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1.  Detection of genes regulating beta-lactamase production in Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1996;40(11):2550-2554.
Four beta-lactamase-producing clinical isolates (WH245, WH257, CH570, and DEL) of Enterococcus faecalis were examined for the presence of the staphylococcal beta-lactamase regulatory genes (blaR1 and blaI) by PCR using six primer pairs. All isolates produced small amounts of beta-lactamase constitutively. In WH245, CH570, and DEL, the corresponding regions of the regulatory genes have lost sequences of various lengths. However, the regulatory genes in WH257 appeared to be the same as those in staphylococcal plasmid pI258. The beta-lactamase genes could be transferred to enterococcal and staphylococcal recipients from WH257 and DEL by conjugation or transformation with selection for gentamicin resistance. After transformation, the expression of beta-lactamase from DEL was still constitutive, whereas the gene from WH257 showed inducible expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The gene coding for inducible beta-lactamase production from pI258 showed constitutive expression in E. faecalis. These findings suggest that constitutive beta-lactamase production in E. faecalis is due not only to the absence of functional regulatory genes but to some other factor(s) as well.
PMCID: PMC163573  PMID: 8913462
2.  Alterations in the DNA topoisomerase IV grlA gene responsible for quinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. 
A 4.2-kb DNA fragment conferring quinolone resistance was cloned from a quinolone-resistant clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus and was shown to possess a part of the grlB gene and a mutated grlA gene. S-80-->F and E-84-->K mutations in the grlA gene product were responsible for the quinolone resistance. The mutated grlA genes responsible for quinolone resistance were dominant over the wild-type allele, irrespective of gene dosage in a transformation experiment with the grlA gene alone. However, dominance by mutated grlA genes depended on gene dosage when bacteria were transformed with the grlA and grlB genes in combination. Quinolone-resistant gyrA mutants were easily isolated from a strain, S. aureus RN4220, carrying a plasmid with the mutated grlA gene, though this was not the case for other S. aureus strains lacking the plasmid. The elimination of this plasmid from such quinolone-resistant gyrA mutants resulted in marked increases in quinolone susceptibility. These results suggest that both DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV may be targets of quinolones and that the quinolone susceptibility of organisms may be determined by which of these enzymes is most quinolone sensitive.
PMCID: PMC163283  PMID: 8723458
3.  Autolysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is involved in synergism between imipenem and cefotiam. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1995;39(12):2631-2634.
Imipenem-induced autolysis and the activity of imipenem plus cefotiam were studied in 16 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The degree of imipenem-induced autolysis and the rate of synergistic action of imipenem plus cefotiam varied among strains and did not correlate with susceptibility to either imipenem or cefotiam. However, the degree of autolysis correlated well with susceptibility to the synergistic action of imipenem plus cefotiam. In methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains, both imipenem-induced autolysis and the synergistic activity of the combined drugs were less than those observed in MRSA strains. Differences in the degree of autolysis were not due to differences in autolytic enzyme production. The autolysis of imipenem-pretreated MRSA was enhanced further by cefotiam, while treatment of cells in the reverse order did not enhance autolysis. These findings indicate that cell wall impairment in MRSA is caused by exposure to imipenem but not to cefotiam and that this difference in drug actions results in synergism between imipenem and cefotiam. The possible participation of penicillin-binding proteins PBP 2' and PBP4 in the observed effect is discussed.
PMCID: PMC163002  PMID: 8592992
4.  In vitro activity of T-3761, a new fluoroquinolone. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1992;36(10):2293-2303.
The in vitro activity of T-3761, a new fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent which has an oxazine ring structure with a cyclopropyl moiety at C-10, was compared with those of other agents against 2,854 clinical isolates. T-3761 had a broad spectrum of activity and had potent activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The MICs of T-3761 against 90% of the methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Clostridium spp. tested were 0.39 to 6.25 micrograms/ml. Its activity was comparable to those of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and four- to eightfold greater than those of norfloxacin and fleroxacin, but its activity was two- to eightfold less than that of tosufloxacin. Some isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus (MIC of ciprofloxacin, greater than or equal to 3.13 micrograms/ml) were still susceptible to T-3761 (MIC of T-3761, less than or equal to 0.78 micrograms/ml). The MICs of T-3761 against 90% of the streptococci and enterococci tested were 3.13 to 100 micrograms/ml. Its activity was equal to or 2- or 4-fold greater than those of norfloxacin and fleroxacin, equal to or 2- or 4-fold less than those of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and 4- to 16-fold less than that of tosufloxacin. The activity of T-3761 against gram-negative bacteria was usually fourfold greater than those of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and fleroxacin. Many isolates which were resistant to nonfluoroquinolone agents, such as minocycline- or imipenem-resistant S. aureus, ceftazidime-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, gentamicin- or imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, were susceptible to T-3761. The MBCs of T-3761 were either equal to or twofold greater than the MICs. The number of viable cells decreased rapidly during incubation with T-3761 at one to four times the MIC. At a concentration of four times the MIC, the frequencies of appearance of spontaneous mutants resistant to T-3761 against S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and P. aeruginosa were 2.2 x 10(-8) to less than or equal to 1.2 x 10(-9). The 50% inhibitory concentrations of T-3761 for DNA gyrases isolated from E. coli and P. aeruginosa were 0.88 and 1.9 micrograms/ml, respectively.
PMCID: PMC245492  PMID: 1332594
5.  Lack of effect of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone on KB-5246 accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus. 
The accumulation of KB-5246 in a quinolone-susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus was about 70 times that of norfloxacin. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone increased the accumulation of norfloxacin about eightfold, but it did not influence that of KB-5246. The low efflux of KB-5246 from S. aureus may contribute to its potent antibacterial activity.
PMCID: PMC189480  PMID: 1323957
6.  Mechanisms of clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones in Staphylococcus aureus. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1991;35(12):2562-2567.
Mechanisms of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to fluoroquinolones were characterized. Subunit A and B proteins of DNA gyrase were partially purified from fluoroquinolone-susceptible strain SA113 and resistant isolate MS16405, which was 250- to 1,000-fold less susceptible to fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, temafloxacin, and sparfloxacin than SA113 was. The supercoiling activity of the gyrase from SA113 was inhibited by the fluoroquinolones, and the 50% inhibitory concentrations of the drugs correlated well with their MICs. In contrast, the gyrase from MS16405 was insensitive to inhibition of supercoiling by all of the quinolones tested, even at 800 micrograms/ml. Combinations of heterologous gyrase subunits showed that subunit A from MS16405 conferred fluoroquinolone resistance, suggesting that an alteration in gyrase subunit A is a cause of the fluoroquinolone resistance in MS16405. Uptake of hydrophilic fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin by MS16405 was significantly lower than that by SA113. Furthermore, this difference was abolished by the addition of an energy inhibitor, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting that an alteration in an energy-dependent process, such as an active efflux of hydrophilic quinolones, may lead to decreased drug uptake and hence to increased resistance to fluoroquinolones in MS16405. These findings suggest that the fluoroquinolone resistance in MS16405 is due mainly to an alteration in subunit A of DNA gyrase and may also be associated with an alteration in the drug uptake process.
PMCID: PMC245431  PMID: 1667255
7.  Mechanisms of clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones in Enterococcus faecalis. 
About 10% of 100 clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to greater than or equal to 25 micrograms of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and temafloxacin per ml. In this study, the DNA gyrase of E. faecalis was purified from a fluoroquinolone-susceptible strain (ATCC 19433) and two resistant isolates, MS16968 and MS16996. Strains MS16968 and MS16996 were 64- to 128-fold and 16- to 32-fold less susceptible, respectively, to fluoroquinolones than was ATCC 19433; MICs of nonquinolone antibacterial agents for these strains were almost equal. The DNA gyrase from ATCC 19433 had two subunits, designated A and B, with properties similar to those of DNA gyrase from other gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. Inhibition of the supercoiling activity of the enzyme from ATCC 19433 by the fluoroquinolones correlated with their antibacterial activities. In contrast, preparations of DNA gyrase from MS16968 and MS16996 were at least 30-fold less sensitive to inhibition of supercoiling by the fluoroquinolones than the gyrase from ATCC 19433 was. Experiments that combined heterologous gyrase subunits showed that the A subunit from either of the resistant isolates conferred resistance to fluoroquinolones. These findings indicate that an alteration in the gyrase A subunit is the major contributor to fluoroquinolone resistance in E. faecalis clinical isolates. A difference in drug uptake may also contribute to the level of fluoroquinolone resistance in these isolates.
PMCID: PMC284285  PMID: 1656852
8.  Preferential hydrolysis of cis configuration compounds at the 3,4 position of monobactams by beta-lactamase from Morganella morganii. 
Carumonam and BO-1166 (cis configuration) were inactivated by beta-lactamase of Morganella morganii more rapidly than were aztreonam and BO-1165 (trans configuration), as demonstrated by spectrophotometric analysis and microbiological assay. An active enzyme was recovered more rapidly from the inactivated enzyme-monobactam complex derived from the cis form of monobactams than from the complex derived from the trans form of monobactams. This result suggests that the configuration at the 3,4 position on the azetidinone ring of monobactams, together with the chemical structure of the side chains attached to the azetidinone ring, may play an important role in the stability of monobactams to the beta-lactamase of M. morganii.
PMCID: PMC245032  PMID: 2039196
9.  Uptake of sparfloxacin and norfloxacin by clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. 
The amount of sparfloxacin uptake was higher than that of norfloxacin uptake in Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, energy-dependent reduction in quinolone uptake, probably due to active efflux of the quinolone, was observed. The reduction in quinolone uptake appeared to be associated with quinolone resistance in S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC245007  PMID: 2024969
10.  In vitro antibacterial activity of KP-736, a new cephem antibiotic. 
KP-736, a new cephen antibiotic with a broad antibacterial spectrum and potent antipseudomonal activity, was evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity in comparison with ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefpirome. KP-736 was significantly more active than the test compounds against gram-negative bacteria, including the Pseudomonas group and ceftazidime-, cefotaxime-, or imipenem-resistant strains, but less active against gram-positive bacteria. KP-736 had very high affinities for penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP 3) of Escherichia coli K-12 and PBP 1A and PBP 3 of Pseudomonas aerugiosa NCTC 10490 and showed potent bactericidal activities against these two strains. It was stable to hydrolysis by penicillinases and cephalosporinases but was slightly hydrolyzed by oxyiminocephalosporinases and type II penicillinase.
PMCID: PMC244949  PMID: 2014964
11.  Transferable imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 
We isolated an imipenem-resistant strain, GN17203, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strain produced a beta-lactamase that hydrolyzed imipenem. The beta-lactamase was encoded by a 31-MDa plasmid, pMS350, which belongs to incompatibility group P-9. The plasmic conferred resistance to beta-lactams, gentamicin, and sulfonamide and was transferable by conjugation to P. aeruginosa but not to Escherichia coli. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 28,000, and the isoelectric point was 9.0. The enzyme showed a broad substrate profile, hydrolyzing imipenem, oxyiminocephalosporins, 7-methoxycephalosporins, and penicillins. The enzyme activity was inhibited by EDTA, iodine, p-chloromercuribenzoate, CuSO4, and HgCl2 but not by clavulanic acid or sulbactam.
PMCID: PMC244956  PMID: 1901695
12.  Activity of KB-5246 against outer membrane mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. 
The inhibitory activity of KB-5246 against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and the antibacterial activity and apparent uptake in E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium outer membrane mutants of KB-5246 were measured. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of KB-5246, ciprofloxacin, oflaxacin, and norfloxacin for E. coli KL-16 DNA gyrase were 0.72, 0.62, 0.84, and 1.16 micrograms/ml, respectively. The activity of KB-5246 was twofold lower against an OmpF-deficient mutant and twofold higher against a mutant which produced OmpF constitutively than against the parent with osmoregulated OmpF production. KB-5246 had twofold-higher activity against a deep rough mutant of S. typhimurium than against the parent. The apparent uptake of KB-5246 in the OmpF-deficient mutant was decreased and its uptake in the deep rough mutant was increased when compared with those in the parents. These results suggest that KB-5246 is taken up by porin and nonporin pathways and has strong inhibitory activity against DNA gyrase, resulting in potent antibacterial activity.
PMCID: PMC175974  PMID: 2167038
13.  In vitro activity of AT-4140 against quinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. 
Eighty-nine clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus that were resistant to both ciprofloxacin (MIC, greater than or equal to 3.13 micrograms/ml) and methicillin (MIC, greater than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml) were divided into two groups with respect to their susceptibilities to AT-4140. Most isolates that were moderately resistant to ciprofloxacin (MICs, 3.13 to 12.5 micrograms/ml) or ofloxacin (MICs, 0.78 to 6.25 micrograms/ml) were susceptible to AT-4140 (MICs, 0.05 to 0.2 microgram/ml). Most isolates that were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC, greater than or equal to 25 micrograms/ml) or ofloxacin (MIC, greater than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml) were resistant to AT-4140 (MICs, 3.13 to 25 micrograms/ml). The appearance of spontaneous single-step, quinolone-resistant mutants of S. aureus P-20, a methicillin-resistant isolate, was more frequent than was that of S. aureus 209P JC-1, a susceptible laboratory strain. Spontaneous single-step, quinolone-resistant mutants of P-20 were not selected by AT-4140, and those selected by existing fluoroquinolones were susceptible to AT-4140. Spontaneous double-step, quinolone-resistant mutants of P-20 were selected by various fluoroquinolones. All second-step mutants selected by AT-4140 or ofloxacin from P-20-C, a spontaneous single-step mutant of P-20 selected by ciprofloxacin, were resistant to all the quinolones. All second-step mutants selected by nonfloxacin were resistant to all existing fluoroquinolones but were less resistant to AT-4140. There was a close resemblance between the resistance profiles of spontaneous quinolone-resistant mutants and those of clinically isolated quinolone- and methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC171769  PMID: 2393270
14.  Antimicrobial activity and stability to beta-lactamase of BMY-28271, a new oral cephalosporin ester. 
BMY-28271, the acetoxyethyl ester of BMY-28232, 7-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-hydroxyiminoacetamido]-3(Z) -propen-1-yl-3- cephem-4-carboxylic acid, is a new oral cephalosporin. BMY-28232 has a widely expanded spectrum with high activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. BMY-28232 is far more active than cefixime or cefteram against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Against gram-negative bacteria, the activity of BMY-28232 was comparable to or somewhat weaker than that of cefixime or cefteram. BMY-28232 was a poor substrate for various beta-lactamases. Orally administered BMY-28271 had a good therapeutic effect on systemic infections with S. aureus and some gram-negative bacteria in mice. Oral BMY-28271 was efficacious against S. aureus Smith infection: the efficacy of BMY-28271 was 80 to 90 times higher than that of cefixime or cefteram.
PMCID: PMC171643  PMID: 2344162
15.  In vitro emergence of quinolone-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Serratia marcescens. 
Norfloxacin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of several Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens isolates occurred at frequencies of greater than or equal to 10(-7)/CFU, which were higher than those of Escherichia coli isolates, in accordance with the increasing emergence of less-susceptible or resistant strains in clinical isolates of E. cloacae and S. marcescens.
PMCID: PMC171545  PMID: 2183709
16.  In vitro activity of AT-4140 against clinical bacterial isolates. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1989;33(11):1980-1988.
The activity of AT-4140, a new fluoroquinolone, was evaluated against a wide range of clinical bacterial isolates and compared with those of existing analogs. AT-4140 had a broad spectrum and a potent activity against gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including Legionella spp. and Bacteroides fragilis. The activity of AT-4140 against gram-positive and -negative cocci, including Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, was higher than those of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin. Its activity against gram-negative rods was generally comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. Some isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC of methicillin, greater than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml) were resistant to existing quinolones, but many of them were still susceptible to AT-4140 at concentrations below 0.39 micrograms/ml. The MICs of AT-4140, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin for 90% of clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus were 0.2, 12.5, 6.25, and 100 micrograms/ml, respectively. AT-4140 was bactericidal for each of 20 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations near the MICs. AT-4140 inhibited the supercoiling activity of DNA gyrase from E. coli.
PMCID: PMC172799  PMID: 2558617
17.  In vitro activity of amifloxacin against outer membrane mutants of the family Enterobacteriaceae and frequency of spontaneous resistance. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1989;33(11):1837-1840.
Amifloxacin showed potent inhibitory activity against DNA gyrase of Escherichia coli. The difference in the susceptibilities of lipopolysaccharide-deficient Salmonella typhimurium mutants and their parent strain was less than twofold, and the difference in the susceptibilities of porin-deficient E. coli mutants and their parent strain was less than twofold. There was cross resistance among the quinolone group of agents; however, the decrease in MIC for norB mutants was slightly lower than that of other fluoroquinolones. Cell lysis was induced with combined treatment of amifloxacin and sodium dodecyl sulfate in E. coli. The frequency of mutants spontaneously resistant to amifloxacin was extremely low in all species tested.
PMCID: PMC172773  PMID: 2558611
18.  Quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens. 
The uptakes of norfloxacin by quinolone-resistant and -susceptible strains of Serratia marcescens were almost the same and 50% inhibitory concentrations for DNA gyrase and the MICs of quinolones were correlated, suggesting that DNA gyrase alterations are the basis of quinolone resistance.
PMCID: PMC172536  PMID: 2546493
19.  Effects of beta-lactamases and omp mutation on susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics in Escherichia coli. 
Four types of beta-lactamases consisting of a penicillinase type I (TEM-1), a penicillinase type II (OXA-1), a cephalosporinase of Citrobacter freundii, and a cephalosporinase of Proteus vulgaris were introduced into Escherichia coli MC4100 and its omp mutants, MH1160 (MC4100 ompR1) and MH760 (MC4100 ompR2), by transformation. Effects of the combination of the omp mutations and these beta-lactamases on the susceptibility of E. coli strains were studied with 15 beta-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins, cephamycins, penicillins, imipenem, and aztreonam. The ompR1 mutant, MH1160, lacks OmpF and OmpC, and it showed reduced susceptibility to 11 of the 15 beta-lactam agents. The reduction in susceptibility to cefoxitin, moxalactam, and flomoxef was much greater than reduction in susceptibility to the other agents. When the ompR1 mutant produced the cephalosporinase of C. freundii, the susceptibility of the mutant to 12 of the 15 beta-lactam antibiotics decreased. The reduction in susceptibility of MH1160 to 10 of the 12 agents affected by the enzyme was two- to fourfold greater than that observed in MC4100. Such a synergistic effect was also observed with the cephalosporinase of P. vulgaris and ompR1 mutation against six cephalosporins, moxalactam, and aztreonam.
PMCID: PMC171497  PMID: 2658786
20.  Mechanism of action of cephalosporins and resistance caused by decreased affinity for penicillin-binding proteins in Bacteroides fragilis. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1988;32(12):1848-1853.
The susceptibilities of 52 clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis to five monoanionic cephalosporins were examined. Cefoperazone showed the highest antibacterial activity, followed by ceftezole, cefazolin, cefamandole, and cephalothin. There were two groups of resistant strains: one group (ca. 15%), of which B. fragilis G-232 was a typical sample, was resistant to ceftezole (MIC, 100 micrograms/ml), cefazolin (MIC, 100 micrograms/ml), and cephalothin (MIC, 200 micrograms/ml) but not cefoperazone (MIC, 6.25 micrograms/ml) or cefamandole (MIC, 25 micrograms/ml). On the basis of studies of stability to beta-lactamase, outer membrane permeation, and affinity for penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), we conclude that decreased affinity for PBP 3 may play an important role in the resistance to ceftezole, cefazolin, and cephalothin in B. fragilis G-232. Another group (also ca. 15%), of which B. fragilis G-242 was a representative, was resistant to all five cephalosporins (MIC, 100 to 400 micrograms/ml) and produced a high amount of beta-lactamase. Similar broad-spectrum resistance was seen in a mutant of strain G-232 that had a greater-than-30-fold increase in beta-lactamase production.
PMCID: PMC176031  PMID: 3266730
21.  In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of ME1207, a new oral cephalosporin. 
ME1207 (pivaloyloxymethyl ester of ME1206) is a new oral cephalosporin. ME1206 is (6R,7R)-7-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(methoxyimino)- acetamido]-3-[(Z)-2-(4-methylthiazol-5-yl)-ethyl]-cephem-4-carboxy lic acid. The susceptibilities of about 1,600 clinical isolates to ME1206 were determined by the agar dilution method. ME1206 showed a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. ME1206 was more active than cefaclor, T-2525, and cefixime against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Against gram-negative bacteria, the activity of ME1206 was comparable with that of T-2525, but ME1206 was less active than cefixime. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ME1206 had high activity (MIC, less than or equal to 0.05 microgram/ml). ME1206 was stable against various beta-lactamases, except beta-lactamases from Providencia rettgeri, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Escherichia coli W3630 (Rms213). The 50% effective doses of ME1207 after oral administration against systemic infections in mice were comparable with those of T-2588 against gram-negative bacteria and about one-fourth that of T-2588 against Staphylococcus aureus Smith.
PMCID: PMC175880  PMID: 3264132
22.  Outer membrane permeation of Bacteroides fragilis by cephalosporins. 
Outer membrane permeation of Bacteroides fragilis by cephalosporins was examined by a previously described method. The permeation parameters of cephalosporins in B. fragilis were close to 10(-5) cm3/min per microgram of cell dry weight. These values were about an order of magnitude lower than those in Escherichia coli. In B. fragilis, the permeation was not directly proportional to the hydrophilicity of cephalosporins, and the ion selectivity was weak.
PMCID: PMC172353  PMID: 3190196
23.  In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of T-3262, a new fluoroquinolone. 
T-3262, a new fluoroquinolone, showed a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. T-3262 had most potent activity against gram-positive cocci, such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus spp. The MICs of T-3262 for 90% of strains tested were between 0.05 and 1.56 micrograms/ml. Against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the activities of T-3262 were almost equal to those of ciprofloxacin. Obligate anaerobes were also susceptible to T-3262. T-3262 was bactericidal for one strain each of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and P. aeruginosa at concentrations near its MIC; and fluoroquinolones, including T-3262, inhibited DNA gyrase activity at low concentrations. The 50% effective dose of T-3262 after oral administration against systemic infections with S. aureus in mice was about 6 times lower than that of ofloxacin and about 20 times lower than that of norfloxacin.
PMCID: PMC172290  PMID: 2843082
24.  Clinical isolate of Citrobacter freundii highly resistant to new quinolones. 
About 30% of 150 recent clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii were resistant to greater than or equal to 3.13 micrograms of norfloxacin and ofloxacin per ml. Study of one quinolone-resistant strain for which the norfloxacin MIC was 100 micrograms/ml suggested that resistance was associated with both an altered A subunit of DNA gyrase and reduction in drug uptake accompanied by a decrease in an outer membrane protein.
PMCID: PMC172307  PMID: 2843087
25.  Purification and characterization of human renal dehydropeptidase I. 
Dehydropeptidase I from human kidney was purified over 100-fold. The purified enzyme had an isoelectric point of 4.75, apparent molecular weights of 135,000 by gel filtration and of 66,500 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and an optimal pH of 7.4. Human renal dehydropeptidase I hydrolyzed imipenem, carpetimycins A and B, and Sch 29,482.
PMCID: PMC172226  PMID: 3163907

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