 μg/ml (MIC50, 0.12 μg/ml), while among oxacillin-resistant strains LB 11058 MICs varied from 0.25 to 1 μg/ml (MIC50, 1 μg/ml). Coagulase-negative staphylococci showed an LB 11058 susceptibility pattern similar to that of S. aureus, with all isolates being inhibited at ≤1 μg/ml. LB 11058 also showed reasonable in vitro activity against Enterococcus faecalis, including vancomycin-resistant strains (MIC50, 1 μg/ml), and Bacillus spp. (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml); however, it was less active against Enterococcus faecium (MIC50, >64 μg/ml) and Corynebacterium spp. (MIC50, 32 μg/ml). Against gram-negative pathogens, LB 11058 showed activity against Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, 0.25 to 0.5 μg/ml) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml), with MICs not influenced by β-lactamase production. In conclusion, LB 11058 demonstrated a broad antibacterial spectrum and was highly active against gram-positive bacteria, particularly against multidrug-resistant staphylococci and streptococci.
Reports of an increased clinical incidence of pertussis and the development of resistance by Bordetella pertussis to erythromycin prompted the collection and testing of recent clinical isolates from patients in northern California against a range of antimicrobial agents by the Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) method. All isolates were fully susceptible to all eight agents tested (MIC, ≤0.38 μg/ml), including newer fluoroquinolones, such as gatifloxacin (MIC of which 90% of the isolates tested are inhibited, 0.006 μg/ml), which may be used in cases of adolescent or adult pertussis. Continued surveillance of B. pertussis isolates appears to be a prudent practice.
Totals of 8.7% (103/1,190) and 21.0% (249/1,190) of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from specimens collected in the United States during the 2011-2012 AWARE (Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation) Surveillance Program were ceftriaxone nonsusceptible according to the CLSI (≤1 μg/ml for susceptible) and EUCAST (≤0.5 μg/ml for susceptible) criteria, respectively. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC, 1 μg/ml) was frequently observed among serotypes 19A (51.4%; 128/249) and 35B (29.7%; 74/249), which were most often observed in the East South Central and South Atlantic U.S. Census regions. Ceftaroline (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 μg/ml) remained active (≥96.8% susceptible) when tested against these less susceptible isolates.
Ceftobiprole medocaril is a newly approved drug in Europe for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) (excluding patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia but including ventilated HAP patients) and community-acquired pneumonia in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole against prevalent Gram-positive and -negative pathogens isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel during 2005 through 2010. A total of 60,084 consecutive, nonduplicate isolates from a wide variety of infections were collected from 33 medical centers. Species identification was confirmed, and all isolates were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole had high activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (100.0% susceptible), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (99.3% susceptible), with MIC90 values of 0.25, 0.12, ≤0.06, and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. Ceftobiprole was active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (98.3% susceptible) and methicillin-resistant CoNS, having a MIC90 of 2 μg/ml. Ceftobiprole was active against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.5/4 μg/ml) but not against most Enterococcus faecium isolates. Ceftobiprole was very potent against the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (87.3% susceptible), with >80% inhibited at ≤0.12 μg/ml. The potency of ceftobiprole against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 2/>8 μg/ml; 64.6% at MIC values of ≤4 μg/ml) was similar to that of ceftazidime (MIC50/90, 2/>16 μg/ml; 75.4% susceptible), but limited activity was observed against Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. High activity was also observed against all Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, ≤0.06 μg/ml) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/0.25 μg/ml) isolates. Ceftobiprole demonstrated a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against this very large longitudinal sample of contemporary pathogens.
In this study, oritavancin had modal MIC, MIC50, and MIC90 values of 0.03, 0.03, and 0.06 μg/ml, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus. Similar results (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 μg/ml) were observed against methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates and those demonstrating multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR phenotypes. When oritavancin (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 mg/ml) was tested against S. aureus with elevated MIC values for daptomycin (i.e., 1 to 4 mg/ml) and vancomycin (i.e., 2 mg/ml), it showed MIC results 2-fold higher than those for the more susceptible vancomycin or daptomycin counterparts (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 mg/ml), yet it inhibited these isolates at ≤0.25 mg/ml.
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (6,958) were collected from patients at 163 U.S. medical centers during 2009 through 2012. Isolates were evaluated for multidrug resistance (MDR) to penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. Ceftaroline was 16-fold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC50/MIC90, ≤0.25/2 μg/ml) against all isolates. For MDR isolates (35.2% of tested strains), ceftaroline (MIC50/MIC90, 0.06/0.25 μg/ml; 100.0% susceptible) was the most active agent tested, being 8-fold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC50/MIC90, 0.5/2 μg/ml) and 16-fold more potent than penicillin (MIC50/MIC90, 1/4 μg/ml).
Tigecycline was initially approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2005. We assessed the evolution of tigecycline in vitro activities since the initial approval of tigecycline for clinical use by analyzing the results of 7 years (2006 to 2012) of data from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in the United States. We also analyzed trends over time for key resistance phenotypes. The analyses included 68,608 unique clinical isolates collected from 29 medical centers and tested for susceptibility using reference broth microdilution methods. Tigecycline was highly active against Gram-positive organisms, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus (28,278 strains; >99.9% susceptible), 0.06 to 0.12 and 0.12 to 0.25 μg/ml for enterococci (99.3 to 99.6% susceptible), and ≤0.03 and ≤0.03 to 0.06 μg/ml for streptococci (99.9 to 100.0% susceptible), respectively. When tested against 20,457 Enterobacteriaceae strains, tigecycline MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.25 and 1 μg/ml, respectively (98.3% susceptible using U.S. FDA breakpoints). No trend toward increasing tigecycline resistance (nonsusceptibility) was observed for any species or group during the study period. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Enterobacteriaceae increased from 4.4 and 0.5%, in 2006 to 8.5 and 1.5% in 2012, respectively. During the same period, the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype increased from 5.8 and 9.1% to 11.1 and 20.4%, respectively, whereas rates of meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae escalated from 2.2% in 2006 to 10.8% in 2012. The results of this investigation show that tigecycline generally retained potent activities against clinically important organisms isolated in U.S. institutions, including MDR organism subsets of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens.
The post-β-lactamase-inhibitor effect (PBLIE) of tazobactam combined with ceftolozane was evaluated by time-kill assays on two clinical Escherichia coli strains producing CTX-M-15 with or without TEM-1. The organisms were exposed (2 h) to 4 μg/ml/4 μg/ml of ceftolozane-tazobactam (4× MIC), 4 μg/ml of ceftolozane, and medium containing no drug, washed, and resuspended in medium alone or medium containing ceftolozane-tazobactam or ceftolozane. The PBLIE was determined as 1.3 to 2.1 h, and a postantibiotic effect was measured as 0.8 to 0.9 h.
The activities of the novel β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime-avibactam and comparator agents were evaluated against a contemporary collection of clinically significant Gram-negative bacilli. Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that inhibits Ambler class A, C, and some D enzymes. A total of 10,928 Gram-negative bacilli—8,640 Enterobacteriaceae, 1,967 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 321 Acinetobacter sp. isolates—were collected from 73 U.S. hospitals and tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods in a central monitoring laboratory (JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA, USA). Ceftazidime was combined with avibactam at a fixed concentration of 4 μg/ml. Overall, 99.8% of Enterobacteriaceae strains were inhibited at a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of ≤4 μg/ml. Ceftazidime-avibactam was active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-phenotype Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, meropenem-nonsusceptible (MIC ≥ 2 μg/ml) K. pneumoniae, and ceftazidime-nonsusceptible Enterobacter cloacae. Among ESBL-phenotype K. pneumoniae strains, 61.1% were meropenem susceptible and 99.3% were inhibited at a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of ≤4 μg/ml. Among P. aeruginosa strains, 96.9% were inhibited at a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of ≤8 μg/ml, and susceptibility rates for meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin-tazobactam were 82.0, 83.2, and 78.3%, respectively. Ceftazidime-avibactam was the most active compound tested against meropenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa (MIC50/MIC90, 4/16 μg/ml; 87.3% inhibited at ≤8 μg/ml). Acinetobacter spp. (ceftazidime-avibactam MIC50/MIC90, 16/>32 μg/ml) showed high rates of resistance to most tested agents. In summary, ceftazidime-avibactam demonstrated potent activity against a large collection of contemporary Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients in U.S. hospitals in 2012, including organisms that are resistant to most currently available agents, such as K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and meropenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa.
The reference broth microdilution (BMD) antimicrobial susceptibility testing method for telavancin was revised to include dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent and diluent for frozen-form panel preparation, following the CLSI recommendations for water-insoluble agents. Polysorbate 80 (P-80) was also added to the test medium to minimize proven drug losses associated with binding to plastic surfaces. Four hundred sixty-two Gram-positive isolates, including a challenge set of organisms with reduced susceptibilities to comparator agents, were selected and tested using the revised method for telavancin, and the MIC results were compared with those tested by the previously established method and several Sensititre dry-form BMD panel formulations. The revised method provided MIC results 2- to 8-fold lower than the previous method when tested against staphylococci and enterococci, resulting in MIC50 values of 0.03 to 0.06 μg/ml for staphylococci and 0.03 and 0.12 μg/ml for Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. Less-significant MIC decreases (1 to 2 log2 dilution steps) were observed when testing streptococci in broth supplemented with blood, which showed similar MIC50 values for both methods. However, Streptococcus pneumoniae had MIC50 results of 0.008 and 0.03 μg/ml when tested by the revised and previous methods, respectively. Highest essential agreement rates (≥94.0%) were noted for one candidate dry-form panel formulation compared to the revised test. The revised BMD method provides lower MIC results for telavancin, especially when tested against staphylococci and enterococci. This is secondary to the use of DMSO for panel production and the presence of P-80, which ensure the proper telavancin testing concentration and result in a more accurate MIC determination. Moreover, earlier studies where the previous method was applied underestimated the in vitro drug potency.
This study summarizes the linezolid susceptibility testing results for 7,429 Gram-positive pathogens from 60 U.S. sites collected during the 2012 sampling year for the LEADER Program. Linezolid showed potent activity when tested against 2,980 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, inhibiting all but 3 at ≤2 μg/ml. Similarly, linezolid showed coverage against 99.5% of enterococci, as well as for all streptococci tested. These results confirm a long record of linezolid activity against U.S. Gram-positive isolates since regulatory approval in 2000.
Escherichia coli (328 isolates), Klebsiella pneumoniae (296), Klebsiella oxytoca (44), and Proteus mirabilis (33) isolates collected during 2012 from the nine U.S. census regions and displaying extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes were evaluated for the presence of β-lactamase genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were analyzed. The highest ESBL rates were noted for K. pneumoniae (16.0%, versus 4.8 to 11.9% for the other species) and in the Mid-Atlantic and West South Central census regions. CTX-M group 1 (including CTX-M-15) was detected in 303 strains and was widespread throughout the United States but was more prevalent in the West South Central, Mid-Atlantic, and East North Central regions. KPC producers (118 strains [112 K. pneumoniae strains]) were detected in all regions and were most frequent in the Mid-Atlantic region (58 strains). Thirteen KPC producers also carried blaCTX-M. SHV genes encoding ESBL activity were detected among 176 isolates. Other β-lactamase genes observed were CTX-M group 9 (72 isolates), FOX (10), TEM ESBL (9), DHA (7), CTX-M group 2 (3), NDM-1 (2 [Colorado]), and CTX-M groups 8 and 25 (1). Additionally, 62.9% of isolates carried ≥2 β-lactamase genes. KPC producers were highly resistant to multiple agents, but ceftazidime-avibactam (MIC50/90, 0.5/2 μg/ml) and tigecycline (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 μg/ml) were the most active agents tested. Overall, meropenem (MIC50, ≤0.06 μg/ml), ceftazidime-avibactam (MIC50, 0.12 to 0.5 μg/ml), and tigecycline (MIC50, 0.12 to 2 μg/ml) were the most active antimicrobials when tested against this collection. NDM-1 producers were resistant to all β-lactams tested. The diversity and increasing prevalence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been documented, and ceftazidime-avibactam was very active against the vast majority of β-lactamase-producing strains isolated from U.S. hospitals.
Among 220 clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli collected in India during 2000, 22 strains showing elevated imipenem MICs were evaluated for carbapenemase production. One DIM-1-producing Pseudomonas stutzeri isolate was detected, and no other carbapenemase-encoding genes were identified. This detection of a DIM-1-producing P. stutzeri isolate from India predating the finding of this gene in the index Dutch strain and the very recent detection of DIM-1 in Africa suggest an unidentified environmental source of this metallo-β-lactamase gene.
Among 119 echinocandin non-wild-type (non-WT) Candida glabrata strains from two global surveys, mutations in fks hot spots (HSs) were detected in 28 (from 7 countries and 8 U.S. states): 24 strains (85.7%) had non-WT MICs for micafungin, 22 (78.6%) for anidulafungin, and 25 (89.3%) for caspofungin. The most common FKS substitutions among non-WT strains were at positions F659 (n = 7) and S663 (n = 7). Three isolates displaying WT MIC results had F625Y, L630I, and D632Y substitutions or non-HS mutations. Mutations that have been reported to decrease the echinocandin binding to the 1,3-β-d-glucan synthase were categorized as resistant by applying the new CLSI breakpoint criteria for all three echinocandins.
A total of 1,356 clinical isolates were tested against daptomycin by broth microdilution methods. Daptomycin was active against seven groups of viridans group streptococci (MIC50 and MIC90 values ranging from ≤0.06 and ≤0.06 μg/ml [Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae] to 0.5 and 1 μg/ml [Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus parasanguinis], respectively), beta-hemolytic streptococci serogroups C, F, and G (MIC50 and MIC90, ≤0.06 to 0.25 and 0.12 to 0.25 μg/ml, respectively), Corynebacterium spp. (MIC50 and MIC90, ≤0.06 and 0.12 μg/ml, respectively), and Micrococcus spp. (MIC50 and MIC90, ≤0.06 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively). Listeria monocytogenes exhibited higher daptomycin MICs (MIC50 and MIC90, 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively) than other tested organisms.
Ceftolozane/tazobactam, a novel antimicrobial agent with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (including drug-resistant strains) and other common Gram-negative pathogens (including most extended-spectrum-β-lactamase [ESBL]-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains), and comparator agents were susceptibility tested by a reference broth microdilution method against 7,071 Enterobacteriaceae and 1,971 P. aeruginosa isolates. Isolates were collected consecutively from patients in 32 medical centers across the United States during 2011 to 2012. Overall, 15.7% and 8.9% of P. aeruginosa isolates were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR), and 8.4% and 1.2% of Enterobacteriaceae were classified as MDR and XDR. No pandrug-resistant (PDR) Enterobacteriaceae isolates and only one PDR P. aeruginosa isolate were detected. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was the most potent (MIC50/90, 0.5/2 μg/ml) agent tested against P. aeruginosa and demonstrated good activity against 310 MDR strains (MIC50/90, 2/8 μg/ml) and 175 XDR strains (MIC50/90, 4/16 μg/ml). Ceftolozane/tazobactam exhibited high overall activity (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 μg/ml) against Enterobacteriaceae and retained activity (MIC50/90, 4/>32 μg/ml) against many 601 MDR strains but not against the 86 XDR strains (MIC50, >32 μg/ml). Ceftolozane/tazobactam was highly potent (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5 μg/ml) against 2,691 Escherichia coli isolates and retained good activity against most ESBL-phenotype E. coli isolates (MIC50/90, 0.5/4 μg/ml), but activity was low against ESBL-phenotype Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (MIC50/90, 32/>32 μg/ml), explained by the high rate (39.8%) of meropenem coresistance observed in this species phenotype. In summary, ceftolozane/tazobactam demonstrated high potency and broad-spectrum activity against many contemporary Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa isolates collected in U.S. medical centers. Importantly, ceftolozane/tazobactam retained potency against many MDR and XDR strains.