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1.  Activity of beta-lactamase produced by Bacteroides fragilis against newly introduced cephalosporins. 
The purified beta-lactamase from Bacteroides fragilis hydrolyzed newly introduced cephalosporins including cefuroxime and HR 756, and was inhibited by 7 alpha-methoxylated cephalosporins such as 6059-S and YM09330.
PMCID: PMC283862  PMID: 6967295
2.  In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of ME1207, a new oral cephalosporin. 
ME1207 (pivaloyloxymethyl ester of ME1206) is a new oral cephalosporin. ME1206 is (6R,7R)-7-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(methoxyimino)- acetamido]-3-[(Z)-2-(4-methylthiazol-5-yl)-ethyl]-cephem-4-carboxy lic acid. The susceptibilities of about 1,600 clinical isolates to ME1206 were determined by the agar dilution method. ME1206 showed a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. ME1206 was more active than cefaclor, T-2525, and cefixime against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Against gram-negative bacteria, the activity of ME1206 was comparable with that of T-2525, but ME1206 was less active than cefixime. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ME1206 had high activity (MIC, less than or equal to 0.05 microgram/ml). ME1206 was stable against various beta-lactamases, except beta-lactamases from Providencia rettgeri, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Escherichia coli W3630 (Rms213). The 50% effective doses of ME1207 after oral administration against systemic infections in mice were comparable with those of T-2588 against gram-negative bacteria and about one-fourth that of T-2588 against Staphylococcus aureus Smith.
PMCID: PMC175880  PMID: 3264132
3.  In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CS-807, a new oral cephalosporin. 
CS-807 is a new oral prodrug of R-3746, a cephalosporin derivative, with potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The susceptibility of about 1,200 clinical isolates to R-3746 was determined by the agar dilution method. Ninety percent or more of pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, indole-positive and indole-negative Proteus spp., Providencia rettgeri, and Haemophilus influenzae were inhibited at concentrations ranging less than or equal to 0.01 to 1.56 micrograms/ml. Furthermore, at a concentration of 3.13 micrograms/ml, 50% or more of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens strains were also inhibited. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xanthomonas maltophilia were resistant to R-3746. The activity of R-3746 was scarcely influenced by several growth conditions. R-3746 was highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases derived from various species of bacteria. Killing-curve studies demonstrated bactericidal activity of R-3746 at concentrations above the MIC. R-3746 showed high affinity for penicillin-binding proteins 1, 3, and 4 of Staphylococcus aureus and 1A, 1Bs, and 3 of Escherichia coli. Systemic infections in mice caused by various pathogens, including beta-lactamase-producing strains, responded well to therapy with oral doses of CS-807.
PMCID: PMC174876  PMID: 3310868
4.  Purification and biochemical properties of beta-lactamase produced by Proteus rettgeri. 
beta-Lactamase produced by Proteus rettgeri was found to be a typical cephalosporin beta-lactamase on the basis of its substrate hydrolysis profile. The enzyme activity was enhanced by prior treatment with an inducer. The enzyme was purified 166-fold by carboxymethyl-Sephadex column chromatography which indicated that its molecular weight was 42,000 +/- 2,000 and its isoelectric point was 8.7. Cefoperazone, cefoxitin, cefusulodin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, 6059-S, FK749, YM-09330, carbenicillin, and cloxacillin were stable to this enzyme and possessed the function of competitive inhibition, as shown by their affinity for the beta-lactamase. The enzyme activity was inhibited by iodine, p-chloromerburibenzoate, and HG2+ ion. Clavulanic acid and CP-45899 displayed poor inhibitory activity toward this enzyme. The optimal pH was 8.0, and the optimal temperature was 50 degrees C.
PMCID: PMC284076  PMID: 6969578
5.  Detection of genes regulating beta-lactamase production in Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1996;40(11):2550-2554.
Four beta-lactamase-producing clinical isolates (WH245, WH257, CH570, and DEL) of Enterococcus faecalis were examined for the presence of the staphylococcal beta-lactamase regulatory genes (blaR1 and blaI) by PCR using six primer pairs. All isolates produced small amounts of beta-lactamase constitutively. In WH245, CH570, and DEL, the corresponding regions of the regulatory genes have lost sequences of various lengths. However, the regulatory genes in WH257 appeared to be the same as those in staphylococcal plasmid pI258. The beta-lactamase genes could be transferred to enterococcal and staphylococcal recipients from WH257 and DEL by conjugation or transformation with selection for gentamicin resistance. After transformation, the expression of beta-lactamase from DEL was still constitutive, whereas the gene from WH257 showed inducible expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The gene coding for inducible beta-lactamase production from pI258 showed constitutive expression in E. faecalis. These findings suggest that constitutive beta-lactamase production in E. faecalis is due not only to the absence of functional regulatory genes but to some other factor(s) as well.
PMCID: PMC163573  PMID: 8913462
6.  Alterations in the DNA topoisomerase IV grlA gene responsible for quinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. 
A 4.2-kb DNA fragment conferring quinolone resistance was cloned from a quinolone-resistant clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus and was shown to possess a part of the grlB gene and a mutated grlA gene. S-80-->F and E-84-->K mutations in the grlA gene product were responsible for the quinolone resistance. The mutated grlA genes responsible for quinolone resistance were dominant over the wild-type allele, irrespective of gene dosage in a transformation experiment with the grlA gene alone. However, dominance by mutated grlA genes depended on gene dosage when bacteria were transformed with the grlA and grlB genes in combination. Quinolone-resistant gyrA mutants were easily isolated from a strain, S. aureus RN4220, carrying a plasmid with the mutated grlA gene, though this was not the case for other S. aureus strains lacking the plasmid. The elimination of this plasmid from such quinolone-resistant gyrA mutants resulted in marked increases in quinolone susceptibility. These results suggest that both DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV may be targets of quinolones and that the quinolone susceptibility of organisms may be determined by which of these enzymes is most quinolone sensitive.
PMCID: PMC163283  PMID: 8723458
7.  Autolysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is involved in synergism between imipenem and cefotiam. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1995;39(12):2631-2634.
Imipenem-induced autolysis and the activity of imipenem plus cefotiam were studied in 16 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The degree of imipenem-induced autolysis and the rate of synergistic action of imipenem plus cefotiam varied among strains and did not correlate with susceptibility to either imipenem or cefotiam. However, the degree of autolysis correlated well with susceptibility to the synergistic action of imipenem plus cefotiam. In methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains, both imipenem-induced autolysis and the synergistic activity of the combined drugs were less than those observed in MRSA strains. Differences in the degree of autolysis were not due to differences in autolytic enzyme production. The autolysis of imipenem-pretreated MRSA was enhanced further by cefotiam, while treatment of cells in the reverse order did not enhance autolysis. These findings indicate that cell wall impairment in MRSA is caused by exposure to imipenem but not to cefotiam and that this difference in drug actions results in synergism between imipenem and cefotiam. The possible participation of penicillin-binding proteins PBP 2' and PBP4 in the observed effect is discussed.
PMCID: PMC163002  PMID: 8592992
8.  In vitro activity of T-3761, a new fluoroquinolone. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1992;36(10):2293-2303.
The in vitro activity of T-3761, a new fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent which has an oxazine ring structure with a cyclopropyl moiety at C-10, was compared with those of other agents against 2,854 clinical isolates. T-3761 had a broad spectrum of activity and had potent activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The MICs of T-3761 against 90% of the methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Clostridium spp. tested were 0.39 to 6.25 micrograms/ml. Its activity was comparable to those of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and four- to eightfold greater than those of norfloxacin and fleroxacin, but its activity was two- to eightfold less than that of tosufloxacin. Some isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus (MIC of ciprofloxacin, greater than or equal to 3.13 micrograms/ml) were still susceptible to T-3761 (MIC of T-3761, less than or equal to 0.78 micrograms/ml). The MICs of T-3761 against 90% of the streptococci and enterococci tested were 3.13 to 100 micrograms/ml. Its activity was equal to or 2- or 4-fold greater than those of norfloxacin and fleroxacin, equal to or 2- or 4-fold less than those of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and 4- to 16-fold less than that of tosufloxacin. The activity of T-3761 against gram-negative bacteria was usually fourfold greater than those of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and fleroxacin. Many isolates which were resistant to nonfluoroquinolone agents, such as minocycline- or imipenem-resistant S. aureus, ceftazidime-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, gentamicin- or imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, were susceptible to T-3761. The MBCs of T-3761 were either equal to or twofold greater than the MICs. The number of viable cells decreased rapidly during incubation with T-3761 at one to four times the MIC. At a concentration of four times the MIC, the frequencies of appearance of spontaneous mutants resistant to T-3761 against S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and P. aeruginosa were 2.2 x 10(-8) to less than or equal to 1.2 x 10(-9). The 50% inhibitory concentrations of T-3761 for DNA gyrases isolated from E. coli and P. aeruginosa were 0.88 and 1.9 micrograms/ml, respectively.
PMCID: PMC245492  PMID: 1332594
9.  Lack of effect of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone on KB-5246 accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus. 
The accumulation of KB-5246 in a quinolone-susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus was about 70 times that of norfloxacin. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone increased the accumulation of norfloxacin about eightfold, but it did not influence that of KB-5246. The low efflux of KB-5246 from S. aureus may contribute to its potent antibacterial activity.
PMCID: PMC189480  PMID: 1323957
10.  Mechanisms of clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones in Enterococcus faecalis. 
About 10% of 100 clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to greater than or equal to 25 micrograms of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and temafloxacin per ml. In this study, the DNA gyrase of E. faecalis was purified from a fluoroquinolone-susceptible strain (ATCC 19433) and two resistant isolates, MS16968 and MS16996. Strains MS16968 and MS16996 were 64- to 128-fold and 16- to 32-fold less susceptible, respectively, to fluoroquinolones than was ATCC 19433; MICs of nonquinolone antibacterial agents for these strains were almost equal. The DNA gyrase from ATCC 19433 had two subunits, designated A and B, with properties similar to those of DNA gyrase from other gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. Inhibition of the supercoiling activity of the enzyme from ATCC 19433 by the fluoroquinolones correlated with their antibacterial activities. In contrast, preparations of DNA gyrase from MS16968 and MS16996 were at least 30-fold less sensitive to inhibition of supercoiling by the fluoroquinolones than the gyrase from ATCC 19433 was. Experiments that combined heterologous gyrase subunits showed that the A subunit from either of the resistant isolates conferred resistance to fluoroquinolones. These findings indicate that an alteration in the gyrase A subunit is the major contributor to fluoroquinolone resistance in E. faecalis clinical isolates. A difference in drug uptake may also contribute to the level of fluoroquinolone resistance in these isolates.
PMCID: PMC284285  PMID: 1656852
11.  Transferable imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 
We isolated an imipenem-resistant strain, GN17203, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strain produced a beta-lactamase that hydrolyzed imipenem. The beta-lactamase was encoded by a 31-MDa plasmid, pMS350, which belongs to incompatibility group P-9. The plasmic conferred resistance to beta-lactams, gentamicin, and sulfonamide and was transferable by conjugation to P. aeruginosa but not to Escherichia coli. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 28,000, and the isoelectric point was 9.0. The enzyme showed a broad substrate profile, hydrolyzing imipenem, oxyiminocephalosporins, 7-methoxycephalosporins, and penicillins. The enzyme activity was inhibited by EDTA, iodine, p-chloromercuribenzoate, CuSO4, and HgCl2 but not by clavulanic acid or sulbactam.
PMCID: PMC244956  PMID: 1901695
12.  Activity of KB-5246 against outer membrane mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. 
The inhibitory activity of KB-5246 against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and the antibacterial activity and apparent uptake in E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium outer membrane mutants of KB-5246 were measured. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of KB-5246, ciprofloxacin, oflaxacin, and norfloxacin for E. coli KL-16 DNA gyrase were 0.72, 0.62, 0.84, and 1.16 micrograms/ml, respectively. The activity of KB-5246 was twofold lower against an OmpF-deficient mutant and twofold higher against a mutant which produced OmpF constitutively than against the parent with osmoregulated OmpF production. KB-5246 had twofold-higher activity against a deep rough mutant of S. typhimurium than against the parent. The apparent uptake of KB-5246 in the OmpF-deficient mutant was decreased and its uptake in the deep rough mutant was increased when compared with those in the parents. These results suggest that KB-5246 is taken up by porin and nonporin pathways and has strong inhibitory activity against DNA gyrase, resulting in potent antibacterial activity.
PMCID: PMC175974  PMID: 2167038
13.  In vitro activity of AT-4140 against quinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. 
Eighty-nine clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus that were resistant to both ciprofloxacin (MIC, greater than or equal to 3.13 micrograms/ml) and methicillin (MIC, greater than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml) were divided into two groups with respect to their susceptibilities to AT-4140. Most isolates that were moderately resistant to ciprofloxacin (MICs, 3.13 to 12.5 micrograms/ml) or ofloxacin (MICs, 0.78 to 6.25 micrograms/ml) were susceptible to AT-4140 (MICs, 0.05 to 0.2 microgram/ml). Most isolates that were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC, greater than or equal to 25 micrograms/ml) or ofloxacin (MIC, greater than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml) were resistant to AT-4140 (MICs, 3.13 to 25 micrograms/ml). The appearance of spontaneous single-step, quinolone-resistant mutants of S. aureus P-20, a methicillin-resistant isolate, was more frequent than was that of S. aureus 209P JC-1, a susceptible laboratory strain. Spontaneous single-step, quinolone-resistant mutants of P-20 were not selected by AT-4140, and those selected by existing fluoroquinolones were susceptible to AT-4140. Spontaneous double-step, quinolone-resistant mutants of P-20 were selected by various fluoroquinolones. All second-step mutants selected by AT-4140 or ofloxacin from P-20-C, a spontaneous single-step mutant of P-20 selected by ciprofloxacin, were resistant to all the quinolones. All second-step mutants selected by nonfloxacin were resistant to all existing fluoroquinolones but were less resistant to AT-4140. There was a close resemblance between the resistance profiles of spontaneous quinolone-resistant mutants and those of clinically isolated quinolone- and methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC171769  PMID: 2393270
14.  Antimicrobial activity and stability to beta-lactamase of BMY-28271, a new oral cephalosporin ester. 
BMY-28271, the acetoxyethyl ester of BMY-28232, 7-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-hydroxyiminoacetamido]-3(Z) -propen-1-yl-3- cephem-4-carboxylic acid, is a new oral cephalosporin. BMY-28232 has a widely expanded spectrum with high activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. BMY-28232 is far more active than cefixime or cefteram against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Against gram-negative bacteria, the activity of BMY-28232 was comparable to or somewhat weaker than that of cefixime or cefteram. BMY-28232 was a poor substrate for various beta-lactamases. Orally administered BMY-28271 had a good therapeutic effect on systemic infections with S. aureus and some gram-negative bacteria in mice. Oral BMY-28271 was efficacious against S. aureus Smith infection: the efficacy of BMY-28271 was 80 to 90 times higher than that of cefixime or cefteram.
PMCID: PMC171643  PMID: 2344162
15.  In vitro emergence of quinolone-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Serratia marcescens. 
Norfloxacin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of several Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens isolates occurred at frequencies of greater than or equal to 10(-7)/CFU, which were higher than those of Escherichia coli isolates, in accordance with the increasing emergence of less-susceptible or resistant strains in clinical isolates of E. cloacae and S. marcescens.
PMCID: PMC171545  PMID: 2183709
16.  In vitro activity of AT-4140 against clinical bacterial isolates. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1989;33(11):1980-1988.
The activity of AT-4140, a new fluoroquinolone, was evaluated against a wide range of clinical bacterial isolates and compared with those of existing analogs. AT-4140 had a broad spectrum and a potent activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including Legionella spp. and Bacteroides fragilis. The activity of AT-4140 against gram-positive and -negative cocci, including Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, was higher than those of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin. Its activity against gram-negative rods was generally comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. Some isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC of methicillin, greater than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml) were resistant to existing quinolones, but many of them were still susceptible to AT-4140 at concentrations below 0.39 micrograms/ml. The MICs of AT-4140, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin for 90% of clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus were 0.2, 12.5, 6.25, and 100 micrograms/ml, respectively. AT-4140 was bactericidal for each of 20 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations near the MICs. AT-4140 inhibited the supercoiling activity of DNA gyrase from E. coli.
PMCID: PMC172799  PMID: 2558617
17.  In vitro activity of amifloxacin against outer membrane mutants of the family Enterobacteriaceae and frequency of spontaneous resistance. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1989;33(11):1837-1840.
Amifloxacin showed potent inhibitory activity against DNA gyrase of Escherichia coli. The difference in the susceptibilities of lipopolysaccharide-deficient Salmonella typhimurium mutants and their parent strain was less than twofold, and the difference in the susceptibilities of porin-deficient E. coli mutants and their parent strain was less than twofold. There was cross resistance among the quinolone group of agents; however, the decrease in MIC for norB mutants was slightly lower than that of other fluoroquinolones. Cell lysis was induced with combined treatment of amifloxacin and sodium dodecyl sulfate in E. coli. The frequency of mutants spontaneously resistant to amifloxacin was extremely low in all species tested.
PMCID: PMC172773  PMID: 2558611
18.  Quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens. 
The uptakes of norfloxacin by quinolone-resistant and -susceptible strains of Serratia marcescens were almost the same and 50% inhibitory concentrations for DNA gyrase and the MICs of quinolones were correlated, suggesting that DNA gyrase alterations are the basis of quinolone resistance.
PMCID: PMC172536  PMID: 2546493
19.  Outer membrane permeation of Bacteroides fragilis by cephalosporins. 
Outer membrane permeation of Bacteroides fragilis by cephalosporins was examined by a previously described method. The permeation parameters of cephalosporins in B. fragilis were close to 10(-5) cm3/min per microgram of cell dry weight. These values were about an order of magnitude lower than those in Escherichia coli. In B. fragilis, the permeation was not directly proportional to the hydrophilicity of cephalosporins, and the ion selectivity was weak.
PMCID: PMC172353  PMID: 3190196
20.  In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of T-3262, a new fluoroquinolone. 
T-3262, a new fluoroquinolone, showed a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. T-3262 had most potent activity against gram-positive cocci, such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus spp. The MICs of T-3262 for 90% of strains tested were between 0.05 and 1.56 micrograms/ml. Against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the activities of T-3262 were almost equal to those of ciprofloxacin. Obligate anaerobes were also susceptible to T-3262. T-3262 was bactericidal for one strain each of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and P. aeruginosa at concentrations near its MIC; and fluoroquinolones, including T-3262, inhibited DNA gyrase activity at low concentrations. The 50% effective dose of T-3262 after oral administration against systemic infections with S. aureus in mice was about 6 times lower than that of ofloxacin and about 20 times lower than that of norfloxacin.
PMCID: PMC172290  PMID: 2843082
21.  Purification and characterization of human renal dehydropeptidase I. 
Dehydropeptidase I from human kidney was purified over 100-fold. The purified enzyme had an isoelectric point of 4.75, apparent molecular weights of 135,000 by gel filtration and of 66,500 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and an optimal pH of 7.4. Human renal dehydropeptidase I hydrolyzed imipenem, carpetimycins A and B, and Sch 29,482.
PMCID: PMC172226  PMID: 3163907
22.  In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of T-2588, a new oral cephalosporin, compared with those of other oral beta-lactam antibiotics. 
T-2588, the pivaloyloxymethyl ester of T-2525, [6R, 7R]-7-[(z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-methoxyiminoacetoamido] -3- [(5-methyl-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)methyl]-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid, is a new oral cephalosporin. T-2525 had a widely expanded antibacterial spectrum against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. T-2525 was more active in vitro than cefaclor, cephalexin, and amoxicillin against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Branhamella catarrhalis. Moreover, it exhibited superior in vitro activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. T-2525 was highly stable to various beta-lactamases, which were classified as Richmond and Sykes types Ia, Ib, Ic, III, IV, and Vc. It had high affinities for the lethal (essential) penicillin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Bacteroides fragilis. T-2588 had excellent therapeutic effect on systemic infections in mice with various species of gram-negative bacteria, including beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.
PMCID: PMC174880  PMID: 3499115
23.  In vitro and in vivo activity of NY-198, a new difluorinated quinolone. 
NY-198 [1-ethyl-6,8-difluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-4-oxo-3- quinolinecarboxylic acid hydrochloride] is a new difluorinated quinolone characterized by the presence of a C-methyl group at the 3 position of the piperazine moiety. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum. The in vitro antibacterial activity of NY-198 was almost the same as those of ofloxacin and norfloxacin, but far exceeded that of pipemidic acid. NY-198 was more active than norfloxacin against Pseudomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and anaerobic microorganisms. Cross resistance was not observed between NY-198 and various antibiotics including methicillin, gentamicin, and ampicillin. NY-198 had bactericidal activity at the MIC or slightly higher than the MIC. It showed excellent antibacterial activity against various systemic infections in mice. After oral administration, NY-198 was two times more active than or as active as ofloxacin and two to four times more active than norfloxacin.
PMCID: PMC284199  PMID: 3476021
24.  Purification and properties of DNA gyrase from a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain of Escherichia coli. 
Subunit A and B proteins of DNA gyrase were separately purified from fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli GN14181 (MIC of ofloxacin, 100 micrograms/ml) and susceptible strain KL-16. The supercoiling activities of reconstituted Ar+Br (r, resistant) and Ar+Bs (s, susceptible) were 250-fold more resistant to new fluoroquinolones than those of As+Bs and As+Br.
PMCID: PMC176532  PMID: 3026239
25.  Biochemical properties of beta-lactamase produced by Legionella gormanii. 
beta-Lactamase was purified from a strain of Legionella gormanii. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 25,000, and its isoelectric point was 10.5. The enzyme hydrolyzed oxyiminocephalosporins, cephamycins, penicillins, and imipenem. The enzyme activity was inhibited by EDTA, Hg2+, and Cu2+, but not by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, or imipenem.
PMCID: PMC284182  PMID: 3488020

Results 1-25 (54)