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1.  Population Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin at Two Dose Levels: Influence of Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics on the Pharmacodynamic Profile 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):5715-5723.
Piperacillin in combination with tazobactam is one of the most commonly used intravenous antibiotics. There is evidence for a possible saturable elimination of piperacillin. Therefore, the saturable elimination and its impact on the choice of optimal dosage regimens were quantified. In a randomized crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers received 1,500 mg and 3,000 mg of piperacillin as 5-min intravenous infusion. Population pharmacokinetics based on plasma and urine data were determined utilizing NONMEM and S-ADAPT. Probabilities of target attainment (PTAs) were compared for different models and dosage regimens, based on the target time of the non-protein-bound concentration above the MIC of at least 50% of the dosing interval. Total clearance of piperacillin was 18% (geometric mean ratio, 90% confidence interval, 11 to 24%) lower (P < 0.01), and renal clearance was 24% (9 to 37%) lower (P = 0.02) at the high compared to the low dose. The final model included first-order nonrenal elimination and parallel first-order and mixed-order renal elimination. Nonrenal clearance was 5.44 liter/h (coefficient of variation, 18%), first-order renal clearance was 4.42 liter/h (47%), and the maximum elimination rate of mixed-order renal elimination was 219 mg/h (84%), with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 36.1 mg/liter (112%). Compared to models with saturable elimination, a linear model predicted up to 10% lower population PTAs for high-dose short-term infusions (6 g every 8 h) and up to 4% higher population PTAs for low-dose continuous infusions (6 g/day). While renal elimination of piperacillin was saturable at therapeutic concentrations, the extent of saturation of nonrenal clearance was small. The influence of saturable elimination on PTAs for clinically relevant dosage regimens was relatively small.
PMCID: PMC3486597  PMID: 22908169
2.  Dosing Regimen Matters: the Importance of Early Intervention and Rapid Attainment of the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Target 
To date, the majority of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) discussions have focused on PK/PD relationships evaluated at steady-state drug concentrations. However, a concern with reliance upon steady-state drug concentrations is that it ignores events occurring while the pathogen is exposed to intermittent suboptimal systemic drug concentrations prior to the attainment of a steady state. Suboptimal (inadequate) exposure can produce amplification of resistant bacteria. This minireview provides an overview of published evidence supporting the positions that, in most situations, it is the exposure achieved during the first dose that is relevant for determining the therapeutic outcome of an infection, therapeutic intervention should be initiated as soon as possible to minimize the size of the bacterial burden at the infection site, and the duration of drug administration should be kept as brief as clinically appropriate to reduce the risk of selecting for resistant (or phenotypically nonresponsive) microbial strains. To support these recommendations, we briefly discuss data on inoculum effects, persister cells, and the concept of time within some defined mutation selection window.
PMCID: PMC3370717  PMID: 22371890
3.  Early Endpoints for Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections 
PMCID: PMC3346651  PMID: 22314521
4.  Susceptibilities of Human Cytomegalovirus Clinical Isolates to BAY38-4766, BAY43-9695, and Ganciclovir 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2001;45(10):2925-2927.
BAY38-4766 and BAY43-9695 are nonnucleosidic compounds with activities against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Two phenotypic assays were used to determine the drug susceptibilities of 36 HCMV clinical isolates to the BAY compounds and ganciclovir. Using either assay, both BAY compounds at a concentration of approximately 1 μM inhibited the replication of all 36 HCMV clinical isolates, including 11 ganciclovir-resistant clinical isolates, by 50%.
PMCID: PMC90754  PMID: 11557492
5.  Pharmacodynamics of Daptomycin in a Murine Thigh Model of Staphylococcus aureus Infection 
Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with activity against gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. We defined the pharmacodynamic parameters that determine the activity of daptomycin for S. aureus using in vitro methods and the Craig (W. A. Craig, J. Redington, and S. C. Ebert, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 27[Suppl. C]:29–40, 1991) neutropenic mouse thigh infection model. In Mueller-Hinton broth, the MICs for three S. aureus isolates were 0.1 to 0.2 μg/ml. In mouse serum, the MICs were 1.0 μg/ml. The protein binding of daptomycin was 90 to 92.5% in mouse serum. Single-dose intraperitoneal (i.p.) pharmacokinetic studies with infected mice showed a linear relationship between dose versus the maximum concentration of drug in serum and dose versus the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). The serum half-life of daptomycin in infected mice was approximately 1.8 h. In single-dose, dose-ranging studies using mice, daptomycin showed a dose-response effect described by an inhibitory sigmoid Emax (maximum effect) curve (r = 0.974; P ≪ 0.001). The density of S. aureus in untreated controls was 8.26 log10 CFU/g, and the Emax was 3.97 log10 CFU/g. The 50% effective dose (ED50) was 3.7 mg/kg of body weight i.p. and the stasis dose was 7.1 mg/kg. Dose fractionation studies at schedules of Q6h, Q12h, and Q24h, for total 24-h ED30, ED60, and ED80 doses of 2.5, 5.6, and 15 mg/kg i.p., showed no difference in effect at each total 24-h dose level by schedule, indicating that the AUC/MIC ratio is the dynamically linked variable.
PMCID: PMC90383  PMID: 11181370
6.  Interaction between Fluconazole and Amphotericin B in Mice with Systemic Infection Due to Fluconazole-Susceptible or -Resistant Strains of Candida albicans 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(12):2841-2847.
The interaction between fluconazole (Flu) and amphotericin B (AmB) was evaluated in a murine model of systemic candidiasis for one Flu-susceptible strain (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml), two strains with intermediate Flu resistance (Flu mid-resistant strains) (MIC, 64 and 128 μg/ml), and one highly Flu-resistant strain (MIC, 512 μg/ml) of Candida albicans. Differences in fungal densities in kidneys of infected mice after 24 h of therapy and in survival rates at 62 days of mice treated with an antifungal drug or a combination of antifungal drugs for 4 days were compared. For the Flu-susceptible and Flu mid-resistant strains, the combination of Flu and AmB was antagonistic, as shown by both quantitative culture results and survival. The interaction was additive for the highly Flu-resistant strain. These results suggest that the combination of Flu and AmB should be used with caution in infections due to fungi that are usually susceptible to both antifungal agents and as empirical antifungal drug therapy.
PMCID: PMC89574  PMID: 10582869
7.  Efficacies of High-Dose Fluconazole plus Amphotericin B and High-Dose Fluconazole plus 5-Fluorocytosine versus Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and 5-Fluorocytosine Monotherapies in Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis, Endophthalmitis, and Pyelonephritis Due to Candida albicans 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(12):2831-2840.
We compared the efficacies of fluconazole (Flu), amphotericin B (AmB), and 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) monotherapies with the combination of Flu plus 5FC and Flu plus AmB in a rabbit model of Candida albicans endocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pyelonephritis. The dose of Flu used was that which resulted in an area under the concentration-time curve in rabbits equivalent to that seen in humans who receive Flu at 1,600 mg/day, the highest dose not associated with central nervous system toxicity in humans. Quantitative cultures of heart valve vegetations, the choroid-retina, vitreous humor, and kidney were conducted after 1, 5, 14, and 21 days of therapy. All untreated controls died within 6 days of infection; animals treated with 5FC monotherapy all died within 18 days. In contrast, 93% of animals in the other treatment groups appeared well and survived until they were sacrificed. At day 5, the relative decreases in CFU per gram in the vitreous humor were greater in groups that received Flu alone and in combination with 5FC or AmB than in groups receiving AmB or 5FC monotherapies (P < 0.005) but were similar thereafter. In the choroid-retina, 5FC was the least-active drug. However, there were no differences in choroidal fungal densities between the other treatment groups. On days 5 and 14 of therapy, fungal densities in kidneys of AmB recipients were lower than those resulting from the other therapies (P < 0.001 and P ≤ 0.038, respectively) and AmB-plus-Flu therapy was antagonistic; however, all therapies for fungal pyelonephritis were similar by treatment day 21. While fungal counts in cardiac valves of Flu recipients were similar to those of controls on day 5 of therapy and did not change from days 1 to 21, AmB therapy significantly decreased valvular CFUs versus Flu at days 5, 14, and 21 (P < 0.005 at each time point). 5FC plus Flu demonstrated enhanced killing in cardiac vegetations compared with Flu or 5FC as monotherapies (P < 0.03). Similarly, the combination of AmB and Flu was more active than Flu in reducing the fungal density in cardiac vegetations (P < 0.03). However, as in the kidney, AmB plus Flu demonstrated antagonism versus AmB monotherapy in the treatment of C. albicans endocarditis (P < 0.05, P = 0.036, and P < 0.008 on days 5, 14, and 21, respectively).
PMCID: PMC89573  PMID: 10582868
8.  Pharmacokinetics and Absolute Bioavailability of Ribavirin in Healthy Volunteers as Determined by Stable-Isotope Methodology 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(10):2451-2456.
Ribavirin has recently been demonstrated to have efficacy in combination with alpha interferon for treatment of relapsed hepatitis C. The marked improvement in the response rate after treatment with the combination regimen (10-fold higher versus that from monotherapy with alpha interferon) highlights the importance of determining the absolute bioavailability of ribavirin as a first step in beginning to investigate the pharmacodynamics of the combination. The objective of this study was to determine the absolute bioavailability of ribavirin with an intravenous formulation containing ribavirin labeled with the stable isotope 13C3 (13C3-ribavirin) and unlabeled oral ribavirin. Six healthy volunteers received 150 mg of intravenous 13C3-ribavirin followed 1 h later by a 400-mg oral dose of ribavirin. Samples of blood and urine were collected up to 169 h postdosing. Concentrations of 13C3-ribavirin and unlabeled ribavirin were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method. All plasma and urine data were comodeled for labeled and unlabeled ribavirin by using both the two- and three-compartment models in the program ADAPT II. A three-compartment model was chosen for the pharmacokinetic analysis with the Akaike Information Criterion. The mean maximum concentrations of drug in plasma for intravenous and oral ribavirin were 4,187 and 638 ng/ml, respectively. The mean bioavailability was 51.8% ± 21.8%, and the mean γ-phase half-life was 37.0 ± 14.2 h. The mean renal clearance, metabolic clearance, and volume of distribution of the central compartment were 6.94 liters/h, 18.1 liters/h, and 17.8 liters, respectively. The use of the stable-isotope methodology has provided the best estimate of the absolute bioavailability of ribavirin that is currently available, as there was neither a period bias nor a washout effect to confound the data. The study demonstrated that the mean bioavailability for a 400-mg dose of ribavirin was 52%, which is higher than that previously reported in other investigations.
PMCID: PMC89499  PMID: 10508023
9.  Prospective Evaluation of the Effect of an Aminoglycoside Dosing Regimen on Rates of Observed Nephrotoxicity and Ototoxicity 
The nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity associated with once-daily versus twice-daily administration of aminoglycosides was assessed in patients with suspected or proven gram-negative bacterial infections in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Patients who received therapy for ≥72 h were evaluated for toxicity. Patients also received concomitant antibiotics as deemed necessary for treatment of their infection. Plasma aminoglycoside concentrations, prospective aminoglycoside dosage adjustment, and serial audiologic and renal status evaluations were performed. The probability of occurrence of a nephrotoxic event and its relationship to doses and daily aminoglycoside exposure served as the main outcome measurement. One hundred twenty-three patients were enrolled in the study, with 83 patients receiving therapy for at least 72 h. For 74 patients plasma aminoglycoside concentrations were available for analysis, and the patients formed the group evaluable for toxicity. The primary infectious diagnosis for the patients who were enrolled in the study were bacteremia or sepsis, respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, or urosepsis or pyelonephritis. Of the 74 patients evaluable for toxicity, 39 received doses twice daily and 35 received doses once daily and a placebo 12 h later. Nephrotoxicity occurred in 6 of 39 (15.4%) patients who received aminoglycosides twice daily and 0 of 35 patients who received aminoglycosides once daily. The schedule of aminoglycoside administration, concomitant use of vancomycin, and daily area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for the aminoglycosides were found to be significant predictors of nephrotoxicity by multivariate logistic regression analysis (P ≤ 0.001). The time to a nephrotoxic event was significantly influenced by vancomycin use and the schedule of administration, as assessed by Cox proportional hazards modeling (P ≤ 0.002). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis and the Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrate that both the probability of occurrence and the time to occurrence of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity are influenced by the schedule on which the aminoglycoside is administered as well as by the concomitant use of vancomycin. Furthermore, this risk of occurrence is modulated by the daily AUC for aminoglycoside exposure. These data suggest that once-daily administration of aminoglycosides has a predictably lower probability of causing nephrotoxicity than twice-daily administration.
PMCID: PMC89322  PMID: 10390201
10.  Optimizing Aminoglycoside Therapy for Nosocomial Pneumonia Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria 
Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of >4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of >4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of ≥10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit.
PMCID: PMC89170  PMID: 10049277
11.  Rapid Ganciclovir Susceptibility Assay Using Flow Cytometry for Human Cytomegalovirus Clinical Isolates 
Rapid, quantitative, and objective determination of the susceptibilities of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) clinical isolates to ganciclovir has been assessed by an assay that uses a fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibody to an HCMV immediate-early antigen and flow cytometry. Analysis of the ganciclovir susceptibilities of 25 phenotypically characterized clinical isolates by flow cytometry demonstrated that the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of ganciclovir for 19 of the isolates were between 1.14 and 6.66 μM, with a mean of 4.32 μM (±1.93) (sensitive; IC50 less than 7 μM), the IC50s for 2 isolates were 8.48 and 9.79 μM (partially resistant), and the IC50s for 4 isolates were greater than 96 μM (resistant). Comparative analysis of the drug susceptibilities of these clinical isolates by the plaque reduction assay gave IC50s of less than 6 μM, with a mean of 2.88 μM (±1.40) for the 19 drug-sensitive isolates, IC50s of 6 to 8 μM for the partially resistant isolates, and IC50s of greater than 12 μM for the four resistant clinical isolates. Comparison of the IC50s for the drug-susceptible and partially resistant clinical isolates obtained by the flow cytometry assay with the IC50s obtained by the plaque reduction assay showed an acceptable correlation (r2 = 0.473; P = 0.001), suggesting that the flow cytometry assay could substitute for the more labor-intensive, subjective, and time-consuming plaque reduction assay.
PMCID: PMC105827  PMID: 9736557
12.  Pharmacokinetic Studies of Fluconazole in Rabbits Characterizing Doses Which Achieve Peak Levels in Serum and Area under the Concentration-Time Curve Values Which Mimic Those of High-Dose Fluconazole in Humans 
We conducted steady-state pharmacokinetic studies with high-dose fluconazole with rabbits and human volunteers. We then derived mathematical equations that predict the doses of fluconazole that should be given to rabbits to produce 24-h area under the concentration-time curve values and maximum concentrations in serum that are similar to those measured for humans given 800 to 2,000 mg of fluconazole per day. These equations provide a rational basis for designing future efficacy studies with rabbits and in evaluating the strength with which results of previously conducted studies using rabbit infection models can be extrapolated to the clinic.
PMCID: PMC105634  PMID: 9624506
13.  Pharmacodynamics of Fluconazole in a Murine Model of Systemic Candidiasis 
In this study we defined the pharmacodynamic parameter that optimizes outcome in deep-seated Candida albicans infections treated with fluconazole. Using a murine model of systemic candidiasis, we conducted single-dose dose-ranging studies with fluconazole to determine the dosage of this drug that resulted in a 50% reduction in fungal densities (50% effective dose [ED50]) in kidneys versus the fungal densities in the kidneys of untreated controls. We found that the ED50 of fluconazole given intraperitoneally was 4.56 mg/kg of body weight/day (95% confidence interval, 3.60 to 5.53 mg/kg/day), and the dose-response relationship was best described by an inhibitory sigmoid maximal effect (Emax) curve. To define the pharmacodynamics of fluconazole, we gave dosages lower than, approximating, and higher than the ED50 of fluconazole (range, 3.5 to 5.5 mg/kg/day, equivalent to the ED16 to the ED75) to various groups of infected animals using three dose-fractionation schedules. For each total dose of fluconazole examined, the dose-fractionation schedules optimized the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to the MIC (the AUC/MIC ratio), the ratio of the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) to the MIC, and the time that the drug remained above the MIC for the infecting C. albicans isolate. Similar reductions in fungal densities in kidneys were seen between groups that received the same total dose of fluconazole in one, two, or four equally divided doses. Thus, dose-fractionation studies demonstrated that the pharmacodynamic parameter of fluconazole that best predicted outcome was the AUC/MIC ratio.
PMCID: PMC105753  PMID: 9593135
14.  Levofloxacin Population Pharmacokinetics and Creation of a Demographic Model for Prediction of Individual Drug Clearance in Patients with Serious Community-Acquired Infection 
Population pharmacokinetic modeling is a useful approach to obtaining estimates of both population and individual pharmacokinetic parameter values. The potential for relating pharmacokinetic parameters to pharmacodynamic outcome variables, such as efficacy and toxicity, exists. A logistic regression relationship between the probability of a successful clinical and microbiological outcome and the peak concentration-to-MIC ratio (and also the area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]/MIC ratio) has previously been developed for levofloxacin; however, levofloxacin assays for determination of the concentration in plasma are not readily available. We attempted to derive and validate demographic variable models to allow prediction of the peak concentration in plasma and clearance (CL) from plasma for levofloxacin. Two hundred seventy-two patients received levofloxacin intravenously for the treatment of community-acquired infection of the respiratory tract, skin or soft tissue, or urinary tract, and concentrations in plasma, guided by optimal sampling theory, were obtained. Patient data were analyzed by the Non-Parametric Expectation Maximization approach. Maximum a posteriori probability Bayesian estimation was used to generate individual parameter values, including CL. Peak concentrations were simulated from these estimates. The first 172 patients were used to produce demographic models for the prediction of CL and the peak concentration. The remaining 100 patients served as the validation group for the model. A median bias and median precision were calculated. A two-compartment model was used for the population pharmacokinetic analysis. The mean CL and the mean volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1) were 9.27 liters/h and 0.836 liter/kg, respectively. The mean values for the intercompartmental rate constants, the rate constant from the central compartment to the peripheral compartment (Kcp) and the rate constant from the peripheral compartment to the central compartment (Kpc), were 0.487 and 0.647 h−1, respectively. The mean peak concentration and the mean AUC values normalized to a dosage of 500 mg every 24 h were 8.67 μg/ml and 72.53 μg · h/ml, respectively. The variables included in the final model for the prediction of CL were creatinine clearance (CLCR), race, and age. The median bias and median precision were 0.5 and 18.3%, respectively. Peak concentrations were predicted by using the demographic model-predicted parameters of CL, V1, Kcp, and Kpc, in the simulation. The median bias and the median precision were 3.3 and 21.8%, respectively. A population model of the disposition of levofloxacin has been developed. Population demographic models for the prediction of peak concentration and CL from plasma have also been successfully developed. However, the performance of the model for the prediction of peak concentration was likely insufficient to be of adequate clinical utility. The model for the prediction of CL was relatively robust, with acceptable bias and precision, and explained a reasonable amount of the variance in the CL of levofloxacin from plasma in the population (r2 = 0.396). Estimated CLCR, age, and race were the final model covariates, with CLCR explaining most of the population variance in the CL of levofloxacin from plasma. This model can potentially optimize the benefit derived from the pharmacodynamic relationships previously developed for levofloxacin.
PMCID: PMC105752  PMID: 9593134
15.  Mathematical Modeling of the Interrelationship of CD4 Lymphocyte Count and Viral Load Changes Induced by the Protease Inhibitor Indinavir 
While CD4 cell counts are widely used to predict disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, they are poorly explanatory of the progression to AIDS or death after the introduction of chemotherapy. Changes in HIV load (as measured by RNA PCR) have been shown to be a much better predictor of the risk of disease progression. Since the interrelationship of these markers is of great clinical interest, we modeled the time-averaged return of CD4 cell count and change in viral load subsequent to therapy with the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir. We found that CD4 cell return was significantly related to both the baseline CD4 count (r2 = 0.86, P < 0.001) and the decline in HIV RNA PCR-determined viral load (also referred to in this work as the HIV RNA PCR decline) (r2 = 0.60, P < 0.01). Simultaneously modeling both influences in a linked nonlinear model (r2 = 0.93, P < 0.001) demonstrated that (i) the starting number of CD4 cells accounted for the majority of the change in CD4 cell return and (ii) the return of CD4 cells attributable to viral load decrease was 50% of maximal with only a decrease of approximately 0.2 log of HIV RNA as modeled from the first 12 weeks of therapy. Much greater viral inhibition beyond that necessary for maximal CD4 cell return is possible. Given that HIV RNA PCR decline is more strongly linked to ultimate clinical course in HIV disease, our findings indicate that CD4 return is potentially misleading as an indicator of antiviral effect, since it is determined more by the starting CD4 value than by viral load decline and since near-maximal changes occur with minimal antiviral effect.
PMCID: PMC105414  PMID: 9527786
16.  Pharmacodynamic Analysis of a Serine Protease Inhibitor, MK-4519, against Hepatitis C Virus Using a Novel In Vitro Pharmacodynamic System 
The development of new antiviral compounds active against hepatitis C virus (HCV) has surged in recent years. In order for these new compounds to be efficacious in humans, optimal dosage regimens for each compound must be elucidated. We have developed a novel in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic system, the BelloCell system, to identify optimal dosage regimens for anti-HCV compounds. In these experiments, genotype 1b HCV replicon-bearing cells (2209-23 cells) were inoculated onto carrier flakes in BelloCell bottles and treated with MK-4519, a serine protease inhibitor. Our dose-ranging studies illustrated that MK-4519 inhibited replicon replication in a dose-dependent manner, yielding a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 1.8 nM. Dose-fractionation studies showed that shorter dosing intervals resulted in greater replicon suppression, indicating that the time that the concentration is greater than the EC50 is the pharmacodynamic parameter for MK-4519 linked with inhibition of replicon replication. Mutations associated with resistance to serine protease inhibitors were detected in replicons harvested from all treatment arms. These data suggest that MK-4519 is highly active against genotype 1b HCV, but monotherapy is not sufficient to prevent the amplification of resistant replicons. In summary, our findings show that the BelloCell system is a useful and clinically relevant tool for predicting optimal dosage regimens for anti-HCV compounds.
PMCID: PMC3294889  PMID: 22155837
17.  Impact of Spores on the Comparative Efficacies of Five Antibiotics for Treatment of Bacillus anthracis in an In Vitro Hollow Fiber Pharmacodynamic Model 
Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax, is an agent of bioterrorism. The most effective antimicrobial therapy for B. anthracis infections is unknown. An in vitro pharmacodynamic model of B. anthracis was used to compare the efficacies of simulated clinically prescribed regimens of moxifloxacin, linezolid, and meropenem with the “gold standards,” doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. Treatment outcomes for isogenic spore-forming and non-spore-forming strains of B. anthracis were compared. Against spore-forming B. anthracis, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, linezolid, and meropenem reduced the B. anthracis population by 4 log10 CFU/ml over 10 days. Doxycycline reduced the population of this B. anthracis strain by 5 log10 CFU/ml (analysis of variance [ANOVA] P = 0.01 versus other drugs). Against an isogenic non-spore-forming strain, meropenem killed the vegetative B. anthracis the fastest, followed by moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin and then doxycycline. Linezolid offered the lowest bacterial kill rate. Heat shock studies using the spore-producing B. anthracis strain showed that with moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and meropenem therapies the total population was mostly spores, while the population was primarily vegetative bacteria with linezolid and doxycycline therapies. Spores have a profound impact on the rate and extent of killing of B. anthracis. Against spore-forming B. anthracis, the five antibiotics killed the total (spore and vegetative) bacterial population at similar rates (within 1 log10 CFU/ml of each other). However, bactericidal antibiotics killed vegetative B. anthracis faster than bacteriostatic drugs. Since only vegetative-phase B. anthracis produces the toxins that may kill the infected host, the rate and mechanism of killing of an antibiotic may determine its overall in vivo efficacy. Further studies are needed to examine this important observation.
PMCID: PMC3294912  PMID: 22155821
18.  Frequentist and Bayesian Pharmacometric-Based Approaches To Facilitate Critically Needed New Antibiotic Development: Overcoming Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics 
Antimicrobial drug development has greatly diminished due to regulatory uncertainty about the magnitude of the antibiotic treatment effect. Herein we evaluate the utility of pharmacometric-based analyses for determining the magnitude of the treatment effect. Frequentist and Bayesian pharmacometric-based logistic regression analyses were conducted by using data from a phase 3 clinical trial of tigecycline-treated patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) to evaluate relationships between the probability of microbiological or clinical success and the free-drug area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC0-24)/MIC ratio. By using both the frequentist and Bayesian approaches, the magnitude of the treatment effect was determined using three different methods based on the probability of success at free-drug AUC0-24/MIC ratios of 0.01 and 25. Differences in point estimates of the treatment effect for microbiological response (method 1) were larger using the frequentist approach than using the Bayesian approach (Bayesian estimate, 0.395; frequentist estimate, 0.637). However, the Bayesian credible intervals were tighter than the frequentist confidence intervals, demonstrating increased certainty with the former approach. The treatment effect determined by taking the difference in the probabilities of success between the upper limit of a 95% interval for the minimal exposure and the lower limit of a 95% interval at the maximal exposure (method 2) was greater for the Bayesian analysis (Bayesian estimate, 0.074; frequentist estimate, 0.004). After utilizing bootstrapping to determine the lower 95% bounds for the treatment effect (method 3), treatment effect estimates were still higher for the Bayesian analysis (Bayesian estimate, 0.301; frequentist estimate, 0.166). These results demonstrate the utility of frequentist and Bayesian pharmacometric-based analyses for the determination of the treatment effect using contemporary trial endpoints. Additionally, as demonstrated by using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data, the magnitude of the treatment effect for patients with HAP is large.
PMCID: PMC3294956  PMID: 22155834
19.  Evaluation of Once-Daily Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Hollow-Fiber Infection Model 
For methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, data suggest that the clinical response is significantly better if the total vancomycin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio is ≥400. While the AUC/MIC ratio is the accepted pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index for vancomycin, this target has been achieved using multiple daily doses. We are unaware of a systematically designed dose fractionation study to compare the bactericidal activity of once-daily administration to that of traditional twice-daily administration. A dose fractionation study was performed with vancomycin in an in vitro hollow-fiber infection model against an MRSA USA300 strain (MIC of 0.75 μg/ml) using an inoculum of ∼106 CFU/ml. The three vancomycin regimens evaluated for 168 h were 2 g every 24 h (q24h) as a 1-h infusion, 1 g q12h as a 1-h infusion, and 2 g q24h as a continuous infusion. Free steady-state concentrations (assuming 45% binding) for a total daily AUC/MIC ratio of ≥400 were simulated for all regimens. A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to determine vancomycin concentrations. Although once-daily and twice-daily dosage regimens exhibited total trough concentrations of <15 μg/ml, all regimens achieved similar bactericidal activities between 24 and 168 h and suppressed the amplification of nonsusceptible subpopulations. No colonies were found on agar plates with 3× MIC for any of the treatment arms. Overall, the results suggest that once-daily vancomycin administration is feasible from a PK/PD perspective and merits further inquiry in the clinical arena.
PMCID: PMC3264248  PMID: 22083484
20.  Ertapenem Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics during Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis 
Scant data exist for the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ertapenem in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The goals of this study were to characterize the PK profile of ertapenem during CAPD, determine the extent of ertapenem penetration into the peritoneal cavity, and quantify the probability of the target attainment (PTA) profile in the serum and peritoneal cavity. A single-dose PK study was conducted in seven patients on CAPD. Population PK modeling and Monte Carlo simulation determined the probability that ertapenem at 500 mg intravenously (i.v.) every 24 h (q24h) would achieve concentrations in excess of the MIC for 40% of the dosing interval (40% T>MIC, where T is time) in the serum and peritoneal cavity. Monte Carlo simulation was also used to calculate the peritoneal cavity/serum mean and median penetration ratios by estimating the area under the concentration-time curve in the peritoneal cavity and serum (AUCPeritoneal and AUCSerum, respectively) from zero to infinity after a single simulated dose. The population mean (± standard deviation [SD]) values for the apparent volume in the central compartment, clearance, and apparent volume in the peritoneal cavity were 2.78 (0.62) liters, 0.24 (0.07) liters/hr, and 5.81 (2.05) liters, respectively. The mean (SD) AUCPeritoneal/AUCSerum ratio was 1.039 (0.861), and the median penetration ratio was 0.801 (interquartile range, 0.486 to 1.317). In both the serum and peritoneal cavity, ertapenem at 500 mg i.v. q24h was very likely (>90%) to achieve the pharmacodynamic target for MICs of ≤2 mg/liter. The simulations suggest that 500 mg of ertapenem i.v. q24h is very likely to achieve the exposure target associated with clinical efficacy in both the serum and peritoneal cavity against the range of MIC values deemed susceptible by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
PMCID: PMC3264279  PMID: 22083473
21.  Differential Effects of Linezolid and Ciprofloxacin on Toxin Production by Bacillus anthracis in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic System 
Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax. Ciprofloxacin is a gold standard for the treatment of anthrax. Previously, using the non-toxin-producing ΔSterne strain of B. anthracis, we demonstrated that linezolid was equivalent to ciprofloxacin for reducing the total (vegetative and spore) bacterial population. With ciprofloxacin therapy, the total population consisted of spores. With linezolid therapy, the population consisted primarily of vegetative bacteria. Linezolid is a protein synthesis inhibitor, while ciprofloxacin is not. Since toxins are produced only by vegetative B. anthracis, the effect of linezolid and ciprofloxacin on toxin production is of interest. The effect of simulated clinical regimens of ciprofloxacin and linezolid on the vegetative and spore populations and on toxin production was examined in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model over 15 days by using the toxin-producing Sterne strain of B. anthracis. Ciprofloxacin and linezolid reduced the total Sterne population at similar rates. With ciprofloxacin therapy, the total Sterne population consisted of spores. With linezolid therapy, >90% of the population was vegetative B. anthracis. With ciprofloxacin therapy, toxin was first detectable at 3 h and remained detectable for at least 5 h. Toxin was never detected with linezolid therapy. Ciprofloxacin and linezolid reduced the total Sterne population at similar rates. However, the B. anthracis population was primarily spores with ciprofloxacin therapy and was primarily vegetative bacteria with linezolid therapy. Toxin production was detected for at least 5 h with ciprofloxacin therapy but was never detected with linezolid treatment. Linezolid may have an advantage over ciprofloxacin for the treatment of B. anthracis infections.
PMCID: PMC3256020  PMID: 22064542
22.  Penetration of Vancomycin into Epithelial Lining Fluid in Healthy Volunteers▿ 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(12):5507-5511.
Although vancomycin is often regarded as an agent that concentrates poorly in the lower respiratory tract, as determined from concentrations in epithelial lining fluid (ELF), few data are available. This study sought to determine the profile of vancomycin exposure in the ELF relative to plasma. Population modeling and Monte Carlo simulation were employed to estimate the penetration of vancomycin into ELF. Plasma and ELF pharmacokinetic (PK) data were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers. Concentration-time profiles in plasma and ELF were simultaneously modeled using a three-compartment model with zero-order infusion and first-order elimination and transfer using the big nonparametric adaptive grid (BigNPAG) program. Monte Carlo simulation with 9,999 subjects was performed to calculate the ELF/plasma penetration ratios by estimating the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) in ELF (AUCELF) and plasma (AUCplasma) after a single simulated 1,000-mg dose. The mean (standard deviation) AUCELF/AUCplasma penetration ratio was 0.675 (0.677), and the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile penetration ratios were 0.265, 0.474, and 0.842, respectively. Our results indicate that vancomycin penetrates ELF at approximately 50% of plasma levels. To properly judge the adequacy of current doses and schedules employed in practice, future studies are needed to delineate the PK/PD (pharmacodynamics) target for vancomycin in ELF. If the PK/PD target in ELF is found to be consistent with the currently proposed target of an AUC/MIC of ≥400, suboptimal probability of target attainment would be expected when vancomycin is utilized for pneumonias due to MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) with MICs in excess of 1 mg/liter.
PMCID: PMC3232765  PMID: 21911567
23.  Refining Vancomycin Protein Binding Estimates: Identification of Clinical Factors That Influence Protein Binding▿ 
While current data indicate only free (unbound) drug is pharmacologically active and is most predictive of response, pharmacodynamic studies of vancomycin have been limited to measurement of total concentrations. The protein binding of vancomycin is thought to be approximately 50%, but considerable variability surrounds this estimate. The present study sought to determine the extent of vancomycin protein binding, to identify factors that modulate its binding, and to create and validate a prediction tool to estimate the extent of protein binding based on individual clinical factors. This single-site prospective cohort study included hospitalized adult patients treated with vancomycin and with a vancomycin serum concentration determination available. Linear regression was used to predict the free vancomycin concentration (f[vanco]) and to determine the clinical factors modulating vancomycin protein binding. Among the 50 patients in the study, the mean protein binding was 41.5%. The strongest predictor of f[vanco] was the total vancomycin concentration (total [vanco]), and this was modified by dialysis and total protein of ≥6.7 g/dl as covariates. The algebraic expression from the final prediction model was f[vanco] = 0.643 + 0.560 × total [vanco] − {0.067 × total [vanco] × D} − {0.071 × total [vanco] × TP} where D = 1 if dialysis dependent or 0 if not dialysis dependent, and TP = 1 if total protein is ≥6.7 g/dl or 0 if total protein is <6.7 g/dl. The R2 of the final prediction model was 0.959 (P < 0.001). Validation of our model was performed in 13 patients, and the predictive performance was highly favorable (R2 was 0.9, and bias and precision were 0.18 and 0.18, respectively). Prediction models such as ours can be utilized in future pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies evaluating the exposure-response profile and to determine the pharmacodynamic target of interest as it relates to the free concentration.
PMCID: PMC3165330  PMID: 21670191
24.  Dose Range Evaluation of Mycograb C28Y Variant, a Human Recombinant Antibody Fragment to Heat Shock Protein 90, in Combination with Amphotericin B-Desoxycholate for Treatment of Murine Systemic Candidiasis ▿ 
Systemic candidiasis causes significant mortality in patients despite amphotericin B (AMB) therapy. Mycograb C28Y variant, a human recombinant antibody fragment to heat shock protein 90, is closely related to Mycograb, which showed a survival advantage in combination with AMB in a phase III human trial. The Mycograb C28Y variant could potentially increase the antifungal effect of AMB. In our study, the interaction between AMB-desoxycholate (DAMB) and the Mycograb C28Y variant was characterized in vitro by using a checkerboard method. Quantitative cultures of kidneys, livers, and spleens of neutropenic mice with systemic Candida albicans infections were used to assess the in vivo interaction between 1.4 mg/kg of body weight/day of DAMB and 0.15, 1.5, and 15 mg/kg/day of the Mycograb C28Y variant after 1, 3, and 5 days of therapy. DAMB and Mycograb C28Y variant monotherapies, vehicle, and a no-treatment arm served as controls. Also, single- and multidose pharmacokinetics for the Mycograb C28Y variant were determined. Indifference or synergy between DAMB and the Mycograb C28Y variant was seen in two trials by the checkerboard method. The pharmacokinetics of the Mycograb C28Y variant was best described by a 2-compartment model with a median serum t1/2α of ∼0.198 h and a t1/2β of ∼1.77 h. In mice, DAMB together with the Mycograb C28Y variant was no more effective than AMB alone (P > 0.05 by analysis of variance). The Mycograb C28Y variant alone had no antifungal activity. We therefore conclude that the Mycograb C28Y variant in combination with DAMB offered no benefit over DAMB monotherapy in a neutropenic murine model of systemic candidiasis.
PMCID: PMC3122395  PMID: 21502626
25.  Comparative Efficacies of Candidate Antibiotics against Yersinia pestis in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model▿ 
Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague, is a potential agent of bioterrorism. Streptomycin is the “gold standard” for the treatment of plague infections in humans, but the drug is not available in many countries, and resistance to this antibiotic occurs naturally and has been generated in the laboratory. Other antibiotics have been shown to be active against Y. pestis in vitro and in vivo. However, the relative efficacies of clinically prescribed regimens of these antibiotics with streptomycin and with each other for the killing of Yersinia pestis are unknown. The efficacies of simulated pharmacokinetic profiles for human 10-day clinical regimens of ampicillin, meropenem, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin were compared with the gold standard, streptomycin, for killing of Yersinia pestis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Resistance amplification with therapy was also assessed. Streptomycin killed the microbe in one trial but failed due to resistance amplification in the second trial. In two trials, the other antibiotics consistently reduced the bacterial densities within the pharmacodynamic systems from 108 CFU/ml to undetectable levels (<102 CFU/ml) between 1 and 3 days of treatment. None of the comparator agents selected for resistance. The comparator antibiotics were superior to streptomycin against Y. pestis and deserve further evaluation.
PMCID: PMC3101461  PMID: 21486959

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