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1.  Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a blaKPC-Harboring IncI2 Plasmid and Its Dissemination in New Jersey and New York Hospitals 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2013;57(10):5019-5025.
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae strains have spread worldwide and become a significant public health threat. blaKPC, the plasmid-borne KPC gene, was frequently identified on numerous transferable plasmids in different incompatibility replicon groups. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of a novel blaKPC-3-harboring IncI2 plasmid, pBK15692, isolated from a multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae ST258 strain isolated from a New Jersey hospital in 2005. pBK15692 is 78 kb in length and carries a backbone that is similar to those of other IncI2 plasmids (pR721, pChi7122-3, pHN1122-1, and pSH146-65), including the genes encoding type IV pili and shufflon regions. Comparative genomics analysis of IncI2 plasmids reveals that they possess a conserved plasmid backbone but are divergent with respect to the integration sites of resistance genes. In pBK15692, the blaKPC-3-harboring Tn4401 was inserted into a Tn1331 element and formed a nested transposon. A PCR scheme was designed to detect the prevalence of IncI2 and pBK15692-like plasmids from a collection of clinical strains from six New Jersey and New York hospitals isolated between 2007 and 2011. IncI2 plasmids were found in 46.2% isolates from 318 clinical K. pneumoniae strains. Notably, 59 pBK15692-like plasmids (23%) have been identified in 256 KPC-bearing K. pneumoniae strains, and all carried KPC-3 and belong to the epidemic ST258 clone. Our study revealed that the prevalence of IncI2 plasmids has been considerably underestimated. Further studies are needed to understand the distribution of this plasmid group in other health care regions and decipher the association between IncI2 plasmids and blaKPC-3-bearing ST258 strains.
PMCID: PMC3811408  PMID: 23896467
2.  Complete Sequence of a blaKPC-2-Harboring IncFIIK1 Plasmid from a Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 258 Strain 
We report the nucleotide sequence of a novel blaKPC-2-harboring IncFIIK1 plasmid, pBK32179, isolated from a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 strain from a New York City patient. pBK32179 is 165 kb long, consists of a large backbone of pKPN3-like plasmid, and carries an 18.5-kb blaKPC-2-containing element that is highly similar to plasmid pKpQIL. pBK32179-like plasmids were identified in 8.3% of strains in a collection of 96 K. pneumoniae isolates from hospitals in the New York City area.
PMCID: PMC3591897  PMID: 23295924
3.  Complete Nucleotide Sequences of blaKPC-4- and blaKPC-5-Harboring IncN and IncX Plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated in New Jersey 
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have emerged as major nosocomial pathogens. blaKPC, commonly located on Tn4401, is found in Gram-negative bacterial strains, with the two most common variants, blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3, identified in plasmids with diverse genetic backgrounds. In this study, we examined blaKPC-4- and blaKPC-5-bearing plasmids recovered from two K. pneumoniae strains, which were isolated from a single New Jersey hospital in 2005 and 2006, respectively. IncN plasmid pBK31551 is 84 kb in length and harbors blaKPC-4, blaTEM-1, qnrB2, aac(3)-Ib, aph(3′)-I, qacF, qacEΔ1, sul1, and dfrA14, which confer resistance to β-lactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, quaternary ammonium compounds, and co-trimoxazole. The conserved regions within pBK31551 are similar to those of other IncN plasmids. Surprisingly, analysis of the Tn4401 sequence revealed a large IS110- and Tn6901-carrying element (8.3 kb) inserted into the istA gene, encoding glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance, alcohol dehydrogenase, and S-formylglutathione hydrolase. Plasmid pBK31567 is 47 kb in length and harbors blaKPC-5, dfrA5, qacEΔ1, and sul1. pBK31567 belongs to a novel IncX subgroup (IncX5) and possesses a highly syntenic plasmid backbone like other IncX plasmids; however, sequence similarity at the nucleotide level is divergent. The blaKPC-5 gene is carried on a Tn4401 element and differs from the genetic environment of blaKPC-5 described in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain P28 from Puerto Rico. This study underscores the genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant plasmids involved in the spread of blaKPC genes and highlights the mobility and plasticity of Tn4401. Comparative genomic analysis provides new insights into the evolution and dissemination of KPC plasmids belonging to different incompatibility groups.
PMCID: PMC3535970  PMID: 23114770
4.  Activities of a New Fluoroketolide, HMR 3787, and Its (Des)-Fluor Derivative RU 64399 Compared to Those of Telithromycin, Erythromycin A, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, and Clindamycin against Macrolide-Susceptible or -Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2001;45(11):3242-3245.
Activities of HMR 3787 and RU 64399 were compared to those of three macrolides, telithromycin, and clindamycin against 175 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and 121 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates. HMR3787 and telithromycin were the most active compounds tested against pneumococci. Telithromycin and RU 64399 were equally active against macrolide-susceptible (MICs, 0.008 to 0.06 μg/ml) and -resistant S. pyogenes isolates, but HMR 3787 had lower MICs for ermB strains.
PMCID: PMC90817  PMID: 11600391
5.  Comparative Antianaerobic Activity of BMS 284756 
Agar dilution MIC methodology was used to compare the activity of BMS 284756 with those of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, the respective MICs at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC50s) and MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter) were as follows: BMS 284756, 0.5 and 2.0; ciprofloxacin, 2.0 and 16.0; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 8.0; moxifloxacin, 0.5 and 4.0; trovafloxacin, 0.5 and 2.0; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 0.5 and 2.0; piperacillin-tazobactam, 0.25 and 8.0; imipenem, 0.06 and 1.0; clindamycin, 0.25 and 8.0; and metronidazole, 1.0 and >16.0. BMS 284756 is a promising new quinolone with excellent antianaerobic activity.
PMCID: PMC90331  PMID: 11158759
6.  Susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to ABT-773 Compared to Their Susceptibilities to 11 Other Agents 
The activity of the ketolide ABT-773 against Haemophilus and Moraxella was compared to those of 11 other agents. Against 210 Haemophilus influenzae strains (39.0% β-lactamase positive), microbroth dilution tests showed that azithromycin and ABT-773 had the lowest MICs (0.5 to 4.0 and 1.0 to 8.0 μg/ml, respectively), followed by clarithromycin and roxithromycin (4.0 to >32.0 μg/ml). Of the β-lactams, ceftriaxone had the lowest MICs (≤0.004 to 0.016 μg/ml), followed by cefixime and cefpodoxime (0.008 to 0.125 and ≤0.125 to 0.25 μg/ml, respectively), amoxicillin-clavulanate (0.125 to 4.0 μg/ml), and cefuroxime (0.25 to 8.0 μg/ml). Amoxicillin was only active against β-lactamase-negative strains, and cefprozil had the highest MICs of all oral cephalosporins tested (0.5 to >32.0 μg/ml). Against 50 Moraxella catarrhalis strains, all of the compounds except amoxicillin and cefprozil were active. Time-kill studies against 10 H. influenzae strains showed that ABT-773, at two times the MIC, was bactericidal against 9 of 10 strains, with 99% killing of all strains at the MIC after 24 h; at 12 h, ABT-773 gave 90% killing of all strains at two times the MIC. At 3 and 6 h, killing by ABT-773 was slower, with 99.9% killing of four strains at two times the MIC after 6 h. Similar results were found for azithromycin, with slightly slower killing by erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin, especially at earlier times. β-Lactams were bactericidal against 8 to 10 strains at two times the MIC after 24 h, with slower killing at earlier time periods. Most compounds gave good killing of five M. catarrhalis strains, with β-lactams killing more rapidly than other drugs. ABT-773 and azithromycin gave the longest postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group tested (4.4 to >8.0 h), followed by clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin. β-Lactam PAEs were similar and shorter than those of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group for all strains tested.
PMCID: PMC90241  PMID: 11120946
7.  In Vitro Selection of Resistance to Clinafloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Trovafloxacin in Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(10):2740-2746.
Ability of daily sequential subcultures in subinhibitory concentrations of clinafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and trovafloxacin to select resistant mutants was studied in 10 pneumococci (ciprofloxacin MICs, 1 to 4 μg/ml, and clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin MICs, 0.06 to 0.125 μg/ml [n = 9]; ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, and trovafloxacin MICs, 32, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively [n = 1]). Subculturing was done 50 times, or until MICs increased fourfold or more. Mutants for which MICs were fourfold (or more) higher than those for parent strains were selected in five strains by clinafloxacin, in six strains by trovafloxacin, and nine strains by ciprofloxacin. Sequence analysis of type II topoisomerase showed that most mutants had mutations in ParC at Ser79 or Asp83 and in GyrA at Ser81, while a few mutants had mutations in ParE or GyrB. In the presence of reserpine, the MICs of ciprofloxacin and clinafloxacin for most mutants were lower (four to eight times lower), but for none of the mutants were trovafloxacin MICs lower, suggesting an efflux mechanism affecting the first two agents but not trovafloxacin. Single-step mutation rates were also determined for eight strains for which the MICs were as follows: 0.06 μg/ml (clinafloxacin), 0.06 to 0.125 μg/ml (trovafloxacin), and 1 μg/ml (ciprofloxacin). Single-step mutation rates with drugs at the MIC were 2.0×10−9 to <1.1×10−11, 5.0×10−4 to 3.6×10−9, and 4.8×10−4 to 6.7×10−9, respectively. For two strains with clinafloxacin MICs of 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml trovafloxacin MICs of 0.125 to 2 μg/ml, ciprofloxacin MICs of 4 to 32 μg/ml mutation rates with drugs at the MIC were 1.1×10−8−9.6×10−8, 3.3×10−6−6.7×10−8, and 2.3×10−5−2.4×10−7, respectively. Clinafloxacin was bactericidal at four times the MIC after 24 h against three parent and nine mutant strains by time-kill study. This study showed that single and multistep clinafloxacin exposure selected for resistant mutants less frequently than similar exposures to other drugs studied.
PMCID: PMC90145  PMID: 10991854
8.  Antipneumococcal Activity of ABT-773 Compared to Those of 10 Other Agents 
MICs, time-kills, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of ABT-773 (a new ketolide) and 10 other agents were determined against 226 pneumococci. Against 78 ermB- and 44 mefE-containing strains, ABT-773 MICs at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC50s) and MIC90s were 0.016 to 0.03 and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively. Clindamycin was active only against macrolide-resistant strains containing mefE (MIC50, 0.06 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Activities of pristinamycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) and vancomycin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) were unaffected by macrolide or penicillin resistance, while β-lactam MICs rose with those of penicillin G. Against 19 strains with L4 ribosomal protein mutations and two strains with mutations in domain V of 23S rRNA, ABT-773 MICs were 0.03 to 0.25 μg/ml, while macrolide and azalide MICs were all ≥16.0 μg/ml. ABT-773 was bactericidal at twice the MIC after 24 h for 8 of 12 strains (including three strains with erythromycin MICs greater than or equal to 64.0 μg/ml). Kill kinetics of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin against macrolide-susceptible strains were slower than those of ABT-773. ABT-773 had longer PAEs than macrolides, azithromycin, clindamycin, or β-lactams, including against ermB-containing strains. ABT-773, therefore, shows promising in vitro activity against macrolide-susceptible as well as -resistant pneumococci.
PMCID: PMC89981  PMID: 10858350
9.  Antipneumococcal Activities of GAR-936 (a New Glycylcycline) Compared to Those of Nine Other Agents against Penicillin-Susceptible and -Resistant Pneumococci 
GAR-936, a new glycylcycline, had lower MICs (≤0.016 to 0.125 μg/ml) for 201 penicillin- and tetracycline-susceptible and -resistant pneumococcal strains than tetracycline (≤0.06 to 128 μg/ml), minocycline (≤0.06 to 16.0 μg/ml), or doxycycline (≤0.06 to 32.0 μg/ml). GAR-936 was also bactericidal against 11 of 12 strains tested at the MIC after 24 h, with significant kill rates at earlier time points.
PMCID: PMC89820  PMID: 10722519
10.  Activities and Postantibiotic Effects of Gemifloxacin Compared to Those of 11 Other Agents against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis 
The activity of gemifloxacin against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was compared to those of 11 other agents. All quinolones were very active (MICs, ≤0.125 μg/ml) against 248 quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae isolates (40.7% of which were β-lactamase positive); cefixime (MICs, ≤0.125 μg/ml) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (MICs ≤4.0 μg/ml) were active, followed by cefuroxime (MICs, ≤16.0 μg/ml); azithromycin MICs were ≤4.0 μg/ml. For nine H. influenzae isolates with reduced quinolone susceptibilities, the MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50s) were 0.25 μg/ml for gemifloxacin and 1.0 μg/ml for the other quinolones tested. All strains had mutations in GyrA (Ser84, Asp88); most also had mutations in ParC (Asp83, Ser84, Glu88) and ParE (Asp420, Ser458), and only one had a mutation in GyrB (Gln468). All quinolones tested were equally active (MICs, ≤0.06 μg/ml) against 50 M. catarrhalis strains; amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefixime, cefuroxime, and azithromycin were very active. Against 10 H. influenzae strains gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin at 2× the MIC and ciprofloxacin at 4× the MIC were uniformly bactericidal after 24 h, and against 9 of 10 strains grepafloxacin at 2× the MIC was bactericidal after 24 h. After 24 h bactericidal activity was seen with amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2× the MIC for all strains, cefixime at 2× the MIC for 9 of 10 strains, cefuroxime at 4× the MIC for all strains, and azithromycin at 2× the MIC for all strains. All quinolones except grepafloxacin (which was bactericidal against four of five strains) and all ß-lactams at 2× to 4× the MIC were bactericidal against five M. catarrhalis strains after 24 h; azithromycin at the MIC was bactericidal against all strains after 24 h. The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) against four quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae strains were as follows: gemifloxacin, 0.3 to 2.3 h; ciprofloxacin, 1.3 to 4.2 h; levofloxacin, 2.8 to 6.2 h; sparfloxacin, 0.6 to 3.0 h; grepafloxacin, 0 to 2.1 h; trovafloxacin, 0.8 to 2.8 h. At 10× the MIC, no quinolone PAEs were found against the strain for which quinolone MICs were increased. Azithromycin PAEs were 3.7 to 7.3 h.
PMCID: PMC89738  PMID: 10681330
11.  In Vitro Development of Resistance to Telithromycin (HMR 3647), Four Macrolides, Clindamycin, and Pristinamycin in Streptococcus pneumoniae 
The ability of 50 sequential subcultures in subinhibitory concentrations of telithromycin (HMR 3647), azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and pristinamycin to select for resistance was studied in five macrolide-susceptible and six macrolide-resistant pneumococci containing mefE or ermB. Telithromycin selected for resistance less often than the other drugs.
PMCID: PMC89694  PMID: 10639373
12.  Antipneumococcal Activities of Gemifloxacin Compared to Those of Nine Other Agents 
The activities of gemifloxacin compared to those of nine other agents was tested against a range of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci by agar dilution, microdilution, time-kill, and post-antibiotic effect (PAE) methods. Against 64 penicillin-susceptible, 68 penicillin-intermediate, and 75 penicillin-resistant pneumococci (all quinolone susceptible), agar dilution MIC50s (MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited)/MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter) were as follows: gemifloxacin, 0.03/0.06; ciprofloxacin, 1.0/4.0; levofloxacin, 1.0/2.0; sparfloxacin, 0.5/1.0; grepafloxacin, 0.125/0.5; trovafloxacin, 0.125/0.25; amoxicillin, 0.016/0.06 (penicillin-susceptible isolates), 0.125/1.0 (penicillin-intermediate isolates), and 2.0/4.0 (penicillin-resistant isolates); cefuroxime, 0.03/0.25 (penicillin-susceptible isolates), 0.5/2.0 (penicillin-intermediate isolates), and 8.0/16.0 (penicillin-resistant isolates); azithromycin, 0.125/0.5 (penicillin-susceptible isolates), 0.125/>128.0 (penicillin-intermediate isolates), and 4.0/>128.0 (penicillin-resistant isolates); and clarithromycin, 0.03/0.06 (penicillin-susceptible isolates), 0.03/32.0 (penicillin-intermediate isolates), and 2.0/>128.0 (penicillin-resistant isolates). Against 28 strains with ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥8 μg/ml, gemifloxacin had the lowest MICs (0.03 to 1.0 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), compared with MICs ranging between 0.25 and >32.0 μg/ml (MIC90s of 4.0 to >32.0 μg/ml) for other quinolones. Resistance in these 28 strains was associated with mutations in parC, gyrA, parE, and/or gyrB or efflux, with some strains having multiple resistance mechanisms. For 12 penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococcal strains (2 quinolone resistant), time-kill results showed that levofloxacin at the MIC, gemifloxacin and sparfloxacin at two times the MIC, and ciprofloxacin, grepafloxacin, and trovafloxacin at four times the MIC were bactericidal for all strains after 24 h. Gemifloxacin was uniformly bactericidal after 24 h at ≤0.5 μg/ml. Various degrees of 90 and 99% killing by all quinolones were detected after 3 h. Gemifloxacin and trovafloxacin were both bactericidal at two times the MIC for the two quinolone-resistant pneumococci. Amoxicillin at two times the MIC and cefuroxime at four times the MIC were uniformly bactericidal after 24 h, with some degree of killing at earlier time points. Macrolides gave slower killing against the seven susceptible strains tested, with 99.9% killing of all strains at two to four times the MIC after 24 h. PAEs for five quinolone-susceptible strains were similar (0.3 to 3.0 h) for all quinolones, and significant quinolone PAEs were found for the quinolone-resistant strain.
PMCID: PMC89675  PMID: 10639354
13.  Postantibiotic Effects of Grepafloxacin Compared to Those of Five Other Agents against 12 Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria 
The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10× the MIC) and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5× the MIC) were determined for six compounds against 12 strains. Measurable PAEs ranged between 0 and 1.8 h for grepafloxacin, 0 and 2.2 h for ciprofloxacin, 0 and 3.1 h for levofloxacin, 0 and 2.2 h for sparfloxacin, 0 and 2.4 h for amoxicillin-clavulanate and 0 and 4.8 h for clarithromycin. Reexposure to subinhibitory concentrations increased the PAEs against some strains.
PMCID: PMC89651  PMID: 10602746
14.  Bacteriologic Efficacies of Oral Azithromycin and Oral Cefaclor in Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Infants and Young Children 
A prospective, open-label, randomized study was conducted in order to determine the bacteriologic efficacies of cefaclor and azithromycin in acute otitis media (AOM). Tympanocentesis was performed on entry into the study and 3 to 4 days after initiation of treatment. Bacteriologic failure after 3 to 4 days of treatment with both drugs occurred in a high proportion of culture-positive patients, especially in those in whom AOM was caused by Haemophilus influenzae (16 of 33 [53%] of those treated with azithromycin and 13 of 34 [52%] of those treated with cefaclor). Although a clear correlation of the persistence of the pathogen with increased MICs of the respective drugs could be demonstrated for Streptococcus pneumoniae, no such correlation was found for H. influenzae. It is proposed that susceptibility breakpoints for H. influenzae should be considerably lower than the current ones for both cefaclor and azithromycin for AOM caused by H. influenzae.
PMCID: PMC89626  PMID: 10602721
15.  Activities of Clinafloxacin, Alone and in Combination with Other Compounds, against 45 Gram-Positive and -Negative Organisms for Which Clinafloxacin MICs Are High 
Time-kill studies indicated that clinafloxacin showed synergy after 24 h with ceftazidime, amikacin, and imipenem against 12, 8, and 10 of 33 gram-negative rods, respectively; with vancomycin, teicoplanin, cefotaxime, and amikacin against 3, 3, 1, and 1 of 9 staphylococci and enterococci, respectively; and with vancomycin, penicillin, and cefotaxime against 0, 2, and 2 of 3 pneumococci, respectively. The MICs of clinafloxacin alone for most strains were ≥1 μg/ml.
PMCID: PMC89464  PMID: 10471582
16.  Activity of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared to Those of Eight Other Agents by Time-Kill Methodology† 
Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO2. Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 μg/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC ≤ 2.0 μg/ml) against all anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 μg/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of ≤1.0 μg/ml, while metronidazole was active (MICs, 0.03 to 2.0 μg/ml) against all except Propionibacterium acnes. After 48 h at twice the MIC, telithromycin was bactericidal (≥99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred.
PMCID: PMC89408  PMID: 10428930
17.  Susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae to 10 Oral Antimicrobial Agents Based on Pharmacodynamic Parameters: 1997 U.S. Surveillance Study 
The susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae (1,476 strains) and untypeable Haemophilus influenzae (1,676 strains) to various oral β-lactam, macrolide-azalide, and fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents were determined by broth microdilution. Organisms were isolated from specimens obtained from outpatients in six geographic regions of the United States. MIC data were interpreted according to pharmacodynamically derived breakpoints applicable to the oral agents tested. Among H. influenzae strains, 41.6% were β-lactamase positive. Virtually all H. influenzae strains were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (98%), cefixime (100%), and ciprofloxacin (100%), while 78% were susceptible to cefuroxime, 57% were susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were susceptible to cefprozil, 9% were susceptible to loracarbef, 2% were susceptible to cefaclor, and 0% were susceptible to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, 49.6% were penicillin susceptible, 17.9% were intermediate, and 32.5% were penicillin resistant, with penicillin MICs for 50 and 90% of the isolates tested of 0.12 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Overall, 94% of S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, 69% were susceptible to azithromycin and clarithromycin, 63% were susceptible to cefprozil and cefuroxime, 52% were susceptible to cefixime, 22% were susceptible to cefaclor, and 11% were susceptible to loracarbef. Although ciprofloxacin has marginal activity against S. pneumoniae, no high-level fluoroquinolone-resistant strains were found. Significant cross-resistance was found between penicillin and macrolides-azalides among S. pneumoniae isolates, with 5% of the penicillin-susceptible strains being macrolide-azalide resistant, compared with 37% of the intermediate isolates and 66% of the resistant isolates. Resistance was highest in S. pneumoniae isolates from patients younger than 10 years of age, middle ear and paranasal sinus specimens, and the southern half of the United States. With the continuing rise in resistance, judicious use of oral antimicrobial agents is necessary in all age groups.
PMCID: PMC89388  PMID: 10428910
18.  In Vitro Development of Resistance to Five Quinolones and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate in Streptococcus pneumoniae 
The ability of 50 sequential subcultures in subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, grepafloxacin, sparfloxacin, trovafloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate to select for resistance was studied for six penicillin-susceptible and four penicillin-intermediate pneumococci. Subculturing in ciprofloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin led to selection of mutants requiring increased MICs for all 10 strains, with MICs rising from (i) 0.5 to 4.0 to (ii) 4.0 to 32.0 μg/ml after 7 to 12 passages for ciprofloxacin, from (i) 0.06 to 0.25 to (ii) 0.5 to 8.0 μg/ml after 5 to 23 passages for grepafloxacin, from (i) 0.5 to 1.0 to (ii) 4.0 to 64 μg/ml after 14 to 49 passages for levofloxacin, and from (i) 0.125 to 0.25 to (ii) 1.0 to 16.0 μg/ml after 8 to 26 passages for sparfloxacin. Subculturing in trovafloxacin led to increased MICs for eight strains, with MICs rising from (i) 0.06 to 0.125 to (ii) 0.5 to 8.0 μg/ml after 6 to 28 passages. Subculturing in amoxicillin-clavulanate led to raised MICs for only one strain, with the MIC rising from 0.015 to 0.125 μg/ml after 24 passages. Double mutations in both ParC and GyrA led to high-level quinolone resistance when ParC mutations were at S79. Trovafloxacin MICs were 1 to 2 μg/ml in double mutants with ParC mutations at positions other than S79 (e.g., D83). Mutations in ParE (at D435, R447, and E474) and GyrB (at S405, D406, and D435) were found in four and six mutants, respectively. In the presence of reserpine, 29 mutants had lower ciprofloxacin MICs (2 to 16 times lower), 8 mutants had lower levofloxacin MICs (2 times), and one mutant had a lower trovafloxacin MIC (2 times), suggesting the involvement of an efflux mechanism. In contrast to the case for quinolones, subculturing in the presence of amoxicillin-clavulanate did not select for resistance to this drug.
PMCID: PMC89129  PMID: 10223932
19.  Activity of HMR 3647 Compared to Those of Six Compounds against 235 Strains of Enterococcus faecalis 
Agar dilution was used to test the activities of HMR 3647, erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin against 235 strains of Enterococcus faecalis. HMR 3647 was the most active compound (MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates are inhibited [MIC50 and MIC90, respectively] of 0.06 and 4.0 μg/ml, respectively). The MIC50 and MIC90 (with the MIC50 given first and the MIC90 given second; both in micrograms per milliliter) for other compounds were as follows: 4.0 and >32.0 for erythromycin A, 16.0 and >32.0 for azithromycin, 2.0 and >32 for clarithromycin, 32.0 and >32.0 for roxithromycin, 32.0 and >32.0 for clindamycin, and 8.0 and 16.0 for quinupristin-dalfopristin. All compounds were only bacteriostatic.
PMCID: PMC89040  PMID: 9869585
20.  Activity of HMR 3647 Compared to Those of Five Agents against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis by MIC Determination and Time-Kill Assay 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1998;42(11):3032-3034.
The microdilution MICs of HMR 3647, erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, and pristinamycin against 50/90% of 249 Haemophilus influenzae and 50 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were 2/4, 0.06/0.125; 8/16, 0.25/0.25; 2/4, 0.06/0.125; 16/16, 0.25/0.25; 32/>32, 1/2; and 2/4, 0.5/0.5 μg/ml. Azithromycin was bactericidal against all 10 H. influenzae and 3 of 5 M. catarrhalis isolates and HMR 3647, erythromycin A, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, and pristinamycin were bacteriostatic, against all 15 strains after 24 h at the MIC.
PMCID: PMC105990  PMID: 9797250
21.  Postantibiotic Effect and Postantibiotic Sub-MIC Effect of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin against Gram-Positive and -Negative Organisms 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1998;42(11):3028-3031.
Quinupristin-dalfopristin produced postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of >2 h against 18 gram-positive cocci. Mean pneumococcal and staphylococcal PAEs were 2.8 and 4.7 h, respectively, with shorter PAEs for constitutively than inducibly macrolide-resistant staphylococci. Mean PAEs for vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant Enterococcus faecium were 8.5 and 2.6 h, respectively.
PMCID: PMC105989  PMID: 9797249
22.  In Vitro Selection of Resistance to Four β-Lactams and Azithromycin in Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1998;42(11):2914-2918.
Selection of resistance to amoxicillin (with or without clavulanate), cefaclor, cefuroxime, and azithromycin among six penicillin G- and azithromycin-susceptible pneumococcal strains and among four strains with intermediate penicillin sensitivities (azithromycin MICs, 0.125 to 4 μg/ml) was studied by performing 50 sequential subcultures in medium with sub-MICs of these antimicrobial agents. For only one of the six penicillin-susceptible strains did subculturing in medium with amoxicillin (with or without clavulanate) lead to an increased MIC, with the MIC rising from 0.008 to 0.125 μg/ml. Five of the six penicillin-susceptible strains showed increased azithromycin MICs (0.5 to >256.0 μg/ml) after 17 to 45 subcultures. Subculturing in medium with cefaclor did not affect the cefaclor MICs of three strains but and led to increased cefaclor MICs (from 0.5 to 2.0 to 4.0 μg/ml) for three of the six strains, with MICs of other β-lactams rising 1 to 3 twofold dilutions. Subculturing in cefuroxime led to increased cefuroxime MICs (from 0.03 to 0.06 μg/ml to 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) for all six strains without significantly altering the MICs of other β-lactams, except for one strain, which developed an increased cefaclor MIC. Subculturing in azithromycin did not affect β-lactam MICs. Subculturing of the four strains with decreased penicillin susceptibility in amoxicillin (with or without clavulanate) or cefuroxime did not select for β-lactam resistance. Subculturing of one strain in cefaclor led to an increase in MIC from 0.5 to 2.0 μg/ml after 19 passages. In contrast to strains that were initially azithromycin susceptible, which required >10 subcultures for resistance selection, three of four strains with azithromycin MICs of 0.125 to 4.0 μg/ml showed increased MICs after 7 to 13 passages, with the MICs increasing to 16 to 32 μg/ml. All azithromycin-resistant strains were clarithromycin resistant. With the exception of strains that contained mefE at the onset, no strains that developed resistance to azithromycin contained ermB or mefE, genes that have been found in macrolide-resistant pneumococci obtained from clinic patients.
PMCID: PMC105965  PMID: 9797225
23.  Activities of Gatifloxacin Compared to Those of Seven Other Agents against Anaerobic Organisms 
The agar dilution MIC was used to compare activities of gatifloxacin with those of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, trovafloxacin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 351 anaerobes. Overall MICs at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited and MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited (in micrograms per milliliter) were as follows: gatifloxacin, 0.5 and 4; ciprofloxacin, 2 and 32; sparfloxacin, 2 and 8; trovafloxacin, 1 and 4; ampicillin, 1 and 64; ampicillin-sulbactam, 0.5 and 4; clindamycin, 0.125 and 8; and metronidazole, 1 and >16, respectively. Gatifloxacin MICs were similar to those of trovafloxacin in all organism groups.
PMCID: PMC105856  PMID: 9736586
24.  Activities of Three Quinolones, Alone and in Combination with Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins or Gentamicin, against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 
The present study examined the activities of trovafloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, alone and in combination with cefoperazone, ceftazidime, cefpirome, and gentamicin, against 100 strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by the MIC determination method and by synergy testing of the combinations by the time-kill and checkerboard titration methods for 20 strains. The respective MICs at which 50% and 90% of isolates were inhibited for the drugs used alone were as follows: trovafloxacin, 0.5 and 2.0 μg/ml; levofloxacin, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/ml; ciprofloxacin, 4.0 and 16.0 μg/ml; cefoperazone, >128.0 and >128.0 μg/ml; ceftazidime, 32.0 and >128.0 μg/ml; cefpirome, >128.0 and >128.0 μg/ml; and gentamicin, 128.0 and >128.0 μg/ml. Synergistic fractional inhibitory concentration indices (≤0.5) were found for ≥50% of strains for trovafloxacin-cefoperazone, trovafloxacin-ceftazidime, levofloxacin-cefoperazone, levofloxacin-ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin-cefoperazone, and ciprofloxacin-ceftazidime, with other combinations affecting fewer strains. For 20 strains tested by the checkerboard titration and time-kill methods, synergy (≥100-fold drop in count compared to the count achieved with the more active compound) was more pronounced after 12 h due to regrowth after 24 h. At 12 h, trovafloxacin at 0.004 to 0.5 μg/ml showed synergy with cefoperazone for 90% of strains, with ceftazidime for 95% of strains with cefpirome for 95% of strains, and with gentamicin for 65% of strains. Levofloxacin at 0.03 to 0.5 μg/ml and ciprofloxacin at 0.5 to 2.0 μg/ml showed synergy with cefoperazone for 80% of strains, with ceftazidime for 90 and 85% of strains, respectively, with cefpirome for 85 and 75% of strains, respectively, and with gentamicin for 65 and 75% of strains, respectively. Time-kill assays were more discriminatory than checkerboard titration assays in demonstrating synergy for all combinations.
PMCID: PMC105723  PMID: 9687397
25.  Comparative Activities of Clinafloxacin against Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria 
Activities of clinafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, trovafloxacin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime, and imipenem against 354 ciprofloxacin-susceptible and -intermediate-resistant organisms were tested by agar dilution. Clinafloxacin yielded the lowest quinolone MICs (≤0.5 μg/ml against ciprofloxacin-susceptible organisms and ≤16.0 μg/ml against ciprofloxacin-intermediate-resistant organisms) compared to those of levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, and sparfloxacin. Ceftazidime, piperacillin alone or combined with tazobactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem usually yielded higher MICs against ciprofloxacin-resistant strains.
PMCID: PMC105800  PMID: 9593165

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