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1.  Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Bacteroides fragilis Group in Canada in 2010-2011: CANWARD Surveillance Study 
Clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 387) were collected from patients attending nine Canadian hospitals in 2010-2011 and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. B. fragilis (59.9%), Bacteroides ovatus (16.3%), and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (12.7%) accounted for ∼90% of isolates collected. Overall rates of percent susceptibility were as follows: 99.7%, metronidazole; 99.5%, piperacillin-tazobactam; 99.2%, imipenem; 97.7%, ertapenem; 92.0%, doripenem; 87.3%, amoxicillin-clavulanate; 80.9%, tigecycline; 65.9%, cefoxitin; 55.6%, moxifloxacin; and 52.2%, clindamycin. Percent susceptibility to cefoxitin, clindamycin, and moxifloxacin was lowest for B. thetaiotaomicron (n = 49, 24.5%), Parabacteroides distasonis/P. merdae (n = 11, 9.1%), and B. ovatus (n = 63, 31.8%), respectively. One isolate (B. thetaiotaomicron) was resistant to metronidazole, and two isolates (both B. fragilis) were resistant to both piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem. Since the last published surveillance study describing Canadian isolates of B. fragilis group almost 20 years ago (A.-M. Bourgault et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:343–347, 1992), rates of resistance have increased for amoxicillin-clavulanate, from 0.8% (1992) to 6.2% (2010-2011), and for clindamycin, from 9% (1992) to 34.1% (2010-2011).
PMCID: PMC3294939  PMID: 22203594
2.  A Canadian National Surveillance Study of Urinary Tract Isolates from Outpatients: Comparison of the Activities of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, Ampicillin, Mecillinam, Nitrofurantoin, and Ciprofloxacin 
Ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin mean resistance rates for 2,000 urinary tract isolates collected from outpatients across Canada in 1998 were 41.1, 19.2, 14.7, 5.0, and 1.8%, respectively. For Escherichia coli isolates alone (n = 1,681) comparable rates were 41.0, 18.9, 7.4, 0.1, and 1.2%, respectively. The majority of E. coli isolates resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or ciprofloxacin were susceptible (MIC, <16 μg/ml) to mecillinam.
PMCID: PMC89821  PMID: 10722520
3.  Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada during 1998–1999: Prevalence of mef(A) and erm(B) and Susceptibilities to Ketolides 
In this study (1998–1999), we collected 215 macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from an ongoing Canadian Respiratory Organism Surveillance Study involving 23 centers representing all regions of Canada. The prevalence of erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae was 8% (215 of 2,688). Of the 215 isolates, 48.8% (105 of 215) were PCR positive for mef(A) and 46.5% (100 of 215) were PCR positive for erm(B). The ketolides telithromycin and ABT-773 demonstrated excellent activity against both mef(A) (MIC for 90% of strains [MIC90], 0.06 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively) and erm(B) (MIC90, 0.06 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively) strains of S. pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC90618  PMID: 11408241
4.  In Vitro Activity of Fosfomycin against Escherichia coli Isolated from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in Canada as Part of the CANWARD Surveillance Study 
We tested 868 urinary isolates of Escherichia coli collected from 2010 to 2013 as part of the Canadian national surveillance study CANWARD against fosfomycin by using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) agar dilution method with MIC interpretation in accordance with the CLSI M100-S23 (2013) criteria. The concentrations of fosfomycin inhibiting 50 and 90% of the isolates were ≤1 and 4 μg/ml; 99.4% of the isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin.
PMCID: PMC3910835  PMID: 24323476
5.  In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline-Avibactam against Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Pathogens Isolated from Patients in Canadian Hospitals from 2010 to 2012: Results from the CANWARD Surveillance Study 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2013;57(11):5600-5611.
The in vitro activities of ceftaroline-avibactam, ceftaroline, and comparative agents were determined for a collection of bacterial pathogens frequently isolated from patients seeking care at 15 Canadian hospitals from January 2010 to December 2012. In total, 9,758 isolates were tested by using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method (document M07-A9, 2012), with MICs interpreted by using CLSI breakpoints (document M100-S23, 2013). Ceftaroline-avibactam demonstrated potent activity (MIC90, ≤0.5 μg/ml) against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Haemophilus influenzae; >99% of isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, P. mirabilis, M. morganii, C. freundii, and H. influenzae were susceptible to ceftaroline-avibactam according to CLSI MIC interpretative criteria for ceftaroline. Ceftaroline was less active than ceftaroline-avibactam against all species of Enterobacteriaceae tested, with rates of susceptibility ranging from 93.9% (P. mirabilis) to 54.0% (S. marcescens). All isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) and 99.6% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 1 μg/ml) were susceptible to ceftaroline; the addition of avibactam to ceftaroline did not alter its activity against staphylococci or streptococci. All isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90, 0.03 μg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90, ≤0.03 μg/ml), and Streptococcus agalactiae (MIC90, 0.015 μg/ml) tested were susceptible to ceftaroline. We conclude that combining avibactam with ceftaroline expanded its spectrum of activity to include most isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, while maintaining potent activity against staphylococci and streptococci.
PMCID: PMC3811279  PMID: 23979759
6.  Molecular Epidemiology of Penicillin-Resistant and Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada 
Eighty-nine penicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were evaluated by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although penicillin-resistant isolates demonstrated considerable homogeneity, resistance to ciprofloxacin did not correlate with a reduction in genotypic variability. These results suggest that, unlike that of penicillin resistance, the spread of S. pneumoniae ciprofloxacin resistance in Canada is currently not attributable to clonal dissemination.
PMCID: PMC151757  PMID: 12543698
7.  Influence of Human Serum on Antifungal Pharmacodynamics with Candida albicans 
Antifungal susceptibilities (NCCLS, approved standard M27-A, 1997) were determined for the reference strain ATCC 90028 and 21 clinical isolates of Candida albicans with varying levels of fluconazole susceptibility using RPMI 1640 (RPMI) and 80% fresh human serum–20% RPMI (serum). Sixty-four percent (14 of 22) of the isolates tested demonstrated significant decreases (≥4-fold) in fluconazole MICs in the presence of serum, and the remaining eight isolates exhibited no change. Itraconazole and ketoconazole, two highly protein-bound antifungal agents, had MICs in serum that were increased or unchanged for 46% (10 of 22) and 41% (9 of 22) of the isolates, respectively. All 10 isolates tested against an investigational antifungal agent, LY303366, demonstrated significant increases in the MIC required in serum, while differences in amphotericin B MICs in the two media were not observed. Four of 10 isolates tested demonstrated fourfold higher flucytosine MICs in serum than in RPMI. Postantifungal effects (PAFEs) and 24-h kill curves were determined by standard methods for selected isolates. At the MIC, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, flucytosine, and LY303366 kill curves and PAFEs in RPMI were similar to those in serum. Isolates of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans required lower MICs in serum than in RPMI, without relative increases in fungal killing or PAFEs. Isolates tested against amphotericin B demonstrated significantly reduced killing and shorter PAFEs in serum than in RPMI without observable changes in MIC. In conclusion, antifungal pharmacodynamics in RPMI did not consistently predict antifungal activity in serum for azoles and amphotericin B. Generally speaking, antifungal agents with high protein binding exhibited some form of reduced activity (MIC, killing, or PAFE) in the presence of serum compared to those with low protein binding.
PMCID: PMC90594  PMID: 11408217
8.  Nitrofurantoin Is Active against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci 
The activity of nitrofurantoin was tested against 300 isolates of Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus gallinarum. No isolates tested were resistant to nitrofurantoin (MIC, ≥128 μg/ml), including vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates with vanA- and vanB-positive genotypes and vancomycin-resistant E. gallinarum isolates. We conclude that nitrofurantoin may provide effective treatment of urinary tract infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
PMCID: PMC90284  PMID: 11120989
10.  Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Respiratory Tract Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Results of a Canadian National Surveillance Study 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(10):2504-2509.
From October 1997 to November 1998, 1,180 respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected from 18 medical centers in 9 of the 10 Canadian provinces. Penicillin-intermediate and -resistant isolates occurred at rates of 14.8 and 6.4%, respectively, and these rates varied considerably by geographic region. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and macrolide rates of nonsusceptibility were 12.2, 10.6, and 8.0 to 9.3%, respectively. The most potent agents studied were newer fluoroquinolones.
PMCID: PMC89508  PMID: 10508032
11.  In Vitro Susceptibilities of Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates from Blood Cultures of Neutropenic Patients 
Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans and intrinsically fluconazole-resistant Candida species have been reported as bloodstream isolates. However, an association between the isolation of fluconazole-resistant Candida from the bloodstream and patient risk factors for fungemia has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of fluconazole resistance in bloodstream isolates of Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans collected from patients with neutropenia, one of the most important risk factors for fungemia. MICs of voriconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine were determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-A method (1997). Voriconazole, on a per-weight basis, was the most active azole tested. Fluconazole resistance (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml) was not identified in any of the C. albicans (n = 513), Candida parapsilosis (n = 78), Candida tropicalis (n = 62), or C. neoformans (n = 38) isolates tested.
PMCID: PMC89297  PMID: 10348771
12.  Susceptibilities of Candida Species Isolated from the Lower Gastrointestinal Tracts of High-Risk Patients to the New Semisynthetic Echinocandin LY303366 and Other Antifungal Agents 
Fifty-two percent of stool specimens collected from 1,200 high-risk patients were colonized with yeasts, primarily Candida albicans (53.6%) and Candida glabrata (35.7%). Susceptibilities to all antifungal agents tested, including LY303366, were similar to those reported previously for Candida species isolated from blood.
PMCID: PMC105852  PMID: 9736582
13.  Influence of Human Serum on Pharmacodynamic Properties of an Investigational Glycopeptide, LY333328, and Comparator Agents against Staphylococcus aureus 
The MICs and MBCs of 15 antibiotics for two strains of Staphylococcus aureus were determined in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and 90% serum–10% MHB. Subsequent experiments established that highly protein-bound antibiotics (≥80%), such as LY333328, demonstrated higher MICs and MBCs, less killing over an 8-h interval, and shorter postantibiotic effects in 90% serum–10% MHB than in MHB alone. Albumin was demonstrated to be almost solely responsible for changes in the aforementioned pharmacodynamic parameters of LY333328.
PMCID: PMC105846  PMID: 9736576
14.  Comparison of CO2 Generation (BACTEC) and Viable-Count Methods To Determine the Postantibiotic Effect of Antimycobacterial Agents against Mycobacterium avium Complex 
The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of antimycobacterial agents determined with a BACTEC TB-460 instrument (CO2 production) and by a traditional viable-count method against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The longest PAEs following a 2-h exposure to 2× the MIC were induced by amikacin (10.3 h), rifampin (9.7 h), and rifabutin (9.5 h), while the shortest PAEs resulted from clofazimine (1.7 h) and ethambutol (1.1 h) exposure. CO2 generation is a valid and efficient means of determining in vitro PAEs against MAC.
PMCID: PMC105479  PMID: 9449284
15.  Susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Intra-Abdominal Infections and Molecular Characterization of Ertapenem-Resistant Isolates▿ 
A total of 2,841 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from intra-abdominal infections worldwide were collected in the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) during 2008 and 2009. Overall, 22.4% of isolates had extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The most active antibiotics among the 11 tested were imipenem, amikacin, and ertapenem, though even these, like all other comparators, were less consistently active against ESBL-positive isolates than against ESBL-negative isolates. Globally, 6.5% of isolates were ertapenem resistant based on the June 2010 clinical breakpoints published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, with MICs of ≥1 μg/ml. Molecular characterization of 43 isolates with ertapenem MICs of ≥4 μg/ml showed that they variously produced CTX-M or SHV ESBLs combined with altered impermeability and/or had KPC (n = 28), OXA-48 (n = 3), or VIM (n = 1) carbapenemases. Further monitoring of ertapenem susceptibility and molecular characterization of ertapenem-resistant isolates are needed.
PMCID: PMC3147618  PMID: 21670192
16.  Antimicrobial Resistance in Urinary Tract Pathogens in Canada from 2007 to 2009: CANWARD Surveillance Study ▿ 
From January 2007 to December 2009, an annual Canadian national surveillance study (CANWARD) tested 2,943 urinary culture pathogens for antimicrobial susceptibilities according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The most frequently isolated urinary pathogens were as follows (number of isolates, percentage of all isolates): Escherichia coli (1,581, 54%), enterococci (410, 14%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (274, 9%), Proteus mirabilis (122, 4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100, 3%), and Staphylococcus aureus (80, 3%). The rates of susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) were 78, 86, 84, and 93%, respectively, for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and S. aureus. The rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin were 96, 97, 33, and 100%, respectively, for E. coli, enterococci, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus. The rates of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were 81, 40, 86, 81, 66, and 41%, respectively, for E. coli, enterococci, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. Statistical analysis of resistance rates (resistant plus intermediate isolates) by year for E. coli over the 3-year study period demonstrated that increased resistance rates occurred only for amoxicillin-clavulanate (from 1.8 to 6.6%; P < 0.001) and for SXT (from 18.6 to 24.3%; P = 0.02). For isolates of E. coli, in a multivariate logistic regression model, hospital location was independently associated with resistance to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.026) with higher rates of resistance observed in inpatient areas (medical, surgical, and intensive care unit wards). Increased age was also associated with resistance to ciprofloxacin (P < 0.001) and with resistance to two or more commonly prescribed oral agents (amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and SXT) (P = 0.005). We conclude that frequently prescribed empirical agents for urinary tract infections, such as SXT and ciprofloxacin, demonstrate lowered in vitro susceptibilities when tested against recent clinical isolates.
PMCID: PMC3122429  PMID: 21537027
17.  In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogens Isolated from Patients in Canadian Hospitals in 2009▿ 
The in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparative agents were determined for a collection of the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogens from hospital-associated patients across Canada in 2009 as part of the ongoing CANWARD surveillance study. In total, 4,546 isolates from 15 sentinel Canadian hospital laboratories were tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. Compared with other cephalosporins, including ceftobiprole, cefepime, and ceftriaxone, ceftaroline exhibited the greatest potency against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), with a MIC90 of 0.25 μg/ml. Ceftaroline also demonstrated greater potency than ceftobiprole against community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) and health care-associated MRSA (MIC90, 1 μg/ml) and was at least 4-fold more active than other cephalosporins against Staphylococcus epidermidis; all isolates of MSSA and MRSA tested were susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC, ≤1 μg/ml). Against streptococci, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, ceftaroline MICs (MIC90, ≤0.03 μg/ml) were comparable to those of ceftobiprole; however, against penicillin-nonsusceptible, macrolide-nonsusceptible, and multidrug-nonsusceptible isolates of S. pneumoniae, ceftaroline demonstrated 2- to 4-fold and 4- to 16-fold more potent activities than those of ceftobiprole and ceftriaxone, respectively. All isolates of S. pneumoniae tested were susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC, ≤0.25 μg/ml). Among Gram-negative isolates, ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity (MIC90, ≤0.5 μg/ml) against Escherichia coli (92.2% of isolates were susceptible), Klebsiella pneumoniae (94.1% of isolates were susceptible), Proteus mirabilis (97.7% of isolates were susceptible), and Haemophilus influenzae (100% of isolates were susceptible). Ceftaroline demonstrated less potent activity (MIC90, ≥4 μg/ml) against Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Overall, ceftaroline demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a recent collection of the most frequently encountered Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates from patients attending hospitals across Canada in 2009.
PMCID: PMC3101400  PMID: 21402844
18.  Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Pathogens in Canadian Hospitals: Results of the Canadian Ward Surveillance Study (CANWARD 2008) ▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2010;54(11):4684-4693.
A total of 5,282 bacterial isolates obtained between 1 January and 31 December 31 2008, inclusive, from patients in 10 hospitals across Canada as part of the Canadian Ward Surveillance Study (CANWARD 2008) underwent susceptibility testing. The 10 most common organisms, representing 78.8% of all clinical specimens, were as follows: Escherichia coli (21.4%), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; 13.9%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.0%), coagulase-negative staphylococci/Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.4%), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; 5.1%), Haemophilus influenzae (4.1%), Enterococcus spp. (3.3%), Enterobacter cloacae (2.2%). MRSA comprised 27.0% (272/1,007) of all S. aureus isolates (genotypically, 68.8% of MRSA were health care associated [HA-MRSA] and 27.6% were community associated [CA-MRSA]). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli occurred in 4.9% of E. coli isolates. The CTX-M type was the predominant ESBL, with CTX-M-15 the most prevalent genotype. MRSA demonstrated no resistance to ceftobiprole, daptomycin, linezolid, telavancin, tigecycline, or vancomycin (0.4% intermediate intermediate resistance). E. coli demonstrated no resistance to ertapenem, meropenem, or tigecycline. Resistance rates with P. aeruginosa were as follows: colistin (polymyxin E), 0.8%; amikacin, 3.5%; cefepime, 7.2%; gentamicin, 12.3%; fluoroquinolones, 19.0 to 24.1%; meropenem, 5.6%; piperacillin-tazobactam, 8.0%. A multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype occurred frequently in P. aeruginosa (5.9%) but uncommonly in E. coli (1.2%) and K. pneumoniae (0.9%). In conclusion, E. coli, S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA), P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and Enterococcus spp. are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Canadian hospitals. The prevalence of MRSA was 27.0% (of which genotypically 27.6% were CA-MRSA), while ESBL-producing E. coli occurred in 4.9% of isolates. An MDR phenotype was common in P. aeruginosa.
PMCID: PMC2976152  PMID: 20805395
19.  Susceptibility of Gram-Negative Pathogens Isolated from Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections in the United States, 2007-2008: Results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART)▿  
During 2007-2008, 1,036 Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections in the United States. Against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, the most active agents in vitro were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin, while the least active agent was ampicillin-sulbactam. Ertapenem and imipenem were active against all extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections in the United States continues to increase.
PMCID: PMC2897303  PMID: 20457818
20.  Incidence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Community- and Hospital-Associated Intra-Abdominal Infections in Europe: Results of the 2008 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) ▿  
From 2002 to 2008, there was a significant increase in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli isolates in European intra-abdominal infections, from 4.3% in 2002 to 11.8% in 2008 (P < 0.001), but not for ESBL-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (16.4% to 17.9% [P > 0.05]). Hospital-associated isolates were more common than community-associated isolates, at 14.0% versus 6.5%, respectively, for E. coli (P < 0.001) and 20.9% versus 5.3%, respectively, for K. pneumoniae (P < 0.01). Carbapenems were consistently the most active drugs tested.
PMCID: PMC2897323  PMID: 20421398
21.  In Vitro Activity of Nemonoxacin, a Novel Nonfluorinated Quinolone, against 2,440 Clinical Isolates▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(11):4915-4920.
The in vitro activity of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, was tested against 2,440 clinical isolates. Nemonoxacin was at least fourfold more active than levofloxacin and moxifloxacin against most gram-positive cocci tested (shown by the following MIC90/range [μg/ml] values; community-associated methicillin [meticillin]-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 0.5/0.015 to 2; Staphylococcus epidermidis, 0.5/0.015 to 4 for methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and 2/0.12 to 2 for methicillin-resistant staphylococci; Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015/≤0.008 to 0.25; Enterococcus faecalis, 1/0.03 to 128). Nemonoxacin activity against gram-negative bacilli was similar to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin (MIC90/range [μg/ml]; Escherichia coli, 32/≤0.015 to ≥512; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2/≤0.015 to 128; K. oxytoca, 0.5/0.06 to 1; Proteus mirabilis, 16/0.25 to ≥512; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 32/≤0.015 to ≥512; Acinetobacter baumannii, 1/0.12 to 16).
PMCID: PMC2772340  PMID: 19738018
22.  AFN-1252, a FabI Inhibitor, Demonstrates a Staphylococcus-Specific Spectrum of Activity▿  
AFN-1252, a potent inhibitor of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI), inhibited all clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n = 502) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 51) tested, including methicillin (meticillin)-resistant isolates, at concentrations of ≤0.12 μg/ml. In contrast, AFN-1252 was inactive (MIC90, >4 μg/ml) against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli, and Moraxella catarrhalis. These data support the continued development of AFN-1252 for the treatment of patients with resistant staphylococcal infections.
PMCID: PMC2715641  PMID: 19487444
23.  Emergence of High Levels of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli in the Asia-Pacific Region: Data from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) Program, 2007▿  
Of 3,004 gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region during 2007, 42.2% and 35.8% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively, were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) positive. Moreover ESBL rates in India for E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca were 79.0%, 69.4%, and 100%, respectively. ESBL-positive E. coli rates were also relatively high in China (55.0%) and Thailand (50.8%). Ertapenem and imipenem were the most active drugs tested, inhibiting over 90% of all species, including ESBL-positive isolates with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (<90% susceptible to all study drugs) and ESBL-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (<90% susceptible to all study drugs except imipenem). Quinolones achieved 90% inhibition levels only against ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae and ESBL-negative K. oxytoca. A decline in ampicillin-sulbactam activity was noted, with only 34.5% of all Enterobacteriaceae inhibited in this study.
PMCID: PMC2715591  PMID: 19506060
24.  Comparison of Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles among Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing and Acquired AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Canadian Intensive Care Units▿  
Resistance profiles were compared among 18 extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) and 27 acquired AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates collected from Canadian intensive care units from 2005 to 2006. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were more likely to be gentamicin resistant (P < 0.03), fluoroquinolone resistant (P < 0.0001), and multidrug resistant (P < 0.0001) than AmpC-producing E. coli isolates.
PMCID: PMC2346658  PMID: 18299417
25.  Antimicrobial-Resistant Pathogens in Intensive Care Units in Canada: Results of the Canadian National Intensive Care Unit (CAN-ICU) Study, 2005-2006▿  
Between 1 September 2005 and 30 June 2006, 19 medical centers collected 4,180 isolates recovered from clinical specimens from patients in intensive care units (ICUs) in Canada. The 4,180 isolates were collected from 2,292 respiratory specimens (54.8%), 738 blood specimens (17.7%), 581 wound/tissue specimens (13.9%), and 569 urinary specimens (13.6%). The 10 most common organisms isolated from 79.5% of all clinical specimens were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (16.4%), Escherichia coli (12.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.0%), Haemophilus influenzae (7.9%), coagulase-negative staphylococci/Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.5%), Enterococcus spp. (6.1%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.8%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (4.7%), and Enterobacter cloacae (3.9%). MRSA made up 22.3% (197/884) of all S. aureus isolates (90.9% of MRSA were health care-associated MRSA, and 9.1% were community-associated MRSA), while vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) made up 6.7% (11/255) of all enterococcal isolates (88.2% of VRE had the vanA genotype). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae occurred in 3.5% (19/536) and 1.8% (4/224) of isolates, respectively. All 19 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were PCR positive for CTX-M, with blaCTX-M-15 occurring in 74% (14/19) of isolates. For MRSA, no resistance against daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and vancomycin was observed, while the resistance rates to other agents were as follows: clarithromycin, 89.9%; clindamycin, 76.1%; fluoroquinolones, 90.1 to 91.8%; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 11.7%. For E. coli, no resistance to amikacin, meropenem, and tigecycline was observed, while resistance rates to other agents were as follows: cefazolin, 20.1%; cefepime, 0.7%; ceftriaxone, 3.7%; gentamicin, 3.0%; fluoroquinolones, 21.1%; piperacillin-tazobactam, 1.9%; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 24.8%. Resistance rates for P. aeruginosa were as follows: amikacin, 2.6%; cefepime, 10.2%; gentamicin, 15.2%; fluoroquinolones, 23.8 to 25.5%; meropenem, 13.6%; and piperacillin-tazobactam, 9.3%. A multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype (resistance to three or more of the following drugs: cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem, amikacin or gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin) occurred frequently in P. aeruginosa (12.6%) but uncommonly in E. coli (0.2%), E. cloacae (0.6%), or K. pneumoniae (0%). In conclusion, S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA), E. coli, P. aeruginosa, H. influenzae, Enterococcus spp., S. pneumoniae, and K. pneumoniae are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Canadian ICUs. A MDR phenotype is common for P. aeruginosa isolates in Canadian ICUs.
PMCID: PMC2292546  PMID: 18285482

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