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1.  Different Genetic Supports for the tet(S) Gene in Enterococci 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):6014-6018.
The diversity of tet(S) genetic contexts of 13 enterococci from human, animal, and environmental samples from different geographical areas is reported. The tet(S) gene was linked to either CTn6000 variants of chromosomal location or composite platforms flanked by IS1216 located on plasmids (∼40 to 115 kb). The comparative analysis of all tet(S) genetic elements available in the GenBank databases suggests that CTn6000 might be the origin of a variety of tet(S)-carrying platforms that were mobilized to different plasmids.
PMCID: PMC3486547  PMID: 22908170
3.  Contribution of IncFII and Broad-Host IncA/C and IncN Plasmids to the Local Expansion and Diversification of Phylogroup B2 Escherichia coli ST131 Clones Carrying blaCTX-M-15 and qnrS1 Genes 
The recent increase of CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli isolates in our institution was caused by diverse clonal backgrounds, including mainly B2 sequence type 131 (ST131) clones presenting variable virulence profiles but also A1 (ST617, ST410), B1, and D1 (ST405) clones. Besides IncFII-pC15-1a, we detected multidrug-resistant IncA/C2 and IncN plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-15 and/or qnrS1. Our study highlights the diversification of highly transmissible resistant and virulent clones and the recombinogenic potential of broad-host plasmids contributing to the expansion of genetic regions coding for multidrug resistance to other bacterial lineages.
PMCID: PMC3346627  PMID: 22330911
4.  Ecology and Evolution as Targets: the Need for Novel Eco-Evo Drugs and Strategies To Fight Antibiotic Resistance▿† 
In recent years, the explosive spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among pathogenic, commensal, and environmental bacteria has reached a global dimension. Classical measures trying to contain or slow locally the progress of antibiotic resistance in patients on the basis of better antibiotic prescribing policies have clearly become insufficient at the global level. Urgent measures are needed to directly confront the processes influencing antibiotic resistance pollution in the microbiosphere. Recent interdisciplinary research indicates that new eco-evo drugs and strategies, which take ecology and evolution into account, have a promising role in resistance prevention, decontamination, and the eventual restoration of antibiotic susceptibility. This minireview summarizes what is known and what should be further investigated to find drugs and strategies aiming to counteract the “four P's,” penetration, promiscuity, plasticity, and persistence of rapidly spreading bacterial clones, mobile genetic elements, or resistance genes. The term “drug” is used in this eco-evo perspective as a tool to fight resistance that is able to prevent, cure, or decrease potential damage caused by antibiotic resistance, not necessarily only at the individual level (the patient) but also at the ecological and evolutionary levels. This view offers a wealth of research opportunities for science and technology and also represents a large adaptive challenge for regulatory agencies and public health officers. Eco-evo drugs and interventions constitute a new avenue for research that might influence not only antibiotic resistance but the maintenance of a healthy interaction between humans and microbial systems in a rapidly changing biosphere.
PMCID: PMC3147629  PMID: 21576439
5.  In Vitro Activity of Telithromycin against Spanish Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates with Characterized Macrolide Resistance Mechanisms 
The susceptibilities to telithromycin of 203 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates prospectively collected during 1999 and 2000 from 14 different geographical areas in Spain were tested and compared with those to erythromycin A, clindamycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, penicillin G, cefotaxime, and levofloxacin. Telithromycin was active against 98.9% of isolates (MICs, ≤0.5 μg/ml), with MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited being 0.06 μg/ml, irrespective of the resistance genotype. The corresponding values for erythromycin were 61.0% (MICs, ≤0.25 μg/ml) and >64 μg/ml. The erm(B) gene (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotype) was detected in 36.4% (n = 74) of the isolates, which corresponded to 93.6% of erythromycin-intermediate and -resistant isolates, whereas the mef(A) gene (M phenotype [resistance to erythromycin and susceptibility to clindamycin and spiramycin without blunting]) was present in only 2.4% (n = 5) of the isolates. One of the latter isolates also carried erm(B). Interestingly, in one isolate for which the erythromycin MIC was 2 μg/ml, none of these resistance genes could be detected. Erythromycin MICs for S. pneumoniae erm(B)-positive isolates were higher (range, 0.5 to >64 μg/ml) than those for erm(B)- and mef(A)-negative isolates (range, 0.008 to 2 μg/ml). The corresponding values for telithromycin were lower for both groups, with ranges of 0.004 to 1 and 0.002 to 0.06 μg/ml, respectively. The erythromycin MIC was high for a large number of erm(B)-positive isolates, but the telithromycin MIC was low for these isolates. These results indicate the potential usefulness of telithromycin for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant S. pneumoniae isolates when macrolides are indicated.
PMCID: PMC90672  PMID: 11502509
6.  In Vitro Activities of Ertapenem (MK-0826) against Recent Clinical Bacteria Collected in Europe and Australia 
Ertapenem (MK-0826, L-749,345) is a 1-β-methyl carbapenem with a long serum half-life. Its in vitro activity was determined by broth microdilution against 3,478 bacteria from 12 centers in Europe and Australia, with imipenem, cefepime, ceftriaxone, and piperacillin-tazobactam used as comparators. Ertapenem was the most active agent tested against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) of ≤1 μg/ml for all species. Ertapenem also was more active than imipenem against fastidious gram-negative bacteria and Moraxella spp.; on the other hand, ertapenem was slightly less active than imipenem against streptococci, methicillin-susceptible staphylococci, and anaerobes, but its MIC90s for these groups remained ≤0.5 μg/ml. Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also much less susceptible to ertapenem than imipenem, and most Enterococcus faecalis strains were resistant. Ertapenem resistance, based on a provisional NCCLS MIC breakpoint of ≥16 μg/ml, was seen in only 3 of 1,611 strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae tested, all of them Enterobacter aerogenes. Resistance was also seen in 2 of 135 anaerobes, comprising 1 Bacteroides fragilis strain and 1 Clostridium difficile strain. Ertapenem breakpoints for streptococci have not been established, but an unofficial susceptibility breakpoint of ≤2 μg/ml was adopted for clinical trials to generate corresponding clinical response data for isolates for which MICs were as high as 2 μg/ml. Of 234 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains tested, 2 required ertapenem MICs of 2 μg/ml and one required an MIC of 4 μg/ml, among 67 non-Streptococcus pyogenes, non-Streptococcus pneumoniae streptococci, single isolates required ertapenem MICs of 2 and 16 μg/ml. These streptococci also had diminished susceptibilities to other β-lactams, including imipenem as well as ertapenem. The Etest and disk diffusion gave susceptibility test results in good agreement with those of the broth microdilution method for ertapenem.
PMCID: PMC90558  PMID: 11353638
7.  Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Unique Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Clinical Strains 
Susceptibility to 41 antimicrobials was studied with 99 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains, and different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified among 130 prospectively collected isolates. Moxalactam, doxycycline, minocycline, and clinafloxacin displayed the highest activity (≥98% susceptibility). Ticarcillin resistance (75%) was reverted by clavulanate in 25% of strains. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was 26.2% (≥4 [trimethoprim]/76 [sulfamethoxazole] μg/ml) and dropped to 11.1% when an 8/152-μg/ml breakpoint was applied based on its bimodal MIC distribution. Resistance was lower when unique strains were considered, because clonal organisms contribute to resistance.
PMCID: PMC90512  PMID: 11302834
8.  Bacteriocin Production in Vancomycin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Susceptible Enterococcus Isolates of Different Origins 
Bacteriocin production was determined for 218 Enterococcus isolates (Enterococcus faecalis [93] and E. faecium [125]) obtained from different origins (human clinical samples [87], human fecal samples [78], sewage [28], and chicken samples [25]) and showing different vancomycin susceptibility patterns (vancomycin resistant, all of them vanA positive [56], and vancomycin susceptible [162]). All enterococcal isolates were randomly selected except for the vancomycin-resistant ones. A total of 33 isolates of eight different bacterial genera were used as indicators for bacteriocin production. Forty-seven percent of the analyzed enterococcal isolates were bacteriocin producers (80.6% of E. faecalis and 21.6% of E. faecium isolates). The percentage of bacteriocin producers was higher among human clinical isolates (63.2%, 81.8% of vancomycin-resistant isolates and 60.5% of vancomycin-susceptible ones) than among isolates from the other origins (28 to 39.3%). Only one out of the 15 vancomycin-resistant isolates from human fecal samples was a bacteriocin producer, while 44.4% of fecal vancomycin-susceptible isolates were. The bacteriocin produced by the vanA-containing E. faecium strain RC714, named bacteriocin RC714, was further characterized. This bacteriocin activity was cotransferred together with the vanA genetic determinant to E. faecalis strain JH2-2. Bacteriocin RC714 was purified to homogeneity and its primary structure was determined by amino acid sequencing, showing an identity of 88% and a similarity of 92% with the previously described bacteriocin 31 from E. faecalis YI717. The presence of five different amino acids in bacteriocin RC714 suggest that this could be a new bacteriocin. The results obtained suggest that the epidemiology of vancomycin resistance may be influenced by different factors, including bacteriocin production.
PMCID: PMC90391  PMID: 11181378
9.  Macrolide Resistance in Peptostreptococcus spp. Mediated by ermTR: Possible Source of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes 
Eighty percent (21 of 26) of macrolide-resistant Peptostreptococcus strains studied harbored the ermTR gene. This methyltransferase gene is also the most frequently found gene among macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes strains. Transfer of the ermTR gene from Peptostreptococcus magnus to macrolide-susceptible S. pyogenes strains indicates that this resistance determinant may circulate among gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic species of the oropharyngeal bacterial flora.
PMCID: PMC90342  PMID: 11158770
10.  Nucleotide Sequence and Characterization of a Novel Cefotaxime-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamase (CTX-M-10) Isolated in Spain 
A cefotaxime-resistant, ceftazidime-susceptible Escherichia coli isolate was obtained from a patient with sepsis in 1997, from which a β-lactamase with a pI of 8.1 was cloned. Cephaloridine and cefotaxime relative hydrolysis rates were 167 and 81, respectively (penicillin G rate = 100), whereas ceftazidime hydrolysis was not detected. The nucleotide sequence revealed a bla gene related to that coding for CTX-M-3. Despite 21 nucleotide substitutions, only 2 determined amino acid changes (Ala27Val and Arg38Gln). The amino acid sequence identity between this enzyme, designated CTX-M-10, and the chromosomal β-lactamase of Kluyvera ascorbata was 81%.
PMCID: PMC90338  PMID: 11158766
11.  Concentration-Dependent Selection of Small Phenotypic Differences in TEM β-Lactamase-Mediated Antibiotic Resistance 
In this paper, the first robust experimental evidence of in vitro and in vivo concentration-dependent selection of low-level antibiotic-resistant genetic variants is described. The work is based on the study of an asymmetric competition assay with pairs of isogenic Escherichia coli strains, differing only (apart from a neutral chromosomal marker) in a single amino acid replacement in a plasmid-mediated TEM-1 beta-lactamase enzyme, which results in the new TEM-12 beta-lactamase. The mixture was challenged by different antibiotic concentrations, both in vitro and in the animal model, and the selective process of the variant population was carefully monitored. A mathematical model was constructed to test the hypothesis that measured growth and killing rates of the individual TEM variants at different antibiotic concentrations could be used to predict quantitatively the strength of selection for TEM-12 observed in competition experiments at these different concentrations.
PMCID: PMC90089  PMID: 10952599
12.  Selection of Naturally Occurring Extended-Spectrum TEM β-Lactamase Variants by Fluctuating β-Lactam Pressure 
Despite the large number of in vitro mutations that increase resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in TEM-type β-lactamases, only a small number occur in naturally occurring enzymes. In nature, and particularly in the hospital, bacteria that contain β-lactamases encounter simultaneous or consecutive selective pressure with different β-lactam molecules. All variants obtained by submitting an Escherichia coli strain that contains a blaTEM-1 gene to fluctuating challenge with both ceftazidime and amoxicillin contained only mutations previously detected in naturally occurring β-lactamases. Nevertheless, some variants obtained by ceftazidime challenge alone contained mutations never detected in naturally occurring TEM β-lactamases, suggesting that extended-spectrum TEM variants in hospital isolates result from fluctuating selective pressure with several β-lactams rather than selection with a single antibiotic.
PMCID: PMC90035  PMID: 10898697
13.  Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Animals, Foods, and Humans in Spain in 1997–1998 
Colonization by Campylobacter strains was investigated in human, broiler, and pig fecal samples from 1997- 1998, as well as in foods of animal origin, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out for these strains. Campylobacter strains were isolated in the foods of animal origin (55 of 101 samples; 54.4%), intestinal samples from broilers (85 of 105; 81%), and pigs (40 of 45; 88.9%). A total of 641 Campylobacter strains were isolated from 8,636 human fecal samples of clinical origin (7.4%). Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently isolated species from broilers (81%) and humans (84%), and Campylobacter coli was most frequently isolated from pigs (100%). An extremely high frequency of ciprofloxacin resistance was detected among Campylobacter strains, particularly those isolated from broilers and pigs (99%), with a slightly lower result for humans (72%); cross-resistance with nalidixic acid was almost always observed. A higher frequency of resistance to erythromycin (81.1%), ampicillin (65.7%), gentamicin (22.2%), and amikacin (21.6%) was detected in C. coli strains isolated from pigs compared to those isolated from humans (34.5, 29.3, 8.6, and 0%, respectively). A low frequency of erythromycin resistance was found in C. jejuni or C. coli isolated from broilers. A greater resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin (47.4 and 11.9%, respectively) was detected in C. jejuni isolated from broilers than in human strains (38 and 0.4%, respectively). β-Lactamase production was found in 81% of the Campylobacter strains tested, although 44% of them were characterized as ampicillin susceptible. The increasing rates of Campylobacter resistance make advisable a more conservative policy for the use of antibiotics in farm animals.
PMCID: PMC89669  PMID: 10639348
14.  From vanA Enterococcus hirae to vanA Enterococcus faecium: a Study of Feed Supplementation with Avoparcin and Tylosin in Young Chickens 
Fifteen newborn chickens were isolated in separate cages after 1 month of living together, divided into three groups, and challenged for 5 weeks with seed food which either was supplemented with avoparcin (10 mg/kg of animal food) or tylosin (40 mg/kg) or was nonsupplemented. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week challenge, all chickens received nonsupplemented feed for 4 additional weeks. At 4, 9, and 13 weeks of life, feces were collected and inoculated on M-Enterococcus agar plates with and without vancomycin (4 μg/ml). vanA-containing Enterococcus hirae was isolated from 11 of 15 chickens before antibiotic challenge, without detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week avoparcin challenge, vanA E. hirae strains were no longer detected, but five of five chickens now had vanA E. faecium. At a lower frequency, vanA E. faecium had also displaced vanA E. hirae in both the tylosin group (one of four chickens) and the control group (two of five chickens). One month after avoparcin discontinuation, the number of chickens colonized with vanA E. faecium decreased from five to one. All vanA-containing E. hirae strains detected in the first month of life and most of the vanA-containing E. faecium strains detected in the second month of life showed identical ApaI and SmaI restriction patterns, respectively, when analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All vanA E. hirae isolates transferred glycopeptide and macrolide resistance to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in vitro; the level of glycopeptide resistance was higher in the transconjugants than in the donor E. hirae strains. These data suggest that E. hirae may be a significant source of vanA determinants with the potential of transfer to other enterococcal species from humans or animals.
PMCID: PMC89123  PMID: 10223926
15.  Ampicillin-Sulbactam and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Susceptibility Testing of Escherichia coli Isolates with Different β-Lactam Resistance Phenotypes 
The activities of ampicillin-sulbactam and amoxicillin-clavulanate were studied with 100 selected clinical Escherichia coli isolates with different β-lactam susceptibility phenotypes by standard agar dilution and disk diffusion techniques and with a commercial microdilution system (PASCO). A fixed ratio (2:1) and a fixed concentration (clavulanate, 2 and 4 μg/ml; sulbactam, 8 μg/ml) were used in the agar dilution technique. The resistance frequencies for amoxicillin-clavulanate with different techniques were as follows: fixed ratio agar dilution, 12%; fixed concentration 4-μg/ml agar dilution, 17%; fixed ratio microdilution, 9%; and disk diffusion, 9%. Marked discrepancies were found when these results were compared with those obtained with ampicillin-sulbactam (26 to 52% resistance), showing that susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid cannot be predicted by testing the isolate against ampicillin-sulbactam. Interestingly, the discrimination between susceptible and intermediate isolates was better achieved with 4 μg of clavulanate per ml than with the fixed ratio. In contrast, amoxicillin susceptibility was not sufficiently restored when 2 μg of clavulanate per ml was used, particularly in moderate (mean β-lactamase activity, 50.8 mU/mg of protein) and high-level (215 mU/mg) TEM-1 β-lactamase producer isolates. Four micrograms of clavulanate per milliliter could be a reasonable alternative to the 2:1 fixed ratio, because most high-level β-lactamase-hyperproducing isolates would be categorized as nonsusceptible, and low- and moderate-level β-lactamase-producing isolates would be categorized as nonresistant. This approach cannot be applied to sulbactam, either with the fixed 2:1 ratio or with the 8-μg/ml fixed concentration, because many low-level β-lactamase-producing isolates would be classified in the resistant category. These findings call for a review of breakpoints for β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combinations.
PMCID: PMC89218  PMID: 10103192
16.  Efficacy of Ampicillin plus Ceftriaxone in Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Enterococcus faecalis Strains Highly Resistant to Aminoglycosides 
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the in vitro possibilities of ampicillin-ceftriaxone combinations for 10 Enterococcus faecalis strains with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides (HLRAg) and to assess the efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone, both administered with humanlike pharmacokinetics, for the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to HLRAg E. faecalis. A reduction of 1 to 4 dilutions in MICs of ampicillin was obtained when ampicillin was combined with a fixed subinhibitory ceftriaxone concentration of 4 μg/ml. This potentiating effect was also observed by the double disk method with all 10 strains. Time-kill studies performed with 1 and 2 μg of ampicillin alone per ml or in combination with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 μg of ceftriaxone per ml showed a ≥2 log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter with respect to ampicillin alone and to the initial inoculum for all 10 E. faecalis strains studied. This effect was obtained for seven strains with the combination of 2 μg of ampicillin per ml plus 10 μg of ceftriaxone per ml and for six strains with 5 μg of ceftriaxone per ml. Animals with catheter-induced endocarditis were infected intravenously with 108 CFU of E. faecalis V48 or 105 CFU of E. faecalis V45 and were treated for 3 days with humanlike pharmacokinetics of 2 g of ampicillin every 4 h, alone or combined with 2 g of ceftriaxone every 12 h. The levels in serum and the pharmacokinetic parameters of the humanlike pharmacokinetics of ampicillin or ceftriaxone in rabbits were similar to those found in humans treated with 2 g of ampicillin or ceftriaxone intravenously. Results of the therapy for experimental endocarditis caused by E. faecalis V48 or V45 showed that the residual bacterial titers in aortic valve vegetations were significantly lower in the animals treated with the combinations of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone than in those treated with ampicillin alone (P < 0.001). The combination of ampicillin and ceftriaxone showed in vitro and in vivo synergism against HLRAg E. faecalis.
PMCID: PMC89173  PMID: 10049280
17.  Antimicrobial Resistance of 1,113 Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Patients with Respiratory Tract Infections in Spain: Results of a 1-Year (1996–1997) Multicenter Surveillance Study 
A nationwide susceptibility surveillance of 1,113 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates was carried out and found the following percentages of resistance: cefuroxime, 46%; penicillin, 37%; macrolides, 33%; aminopenicillins, 24%; cefotaxime, 13%; and ceftriaxone, 8%. A significant (P < 0.05) seasonality pattern for β-lactam antibiotics was observed. Resistance to macrolides was higher (P < 0.05) in middle-ear samples. Higher percentages of resistance to cefuroxime and macrolides were observed among penicillin-intermediate and -resistant strains, whereas high frequencies of resistance to aminopenicillins and expanded-spectrum cephalosporins were observed only among penicillin-resistant strains.
PMCID: PMC89077  PMID: 9925532
18.  Mutations in 23S rRNA in Helicobacter pylori Conferring Resistance to Erythromycin Do Not Always Confer Resistance to Clarithromycin 
Mutations conferring resistance to erythromycin or clarithromycin in Helicobacter pylori were studied. Mutation A2142G was consistently associated with clarithromycin MIC of >256 μg/ml, whereas mutants carrying A2143G had MICs ranging from ≤0.016 to >256 μg/ml, suggesting that additional factors account for the observed multiple levels of resistance to clarithromycin.
PMCID: PMC89082  PMID: 9925537
19.  Antimicrobial Resistance of 914 Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci Isolated from Pharyngeal Swabs in Spain: Results of a 1-Year (1996–1997) Multicenter Surveillance Study 
A nationwide susceptibility surveillance study of beta-hemolytic streptococcal isolates from pharyngeal swabs obtained in 11 Spanish hospitals between May 1996 and April 1997 against 12 antibiotics was carried out. Of the isolates 86% (786 of 914 isolates) were group A and 8.4% (77 of 914 isolates) were group C. No resistance was found to β-lactam antibiotics, but significant differences (P < 0.001) with respect to lack of susceptibility to macrolides were found between groups (27% for group A and 12% for group C) and between seasons (13.2% in summer and 31.7% in winter). Most of these isolates displayed the M phenotype (low-level resistance to erythromycin and susceptibility to clindamycin).
PMCID: PMC89044  PMID: 9869589
20.  A237T as a Modulating Mutation in Naturally Occurring Extended-Spectrum TEM-Type β-Lactamases 
A TEM-1 β-lactamase derivative containing the single amino acid substitution A237T slightly increased (from 24 to 32 μg/ml) the cephalothin MIC for Escherichia coli RYC1000 but did not influence the activities of cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam (MICs of 0.03, 0.12, and 0.06 μg/ml, respectively). Despite its apparent neutrality, addition of the A237T mutation to the pair of mutations characterizing TEM-10 (R164S and E240K) had a strong effect on substrate preference. Ceftazidime and aztreonam MICs decreased from 128 and 16 μg/ml to 16 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. In contrast, the cefotaxime MIC increased from 0.5 to 4 μg/ml. The acquisition of apparently neutral or even deleterious mutations results in a very effective mechanism of resistance to different β-lactams that may be simultaneously or subsequently present in the environment. We propose here that the mutation in position 237 is an example of a modulating mutation and that consideration of this type of mutation may be important for understanding the evolution of β-lactamases.
PMCID: PMC105741  PMID: 9593123
22.  In Vitro Selection of Variants Resistant to β-Lactams plus β-Lactamase Inhibitors in CTX-M β-Lactamases: Predicting the In Vivo Scenario?▿ 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(10):4530-4536.
CTX-M β-lactamases are the most prevalent group of enzymes within the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). The therapeutic options for CTX-M-carrying isolates are scarce, forcing the reexamination of the therapeutic possibilities of β-lactams plus β-lactamase inhibitors (BBLIs). Inhibitor-resistant CTX-M β-lactamases (IR-CTX-M) have not hitherto been described in natural isolates. In this study, 168 cultures of the hypermutagenic Escherichia coli GB20 strain carrying plasmid pBGS18 with different blaCTX-M genes were submitted to parallel experimental evolution assays in the presence of increasing concentrations of a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate. Fourteen CTX-M β-lactamases belonging to the three most representative clusters (CTX-M-1, -2, and -9) and the two main phenotypes (cefotaxime resistance and cefotaxime-ceftazidime resistance) were studied. Three types of IR-CTX-M mutants were detected, having mutations S130G, K234R, and S237G, which are associated with different resistance patterns. The most frequently recovered mutation was S130G, which conferred the highest resistance levels to BBLIs (reaching 12 μg/ml for amoxicillin-clavulanate and 96 μg/ml for piperacillin-tazobactam when acquired by CTX-M-1 cluster enzymes). The S130G change also provided a clear antagonistic pleiotropy effect, strongly decreasing the enzyme's activity against all cephalosporins tested. A double mutation, S130G L169S, partially restored the resistance against cephalosporins. A complex pattern observed in CTX-M-58, carrying P167S and S130G or K234R changes, conferred ESBL and IR phenotypes simultaneously. The K234R and S237G changes had a smaller effect in providing inhibitor resistance. In summary, IR-CTX-M enzymes might evolve under exposure to BBLIs, and the probability is higher for enzymes belonging to the CTX-M-1 cluster. However, this process could be delayed by antagonistic pleiotropy.
PMCID: PMC3186957  PMID: 21788458
23.  Dissemination of blaKPC-2 by the Spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Complex 258 Clones (ST258, ST11, ST437) and Plasmids (IncFII, IncN, IncL/M) among Enterobacteriaceae Species in Brazil ▿ 
This article reports the spread of blaKPC-2 in the Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states, facilitated by globally spread K. pneumoniae clonal complex 258 (CC258) clones (ST258, ST11, and ST437) and a diversity of plasmids (IncFII, IncN, and IncL/M, two untypeable plasmids carrying Tn4401a or Tn4401b) successfully disseminated among species of the Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, and Citrobacter freundii). It also constitutes the first description of sequence type 258 (ST258) in Brazil, which was associated with a nosocomial hospital outbreak in Ribeirao Preto city.
PMCID: PMC3122403  PMID: 21576442
24.  Association of Composite IS26-sul3 Elements with Highly Transmissible IncI1 Plasmids in Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Clones from Humans▿ 
The association of an IS440-sul3 platform with Tn21 class 1 integrons carried by IncI1 plasmids encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs; mainly SHV-12 and CTX-M-14) among worldwide Escherichia coli clones of phylogroups A (ST10, ST23, and ST46), B1 (ST155, ST351, and ST359), and D/B2 (ST131) is reported. An in silico comparative analysis of sul3 elements available in the GenBank database shows the evolution of sul3 platforms by hosting different transposable elements facilitating the potential genesis of IS26 composite transposons and further insertion element-mediated promoted arrangements.
PMCID: PMC3088239  PMID: 21343460
25.  Incidence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Community- and Hospital-Associated Intra-Abdominal Infections in Europe: Results of the 2008 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) ▿  
From 2002 to 2008, there was a significant increase in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli isolates in European intra-abdominal infections, from 4.3% in 2002 to 11.8% in 2008 (P < 0.001), but not for ESBL-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (16.4% to 17.9% [P > 0.05]). Hospital-associated isolates were more common than community-associated isolates, at 14.0% versus 6.5%, respectively, for E. coli (P < 0.001) and 20.9% versus 5.3%, respectively, for K. pneumoniae (P < 0.01). Carbapenems were consistently the most active drugs tested.
PMCID: PMC2897323  PMID: 20421398

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