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1.  In Vitro Activities of ABT-492, a New Fluoroquinolone, against 155 Aerobic and 171 Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Antral Sinus Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis 
ABT-492 exhibited excellent in vitro activities against all 326 aerobic and anaerobic antral puncture sinus isolates tested with MICs (in micrograms per milliliter) at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited as follows: Haemophilus influenzae, 0.001; Moraxella catarrhalis, 0.008; and Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015. It was four- to sixfold more active than other fluoroquinolones, including against levofloxacin-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Prevotella species.
doi:10.1128/AAC.47.9.3008-3011.2003
PMCID: PMC182602  PMID: 12937015
2.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of XRP 2868, Pristinamycin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Clarithromycin, Telithromycin, Clindamycin, and Ampicillin against Anaerobic Gram-Positive Species, Actinomycetes, and Lactobacilli 
A comparative study of the in vitro activities of XRP 2868, a new oral streptogramin, against 266 anaerobic gram-positive clinical isolates using the agar dilution method showed that the XRP 2868 MICs for 95% (254 of 266) of isolates were ≤0.5 μg/ml. XRP 2868 MICs for only two strains, one being Clostridium clostridioforme (MIC, 16 μg/ml) and the other being Clostridium difficile (MIC, 32 μg/ml), were >2 μg/ml. Depending on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, XRP 2868 has potential for use against infections with gram-positive anaerobes and deserves further clinical evaluation.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.1.408-413.2005
PMCID: PMC538895  PMID: 15616322
3.  Comparative In Vitro Susceptibilities of 396 Unusual Anaerobic Strains to Tigecycline and Eight Other Antimicrobial Agents▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2006;50(10):3507-3513.
Tigecycline was tested against 396 strains of lesser-known anaerobic species encountered in human infections. It was active against all gram-positive strains and 228 of 232 gram-negative anaerobes at ≤1 μg/ml. One strain of Prevotella oralis was nonsusceptible at 8 μg/ml.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00499-06
PMCID: PMC1610075  PMID: 16940056
4.  In Vitro Activities of ABT-773, a New Ketolide, against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Antral Sinus Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis 
The comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773 against 207 aerobic and 162 anaerobic antral sinus puncture isolates showed that erythromycin-resistant pneumococcal strains were susceptible to ABT-773 (≤0.125 μg/ml); the MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited for Haemophilus influenzae and other Haemophilus spp. was 4 μg/ml; and all Moraxella spp. and beta-lactamase-producing Prevotella species strains were inhibited by ≤0.125 μg/ml. Among the anaerobes tested, only fusobacteria (45%) required ≥4 μg of ABT-773/ml for inhibition. ABT-773 may offer a therapeutic alternative for sinus infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.8.2363-2367.2001
PMCID: PMC90655  PMID: 11451698
5.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of ABT-773 against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Animal and Human Bite Wound Infections 
We studied the comparative in vitro activities of ABT-773, a new ketolide, against 268 aerobic and 148 anaerobic recent isolates from clinical bites using an agar dilution method and inocula of 104 CFU/spot for aerobes and 105 CFU for anaerobes. The following are the MIC ranges and MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of ABT-773 for various isolates, respectively: Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella septica, 0.125 to 2 and 1 μg/ml; other Pasteurella species, 0.125 to 1 and 0.5 μg/ml; Corynebacterium spp., 0.015 to 0.06 and 0.015 μg/ml; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.03 to 0.06 and 0.06 μg/ml; coagulase-negative staphylococci, 0.015 to >32 and 32 μg/ml; streptococci, 0.015 to 0.03 and 0.03 μg/ml; Eikenella corrodens, 0.25 to 1 and 1 μg/ml; and Bergeyella zoohelcum, 0.03 to 0.25 and 0.06 μg/ml. For anaerobes the MIC ranges and MIC90s of ABT-773 were as follows, respectively: Prevotella heparinolytica, 0.06 to 0.125 and 0.125 μg/ml; Prevotella spp., 0.015 to 0.125 and 0.06 μg/ml; Porphyromonas spp., 0.015 to 0.03 and 0.015 μg/ml; Fusobacterium nucleatum, 0.5 to 8 and 8 μg/ml; other Fusobacterium spp., 0.015 to 8 and 0.5 μg/ml; Bacteroides tectum, 0.015 to 0.5 and 0.06 μg/ml; and Peptostreptococcus spp., 0.015 to 0.25 and 0.03 μg/ml. ABT-773 was more active than all macrolides tested against S. aureus, E. corrodens, and anaerobes, but all compounds were poorly active against F. nucleatum. The activity of ABT-773 was within 1 dilution of that of azithromycin against Pasteurella spp., and ABT-773 was four- to eightfold more active than clarithromycin against Pasteurella spp. ABT-773 may offer a therapeutic alternative for bite wound infections.
PMCID: PMC90097  PMID: 10952607
6.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of Ertapenem (MK-0826) against 1,001 Anaerobes Isolated from Human Intra-Abdominal Infections 
By using an agar dilution method, the comparative in vitro activities of ertapenem (MK-0826) were studied against 1,001 anaerobes isolated from human intra-abdominal infections in 17 countries worldwide. MK-0826 was uniformly active against all isolates, including all Bacteroides fragilis group species isolates, with the exception of 12 of 61 (20%) strains of Bilophila wadsworthia, 3 strains of lactobacilli, and 1 isolate of Acidaminococcus fermentans. Geographical variation in activity was not observed.
PMCID: PMC90074  PMID: 10952584
7.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of SMT19969, a New Antimicrobial Agent, against 162 Strains from 35 Less Frequently Recovered Intestinal Clostridium Species: Implications for Clostridium difficile Recurrence 
We determined the comparative activity of SMT19969 (SMT) against 162 strains representing 35 well-characterized Clostridium species in clusters I to XIX and 13 Clostridium species that had no 16S rRNA match. SMT MICs ranged from 0.06 to >512 μg/ml and were not species related. SMT might have less impact on normal gut microbiota than other Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) antimicrobials.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02184-13
PMCID: PMC3910813  PMID: 24247123
8.  In Vitro Activity of Biapenem plus RPX7009, a Carbapenem Combined with a Serine β-Lactamase Inhibitor, against Anaerobic Bacteria 
Biapenem is a carbapenem being developed in combination with RPX7009, a new inhibitor of serine β-lactamases. Biapenem was tested alone and in combination with fixed concentrations of RPX7009 by agar dilution against 377 recent isolates of anaerobes. A separate panel of 27 isolates of Bacteroides spp. with decreased susceptibility or resistance to imipenem was also tested. Comparator drugs included meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, metronidazole, clindamycin, and tigecycline plus imipenem, doripenem, and ertapenem for the 27 selected strains. For recent consecutive strains of Bacteroides species, the MIC90 for biapenem-RPX7009 was 1 μg/ml, with a MIC90 of 4 μg/ml for meropenem. Other Bacteroides fragilis group species showed a MIC90 of 0.5 μg/ml for both agents. The MIC90s for biapenem-RPX7009 were 0.25 μg/ml for Prevotella spp., 0.125 μg/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum, 2 μg/ml for Fusobacterium mortiferum, 0.5 μg/ml for Fusobacterium varium, ≤0.5 μg/ml for Gram-positive cocci and rods, and 0.03 to 8 μg/ml for clostridia. Against 5 B. fragilis strains harboring a known metallo-beta-lactamase, biapenem-RPX7009 MICs were comparable to those of other carbapenems (≥32 μg/ml). Against Bacteroides strains with an imipenem MIC of 2 μg/ml, biapenem-RPX7009 had MICs of 0.5 to 2 μg/ml, with MICs of 0.5 to 32 μg/ml for meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem. For strains with an imipenem MIC of 4 μg/ml, the MICs for biapenem-RPX7009 were 4 to 16 μg/ml, with MICs of 8 to >32 μg/ml for meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem. The inhibitor RPX7009 had no antimicrobial activity when tested alone, and it showed little or no potentiation of biapenem versus anaerobes. Biapenem-RPX7009 showed activity comparable to that of imipenem and was superior to meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem against imipenem-nonsusceptible Bacteroides spp.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02418-12
PMCID: PMC3716157  PMID: 23529731
9.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of GSK2251052, a Novel Boron-Containing Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase Inhibitor, against 916 Anaerobic Organisms 
We studied the comparative in vitro activity of GSK2251052, a novel boron leucyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor, against 916 clinical anaerobic isolates using CLSI methods. The GSK MIC50/MIC90 for all isolates tested were 2 and 4 μg/ml, and the MIC90s against 302 Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strains were 4 and 8 μg/ml, respectively. All Clostridium perfringens strains had GSK2251052 MICs of >32 μg/ml. There was no relationship between increased MICs for any other antibiotics and that of GSK2251052.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02580-12
PMCID: PMC3632912  PMID: 23459482
10.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of SMT19969, a New Antimicrobial Agent, against Clostridium difficile and 350 Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Aerobic and Anaerobic Intestinal Flora Isolates 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2013;57(10):4872-4876.
The comparative in vitro activity of SMT19969, a novel, narrow-spectrum, nonabsorbable agent, was studied against 50 ribotype-defined Clostridium difficile strains, 174 Gram-positive and 136 Gram-negative intestinal anaerobes, and 40 Gram-positive aerobes. SMT19969 was one dilution more active against C. difficile isolates (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml), including ribotype 027 strains, than fidaxomicin (range, 0.06 to 1 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) and two to six dilutions lower than either vancomycin or metronidazole. SMT19969 and fidaxomicin were generally less active against Gram-negative anaerobes, especially the Bacteroides fragilis group species, than vancomycin and metronidazole, suggesting that SMT19969 has a lesser impact on the normal intestinal microbiota that maintain colonization resistance. SMT19969 showed limited activity against other Gram-positive anaerobes, including Bifidobacteria species, Eggerthella lenta, Finegoldia magna, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, with MIC90s of >512, >512, 64, and 64 μg/ml, respectively. Clostridium species showed various levels of susceptibility, with C. innocuum being susceptible (MIC90, 1 μg/ml) and C. ramosum and C. perfringens being nonsusceptible (MIC90, >512 μg/ml). Activity against Lactobacillus spp. (range, 0.06 to >512 μg/ml; MIC90, >512 μg/ml) was comparable to that of fidaxomicin and varied by species and strain. Gram-positive aerobic cocci (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and streptococci) showed high SMT19969 MIC90 values (128 to >512 μg/ml).
doi:10.1128/AAC.01136-13
PMCID: PMC3811411  PMID: 23877700
11.  Ceftaroline versus Isolates from Animal Bite Wounds: Comparative In Vitro Activities against 243 Isolates, Including 156 Pasteurella Species Isolates 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(12):6319-6323.
More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01794-12
PMCID: PMC3497206  PMID: 23027193
12.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of LFF571 against Clostridium difficile and 630 Other Intestinal Strains of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria 
The in vitro activities of LFF571, a novel analog of GE2270A that inhibits bacterial growth by binding with high affinity for protein synthesis elongation factor Tu, fidaxomicin, and 10 other antimicrobial agents were determined against 50 strains of Clostridium difficile and 630 other anaerobic and aerobic organisms of intestinal origin. LFF571 possesses potent activity against C. difficile and most other Gram-positive anaerobes (MIC90, ≤0.25 μg/ml), with the exception of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. The MIC90s for aerobes, including enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus (as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, and other streptococci were 0.06, 0.125, 2, and 8 μg/ml, respectively. Comparatively, fidaxomicin showed variable activity against Gram-positive organisms: MIC90s against C. difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and Bifidobacterium spp. were 0.5, ≤0.015, and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively, but >32 μg/ml against Clostridium ramosum and Clostridium innocuum. MIC90 for S. pyogenes and other streptococci was 16 and >32 μg/ml, respectively. LFF571 and fidaxomicin were generally less active against Gram-negative anaerobes.
doi:10.1128/AAC.06305-11
PMCID: PMC3346664  PMID: 22290948
13.  In Vitro Activity of TD-1792, a Multivalent Glycopeptide-Cephalosporin Antibiotic, against 377 Strains of Anaerobic Bacteria and 34 Strains of Corynebacterium Species 
TD-1792 is a multivalent glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer antibiotic with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. We tested TD-1792 against 377 anaerobes and 34 strains of Corynebacterium species. Against nearly all Gram-positive strains, TD-1792 had an MIC90 of 0.25 μg/ml and was typically 3 to 7 dilutions more active than vancomycin and daptomycin.
doi:10.1128/AAC.06274-11
PMCID: PMC3318369  PMID: 22290981
14.  In Vitro Activity of Ceftobiprole against Aerobic and Anaerobic Strains Isolated from Diabetic Foot Infections▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2006;50(11):3959-3962.
Against 443 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from diabetic foot infections, ceftobiprole MICs (μg/ml) at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited were as follows: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 1; methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and Staphylococcus lugdunensis, 0.5; Anaerococcus prevotii, 0.125; Finegoldia magna, 0.5; Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, 1; Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, 4; Escherichia coli and Enterobacter species, 0.125; Klebsiella species, 2; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 8.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00722-06
PMCID: PMC1635191  PMID: 16982780
15.  In Vitro Activities of Dalbavancin and 12 Other Agents against 329 Aerobic and Anaerobic Gram-Positive Isolates Recovered from Diabetic Foot Infections 
Tests of dalbavancin's in vitro activity against 209 aerobic and 120 anaerobic isolates from pretreatment diabetic foot infections showed an MIC90 of ≤0.125 μg/ml against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and 120 anaerobes (Clostridium perfringens, other clostridia, Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, Finegoldia magna, and Anaerococcus prevotii), compared to respective MIC90s for MSSA and MRSA of 0.5 and 1 μg/ml for vancomycin, 4 and 4 μg/ml for linezolid, 0.5 and 0.5 μg/ml for daptomycin, and 0.25 and >8 μg/ml for clindamycin.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00286-06
PMCID: PMC1538693  PMID: 16870792
16.  In Vitro Activity of Moxifloxacin against 923 Anaerobes Isolated from Human Intra-Abdominal Infections 
The in vitro activity of moxifloxacin against 923 recent anaerobic isolates obtained from pretreatment cultures in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections was studied using the CLSI M11-A-6 agar dilution method. Moxifloxacin was active against 87% (96 of 110) Bacteroides fragilis strains at ≤1 μg/ml and 87% (79 of 90) B. thetaiotaomicron strains at ≤2 μg/ml. Species variation was seen, with B. uniformis, B. vulgatus, Clostridium clostridioforme, and C. symbiosum being least susceptible and accounting for most of the resistant isolates; excluding the aforementioned four resistant species, 86% (303 of 363) of Bacteroides species isolates and 94% (417 of 450) of all other genera and species were susceptible to ≤2 μg/ml of moxifloxacin. Overall, moxifloxacin was active against 763 of 923 (83%) of strains at ≤2 μg/ml, supporting its use as a monotherapy for some community-acquired intra-abdominal infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.50.1.148-155.2006
PMCID: PMC1346786  PMID: 16377680
17.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of Ertapenem (MK-0826) against 469 Less Frequently Identified Anaerobes Isolated from Human Infections 
We studied the in vitro activity of ertapenem against 469 less frequently identified anaerobes from 11 genera and 52 species isolated from human infections. Ertapenem was uniformly active against 460 of 469 (98%) strains at concentrations of ≤4 μg/ml. Only 4 of 14 Clostridium difficile, 1 of 11 Clostridium innocuum, and 4 of 6 Lactobacillus sp. strains required ertapenem concentrations of ≥8 μg/ml for inhibition.
doi:10.1128/AAC.46.4.1136-1140.2002
PMCID: PMC127089  PMID: 11897608
18.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of GAR-936 against Aerobic and Anaerobic Animal and Human Bite Wound Pathogens 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(10):2747-2751.
GAR-936 is a new semisynthetic glycylcycline with a broad antibacterial spectrum, including tetracycline-resistant strains. The in vitro activities of GAR-936, minocycline, doxycycline, tetracycline, moxifloxacin, penicillin G, and erythromycin were determined by agar dilution methods against 268 aerobic and 148 anaerobic strains of bacteria (including Pasteurella, Eikenella, Moraxella, Bergeyella, Neisseria, EF-4, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, Propionibacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Actinomyces) isolated from infected human and animal bite wounds in humans, including strains resistant to commonly used antimicrobials. GAR-936 was very active, with an MIC at which 90% of the strains are inhibited (MIC90) of ≤0.25 μg/ml, against all aerobic gram-positive and -negative strains, including tetracycline-resistant strains of Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, except for Eikenella corrodens (MIC90, ≤4 μg/ml). GAR-936 was also very active against all anaerobic species, including tetracycline-, doxycycline-, and minocycline-resistant strains of Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Bacteroides tectum, and Peptostreptococcus spp., with an MIC90 of ≤0.25 μg/ml. Erythromycin- and moxifloxacin-resistant fusobacteria were susceptible to GAR-936, with an MIC90 of 0.06 μg/ml.
PMCID: PMC90146  PMID: 10991855
19.  Activities of Telithromycin (HMR 3647, RU 66647) Compared to Those of Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Roxithromycin, and Other Antimicrobial Agents against Unusual Anaerobes 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(11):2801-2805.
The comparative activity of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against 419 human anaerobic isolates was determined by the agar dilution method. At concentrations of ≤0.5 μg/ml, telithromycin was active against Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides tectum, Bacteroides ureolyticus, Bacteroides gracilis (now Campylobacter gracilis), Porphyromonas spp. (including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas macacae), Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella heparinolytica, and almost all Peptostreptococcus species. Clostridia showed species and strain variability, often with a biphasic pattern. Fusobacterium species, except Fusobacterium russii, were relatively resistant.
PMCID: PMC89565  PMID: 10543769
20.  Activities of Gemifloxacin (SB 265805, LB20304) Compared to Those of Other Oral Antimicrobial Agents against Unusual Anaerobes 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(11):2726-2730.
The activities of gemifloxacin (SB 265805, LB20304) and comparator agents were determined by an agar dilution method against 419 clinical strains of less-commonly identified species of anaerobes. Gemifloxacin was generally more active than trovafloxacin against gram-positive strains by one to two dilutions. Peptostreptococci (Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Peptostreptococcus magnus, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Peptostreptococcus prevotii) and Porphyromonas spp. (Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, Porphyromonas canoris, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Porphyromonas macacae) were all susceptible to ≤0.25 μg of gemifloxacin per ml. The MICs of gemifloxacin at which 90% of the following strains were inhibited (MIC90s) were ≤2 μg/ml: Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Clostridium innocuum, Clostridium clostridioforme, Anaerobiospirillum spp., Bacteroides tectum, Bacteroides ureolyticus, Bacteroides gracilis (now Campylobacter gracilis), Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella heparinolytica, and the Prevotella oris-buccae group. Fusobacterium naviforme and Fusobacterium necrophorum were also susceptible to ≤2 μg of gemifloxacin per ml, while Fusobacterium varium strains exhibited a bimodal pattern; the other Fusobacterium species, such as Fusobacterium ulcerans and Fusobacterium russii, as well as Veillonella spp., the Prevotella melaninogenica group, Prevotella bivia, Clostridium difficile, and Bilophila wadsworthia were relatively resistant to gemifloxacin (MIC90s, ≥4 μg/ml).
PMCID: PMC89550  PMID: 10543754
21.  In Vitro Activity of Gemifloxacin (SB 265805) against Anaerobes 
Gemifloxacin mesylate (SB 265805), a new fluoronaphthyridone, was tested against 359 recent clinical anaerobic isolates by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards reference agar dilution method with supplemented brucella blood agar and an inoculum of 105 CFU/spot. Comparative antimicrobials tested included trovafloxacin, levofloxacin, grepafloxacin, sparfloxacin, sitafloxacin (DU-6859a), penicillin G, amoxicillin clavulanate, imipenem, cefoxitin, clindamycin, and metronidazole. The MIC50 and MIC90 (MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates were inhibited) of gemifloxacin against various organisms (with the number of strains tested in parentheses) were as follows (in micrograms per milliliter): for Bacteroides fragilis (28), 0.5 and 2; for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (24), 1 and 16; for Bacteroides caccae (12), 1 and 16; for Bacteroides distasonis (12), 8 and >16; for Bacteroides ovatus (12), 4 and >16; for Bacteroides stercoris (12), 0.5 and 0.5; for Bacteroides uniformis (12), 1 and 4; for Bacteroides vulgatus (11), 4 and 4; for Clostridium clostridioforme (15), 0.5 and 0.5; for Clostridium difficile (15), 1 and >16; for Clostridium innocuum (13), 0.125 and 2; for Clostridium perfringens (13), 0.06 and 0.06; for Clostridium ramosum (14), 0.25 and 8; for Fusobacterium nucleatum (12), 0.125 and 0.25; for Fusobacterium necrophorum (11), 0.25 and 0.5; for Fusobacterium varium (13), 0.5 and 1; for Fusobacterium spp. (12), 1 and 2; for Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (13), 0.06 and 0.06; for Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus (13), 0.125 and 0.125; for Peptostreptococcus magnus (14), 0.03 and 0.03; for Peptostreptococcus micros (12), 0.06 and 0.06; for Peptostreptococcus prevotii (14), 0.06 and 0.25; for Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (11), 0.125 and 0.125; for Prevotella bivia (10), 8 and 16; for Prevotella buccae (10), 2 and 2; for Prevotella intermedia (10), 0.5 and 0.5; and for Prevotella melaninogenica (11), 1 and 1. Gemifloxacin mesylate (SB 265805) was 1 to 4 dilutions more active than trovafloxacin against fusobacteria and peptostreptococci, and the two drugs were equivalent against clostridia and P. asaccharolytica. Gemifloxacin was equivalent to sitafloxacin (DU 6859a) against peptostreptococci, C. perfringens, and C. ramosum, and sitafloxacin was 2 to 3 dilutions more active against fusobacteria. Sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin, and levofloxacin were generally less active than gemifloxacin against all anaerobes.
PMCID: PMC89452  PMID: 10471570
22.  Activity of Gatifloxacin Compared to Those of Five Other Quinolones versus Aerobic and Anaerobic Isolates from Skin and Soft Tissue Samples of Human and Animal Bite Wound Infections 
The activity of gatifloxacin against 308 aerobes and 112 anaerobes isolated from bite wound infections was studied. Gatifloxacin was active at ≤0.016 μg/ml against all 148 Pasteurella isolates (eight species and three subspecies) tested and all other aerobes tested, including Actinobacillus-Haemophilus spp., Eikenella corrodens, Neisseria weaveri, Weeksella zoohelcum, staphylococci, and streptococci. Fusobacteria were sometimes resistant. Gatifloxacin MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited were 0.125 μg/ml against Bacteroides tectum and Prevotella spp., 0.25 μg/ml against Porphyromonas spp., and 0.5 μg/ml against peptostreptococci.
PMCID: PMC89300  PMID: 10348774
23.  Linezolid Activity Compared to Those of Selected Macrolides and Other Agents against Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathogens Isolated from Soft Tissue Bite Infections in Humans 
Linezolid was tested against 420 aerobes and anaerobes, including 148 Pasteurella isolates, by an agar dilution method. Linezolid was active against all Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica isolates and most Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella dagmatis, and Pasteurella stomatis isolates. The MIC was ≤2 μg/ml for staphylococci, streptococci, EF-4b, Weeksella zoohelcum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, other fusobacteria, Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp., peptostreptococci, and almost all Bacteroides tectum isolates.
PMCID: PMC89299  PMID: 10348773
24.  Comparative In Vitro Activities of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated from Antral Puncture Specimens from Patients with Sinusitis 
By an agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of antral sinus puncture isolates were studied. Pneumococci were generally susceptible to amoxicillin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, but 17% of pneumococcal isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin. β-Lactamase production occurred in 69% of Prevotella species. One-third of Peptostreptococcus magnus isolates were resistant to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Cefuroxime had limited activity against Prevotella species and P. magnus. Levofloxacin was active against most isolates except peptostreptococci. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was active against all isolates, with the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited being ≤1 μg/ml.
PMCID: PMC89189  PMID: 10049296
25.  Activities of HMR 3004 (RU 64004) and HMR 3647 (RU 66647) Compared to Those of Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Roxithromycin, and Eight Other Antimicrobial Agents against Unusual Aerobic and Anaerobic Human and Animal Bite Pathogens Isolated from Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Humans 
The activities of HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 and comparator agents, especially macrolides, were determined by the agar dilution method against 262 aerobic and 120 anaerobic strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections associated with human and animal bite wounds. HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 were active against almost all aerobic and fastidious facultative isolates (MIC at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited [MIC90], ≤0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively) and against all anaerobes [Bacteroides tectum, Porphyromonas macacae (salivosa), Prevotella heparinolytica, Porphyromonas sp., Prevotella sp., and peptostreptococci] at ≤0.25 and ≤0.5 μg/ml, respectively, except Fusobacterium nucleatum (HMR 3004, MIC90 = 16 μg/ml; HMR 3647, MIC90 = 8 μg/ml) and other Fusobacterium species (MIC90, 1 and 2 μg/ml, respectively). In general, HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 were more active than any of the macrolides tested. Azithromycin was more active than clarithromycin against all Pasteurella species, including Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida, Eikenella corrodens, and Fusobacterium species, while clarithromycin was more active than azithromycin against Corynebacterium species, Weeksella zoohelcum, B. tectum, and P. heparinolytica.
PMCID: PMC105757  PMID: 9593139

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