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1.  Restoration of Susceptibility of Intracellular Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-Lactams: Comparison of Strains, Cells, and Antibiotics▿ †  
Staphylococcus aureus invades eukaryotic cells. When methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591 is phagocytized by human THP-1 macrophages, complete restoration of susceptibility to cloxacillin and meropenem is shown and the strain becomes indistinguishable from MSSA ATCC 25923 due to the acid pH prevailing in phagolysosomes (S. Lemaire et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:1627-1632, 2007). We examined whether this observation can be extended to (i) strains of current clinical and epidemiological interest (three hospital-acquired MRSA [HA-MRSA] strains, two community-acquired MRSA [CA-MRSA] strains, two HA-MRSA strains with the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, one HA-MRSA strain with the vancomycin-resistant phenotype, and one animal [porcine] MRSA strain), (ii) activated THP-1 cells and nonprofessional phagocytes (keratinocytes, Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells), and (iii) other β-lactams (imipenem, oxacillin, cefuroxime, cefepime). All strains showed (i) a marked reduction in MICs in broth at pH 5.5 compared with the MIC at pH 7.4 and (ii) sigmoidal dose-response curves with cloxacillin (0.01× to 100× MIC, 24 h of incubation) after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages that were indistinguishable from each other and from the dose-response curve for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 (relative potency [50% effect], 6.09× MIC [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.50 to 8.25]; relative efficacy [change in bacterial counts over the original inoculum for an infinitely large cloxacillin concentration, or maximal effect], −0.69 log CFU [95% CI, −0.79 to −0.58]). Similar dose-response curves for cloxacillin were also observed with MSSA ATCC 25923 and MRSA ATCC 33591 after phagocytosis by activated THP-1 macrophages, keratinocytes, and Calu-3 cells. By contrast, there was a lower level of restoration of susceptibility of MRSA ATCC 33591 to cefuroxime and cefepime after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages, even when the data were normalized for differences in MICs. We conclude that the restoration of MRSA susceptibility to β-lactams after phagocytosis is independent of the strain and the types of cells but varies between β-lactams.
PMCID: PMC2493141  PMID: 18519727
2.  Diversity of Ribosomal Mutations Conferring Resistance to Macrolides, Clindamycin, Streptogramin, and Telithromycin in Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Mechanisms of resistance were studied in 22 macrolide-resistant mutants selected in vitro from 5 parental strains of macrolide-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae by serial passage in various macrolides (T. A. Davies, B. E. Dewasse, M. R. Jacobs, and P. C. Appelbaum, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 44:414–417, 2000). Portions of genes encoding ribosomal proteins L22 and L4 and 23S rRNA (domains II and V) were amplified by PCR and analyzed by single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis to screen for mutations. The DNA sequences of amplicons from mutants that differed from those of parental strains by their electrophoretic migration profiles were determined. In six mutants, point mutations were detected in the L22 gene (G95D, P99Q, A93E, P91S, and G83E). The only mutant selected by telithromycin (for which the MIC increased from 0.008 to 0.25 μg/ml) contained a combination of three mutations in the L22 gene (A93E, P91S, and G83E). L22 mutations were combined with an L4 mutation (G71R) in one strain and with a 23S rRNA mutation (C2611A) in another strain. Nine other strains selected by various macrolides had A2058G (n = 1), A2058U (n = 2), A2059G (n = 1), C2610U (n = 1), and C2611U (n = 4) mutations (Escherichia coli numbering) in domain V of 23S rRNA. One mutant selected by clarithromycin and resistant to all macrolides tested (MIC, >32 μg/ml) and telithromycin (MIC, 4 μg/ml) had a single base deletion (A752) in domain II. In six remaining mutants, no mutations in L22, L4, or 23S rRNA could be detected.
PMCID: PMC126998  PMID: 11751122
3.  Susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to ABT-773 Compared to Their Susceptibilities to 11 Other Agents 
The activity of the ketolide ABT-773 against Haemophilus and Moraxella was compared to those of 11 other agents. Against 210 Haemophilus influenzae strains (39.0% β-lactamase positive), microbroth dilution tests showed that azithromycin and ABT-773 had the lowest MICs (0.5 to 4.0 and 1.0 to 8.0 μg/ml, respectively), followed by clarithromycin and roxithromycin (4.0 to >32.0 μg/ml). Of the β-lactams, ceftriaxone had the lowest MICs (≤0.004 to 0.016 μg/ml), followed by cefixime and cefpodoxime (0.008 to 0.125 and ≤0.125 to 0.25 μg/ml, respectively), amoxicillin-clavulanate (0.125 to 4.0 μg/ml), and cefuroxime (0.25 to 8.0 μg/ml). Amoxicillin was only active against β-lactamase-negative strains, and cefprozil had the highest MICs of all oral cephalosporins tested (0.5 to >32.0 μg/ml). Against 50 Moraxella catarrhalis strains, all of the compounds except amoxicillin and cefprozil were active. Time-kill studies against 10 H. influenzae strains showed that ABT-773, at two times the MIC, was bactericidal against 9 of 10 strains, with 99% killing of all strains at the MIC after 24 h; at 12 h, ABT-773 gave 90% killing of all strains at two times the MIC. At 3 and 6 h, killing by ABT-773 was slower, with 99.9% killing of four strains at two times the MIC after 6 h. Similar results were found for azithromycin, with slightly slower killing by erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin, especially at earlier times. β-Lactams were bactericidal against 8 to 10 strains at two times the MIC after 24 h, with slower killing at earlier time periods. Most compounds gave good killing of five M. catarrhalis strains, with β-lactams killing more rapidly than other drugs. ABT-773 and azithromycin gave the longest postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group tested (4.4 to >8.0 h), followed by clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin. β-Lactam PAEs were similar and shorter than those of the ketolide-macrolide-azalide group for all strains tested.
PMCID: PMC90241  PMID: 11120946
4.  Comparative Antianaerobic Activity of BMS 284756 
Agar dilution MIC methodology was used to compare the activity of BMS 284756 with those of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, the respective MICs at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC50s) and MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter) were as follows: BMS 284756, 0.5 and 2.0; ciprofloxacin, 2.0 and 16.0; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 8.0; moxifloxacin, 0.5 and 4.0; trovafloxacin, 0.5 and 2.0; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 0.5 and 2.0; piperacillin-tazobactam, 0.25 and 8.0; imipenem, 0.06 and 1.0; clindamycin, 0.25 and 8.0; and metronidazole, 1.0 and >16.0. BMS 284756 is a promising new quinolone with excellent antianaerobic activity.
PMCID: PMC90331  PMID: 11158759
5.  Identification of an erm(A) Erythromycin Resistance Methylase Gene in Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated in Greece 
In a serotype 11A clone of erythromycin-resistant pneumococci isolated from young Greek carriers, we identified the nucleotide sequence of erm(A), a methylase gene previously described as erm(TR) in Streptococcus pyogenes. The erm(A) pneumococci were resistant to 14- and 15-member macrolides, inducibly resistant to clindamycin, and susceptible to streptogramin B. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of resistance to erythromycin in S. pneumoniae attributed solely to the carriage of the erm(A) gene.
PMCID: PMC90289  PMID: 11120994
6.  Antipneumococcal Activity of ABT-773 Compared to Those of 10 Other Agents 
MICs, time-kills, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of ABT-773 (a new ketolide) and 10 other agents were determined against 226 pneumococci. Against 78 ermB- and 44 mefE-containing strains, ABT-773 MICs at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC50s) and MIC90s were 0.016 to 0.03 and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively. Clindamycin was active only against macrolide-resistant strains containing mefE (MIC50, 0.06 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Activities of pristinamycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) and vancomycin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) were unaffected by macrolide or penicillin resistance, while β-lactam MICs rose with those of penicillin G. Against 19 strains with L4 ribosomal protein mutations and two strains with mutations in domain V of 23S rRNA, ABT-773 MICs were 0.03 to 0.25 μg/ml, while macrolide and azalide MICs were all ≥16.0 μg/ml. ABT-773 was bactericidal at twice the MIC after 24 h for 8 of 12 strains (including three strains with erythromycin MICs greater than or equal to 64.0 μg/ml). Kill kinetics of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin against macrolide-susceptible strains were slower than those of ABT-773. ABT-773 had longer PAEs than macrolides, azithromycin, clindamycin, or β-lactams, including against ermB-containing strains. ABT-773, therefore, shows promising in vitro activity against macrolide-susceptible as well as -resistant pneumococci.
PMCID: PMC89981  PMID: 10858350
7.  In Vitro Development of Resistance to Telithromycin (HMR 3647), Four Macrolides, Clindamycin, and Pristinamycin in Streptococcus pneumoniae 
The ability of 50 sequential subcultures in subinhibitory concentrations of telithromycin (HMR 3647), azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and pristinamycin to select for resistance was studied in five macrolide-susceptible and six macrolide-resistant pneumococci containing mefE or ermB. Telithromycin selected for resistance less often than the other drugs.
PMCID: PMC89694  PMID: 10639373
8.  Activity of Retapamulin against Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Evaluated by Agar Dilution, Microdilution, E-Test, and Disk Diffusion Methodologies 
The in vitro activity of retapamulin against 106 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 109 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates was evaluated by the agar dilution, broth microdilution, E-test, and disk diffusion methodologies. Where possible, the tests were performed by using the CLSI methodology. The results of agar dilution, broth microdilution, and E-test (all with incubation in ambient air) for S. aureus yielded similar MICs, in the range of 0.03 to 0.25 μg/ml. These values corresponded to zone diameters between 25 and 33 mm by the use of a 2-μg retapamulin disk. Overall, 99% of the agar dilution results and 95% of E-test results for S. aureus were within ±1 dilution of the microdilution results. For S. pyogenes, the MICs obtained by the agar and broth microdilution methods (both after incubation in ambient air) were in the range of 0.008 to 0.03 μg/ml, and E-test MICs (with incubation in ambient air) were 0.016 to 0.06 μg/ml. For S. pyogenes, 100% of the agar dilution MIC results were within ±1 dilution of the broth microdilution results. E-test MICs (after incubation in ambient air) were within ±1 and ±2 dilutions of the broth microdilution results for 76% and 99% of the isolates, respectively. E-test MICs for S. pyogenes strains in CO2 were up to 4 dilutions higher than those in ambient air. Therefore, it is recommended that when retapamulin MICs are determined by E-test, incubation be done in ambient air and not in CO2, due to the adverse effect of CO2 on the activity of this compound. Diffusion zones (with incubation in CO2) for S. pyogenes were 18 to 24 mm. Retapamulin MICs for all strains by all methods (with incubation in ambient air) were ≤0.25 μg/ml. These results demonstrate that S. pyogenes (including macrolide-resistant strains) and S. aureus (including methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-nonsusceptible strains) are inhibited by very low concentrations of retapamulin and that all four testing methods are satisfactory for use for susceptibility testing.
PMCID: PMC1472194  PMID: 16641442
9.  Antipneumococcal Activity of Ertapenem (MK-0826) Compared to Those of Other Agents 
The activities of ertapenem (MK-0826) and eight other agents against a range of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci were tested by determination of MICs by the microdilution method and by the time-kill methodology. For 125 penicillin-susceptible, 74 penicillin-intermediate, and 86 penicillin-resistant pneumococci, the MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50s) and MIC90s, as determined by the microdilution method, were as follows: for ertapenem, 0.016 and 0.03, 0.125 and 0.5, and 0.5 and 1.0 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, penicillin-intermediate, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci, respectively; for amoxicillin, ≤0.016 and 0.03, 0.25 and 1.0, and 2.0 and 2.0 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, penicillin-intermediate, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci, respectively; for cefprozil, 0.125 and 0.25, 1.0 and 8.0, and 16.0 and 16.0 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, penicillin-intermediate, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci, respectively; for cefepime, ≤0.016 and 0.06, 0.5 and 1.0, and 1.0 and 2.0 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, penicillin-intermediate, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci, respectively; for ceftriaxone, ≤0.016 and 0.06, 0.25 and 1.0, and 1.0 and 2.0 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, penicillin-intermediate, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci, respectively; for imipenem, ≤0.008 and ≤0.008, 0.03 and 0.25, and 0.25 and 0.25 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, penicillin-intermediate, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci, respectively; for meropenem, ≤0.008 and 0.016, 0.125 and 0.5, and 0.5 and 1.0 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, penicillin-intermediate, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci, respectively; and for clarithromycin, 1.0 and >32.0, 1.0 and >32.0, and >32.0 and >32.0 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, penicillin-intermediate, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci, respectively. For 64 strains for which quinolone MICs were increased (ciprofloxacin MICs, ≥4.0 μg/ml), the MIC90 of ertapenem was 1.0 μg/ml and the MIC90s of the other β-lactams tested and clarithromycin were >32.0 μg/ml. Against four penicillin-susceptible, four penicillin-intermediate, and four penicillin-resistant strains, testing by the time-kill methodology showed that ertapenem at two times the MIC was bacteriostatic (99% killing) after 12 h and bactericidal (99.9% killing) against all strains by 24 h, with 90% killing of all strains at two times the MIC after 6 h. At the MIC, ertapenem was bacteriostatic against all strains tested after 24 h. Although the bactericidal activity of imipenem at the MIC after 24 h was significantly greater than that of ertapenem, the kinetics of the two drugs at two times the MIC were similar after 24 h. The killing kinetics of clarithromycin were slower than those of ertapenem and other agents, with clarithromycin at two times the MIC having bactericidal activity against seven of eight macrolide-susceptible strains after 24 h.
PMCID: PMC126980  PMID: 11751109
10.  Activities of a New Fluoroketolide, HMR 3787, and Its (Des)-Fluor Derivative RU 64399 Compared to Those of Telithromycin, Erythromycin A, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, and Clindamycin against Macrolide-Susceptible or -Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2001;45(11):3242-3245.
Activities of HMR 3787 and RU 64399 were compared to those of three macrolides, telithromycin, and clindamycin against 175 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and 121 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates. HMR3787 and telithromycin were the most active compounds tested against pneumococci. Telithromycin and RU 64399 were equally active against macrolide-susceptible (MICs, 0.008 to 0.06 μg/ml) and -resistant S. pyogenes isolates, but HMR 3787 had lower MICs for ermB strains.
PMCID: PMC90817  PMID: 11600391
11.  Activity of OPT-80, a Novel Macrocycle, Compared with Those of Eight Other Agents against Selected Anaerobic Species 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(11):4430-4434.
Agar dilution MIC was used to compare activities of OPT-80, linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 350 gram-positive and -negative anaerobes. OPT-80 was active against gram-positive strains only, especially Clostridium spp. (85 strains tested, including 21 strains of C. difficile), with MICs ranging between ≤0.016 and 0.25 μg/ml.
PMCID: PMC525447  PMID: 15504874
12.  Antistaphylococcal Activity of CB-181963 (CAB-175), an Experimental Parenteral Cephalosporin 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(10):4037-4039.
Among 265 methicillin-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci, CB-181963 (CAB-175) had a 50% minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 μg/ml and a 90% minimum inhibitory concentration of 4 μg/ml. All strains except two vancomycin-resistant S. aureus and 5 vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains were also susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin, and all were susceptible to linezolid, ranbezolid, tigecycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Most methicillin-resistant strains were levofloxacin resistant. CB-181963 was bactericidal against all six methicillin-resistant strains at four times the MIC after 24 h.
PMCID: PMC521906  PMID: 15388474
13.  Antianaerobic Activity of a Novel Fluoroquinolone, WCK 771, Compared to Those of Nine Other Agents 
Agar dilution MIC methodology was used to compare the activity of WCK 771 with those of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 350 anaerobes. Overall, the MICs (in micrograms per milliliter) at which 50 and 90%, respectively, of the isolates tested were inhibited were as follows: WCK 771, 0.5 and 2.0; ciprofloxacin, 2.0 and 32.0; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 8.0; gatifloxacin, 0.5 and 4.0; moxifloxacin, 0.5 and 4.0; piperacillin, 2.0 and 64.0; piperacillin-tazobactam, ≤0.125 and 8.0; imipenem, 0.125 and 1.0; clindamycin, 0.125 and 16.0; and metronidazole, 1.0 and >16.0.
PMCID: PMC478502  PMID: 15273148
14.  Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Macrolide Resistance Inducibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae Carrying erm(A), erm(B), or mef(A) 
Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from young carriers were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility; additionally, inducibility of macrolide and clindamycin resistance was investigated in pneumococci carrying erm(A), erm(B), or mef(A). Of 125 strains tested, 101 (81%) were multidrug resistant. Different levels of induction were observed with erythromycin, miocamycin, and clindamycin in erm(B) strains; however, in erm(A) strains only erythromycin was an inducer. Induction did not affect macrolide MICs in mef(A) strains.
PMCID: PMC166089  PMID: 12878546
15.  Activities of HMR 3787 and RU 64399 Compared with Those of Four Other Agents against Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae 
Activities of HMR 3787, a new 2-fluoroketolide, and its (des)-fluor derivative, RU 64399, were tested against 111 Haemophilus influenzae and 26 H. parainfluenzae strains and compared with those of telithromycin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. HMR 3787 and RU 64399 MICs were comparable with those of azithromycin but were less affected by incubation in CO2. Time-kill studies of 12 strains showed that HMR 3787, RU 64399, and telithromycin were bactericidal against all strains after 24 h at two times the MIC.
PMCID: PMC149015  PMID: 12499225
16.  Antistreptococcal Activity of Telithromycin Compared with Seven Other Drugs in Relation to Macrolide Resistance Mechanisms in Russia 
The susceptibilities of 468 recent Russian clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and 600 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates, from 14 centers in Russia, to telithromycin, erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and penicillin G were tested. Penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae strains were rare except in Siberia, where their prevalence rate was 13.5%: most were penicillin intermediate, but for three strains (two from Smolensk and one from Novosibirsk) the MICs of penicillin G were 4 or 8 μg/ml. Overall, 2.5% of S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Efflux was the prevalent resistance mechanism (five strains; 41.7%), followed by ribosomal methylation encoded by constitutive erm(B), which was found in four isolates. Ribosomal mutation was the mechanism of macrolide resistance in three isolates; one erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolate had an A2059G mutation in 23S rRNA, and two isolates had substitution of GTG by TPS at positions 69 to 71 in ribosomal protein L4. All S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to penicillin, and 11% were erythromycin resistant. Ribosomal methylation was the most common resistance mechanism for S. pyogenes (89.4%). These methylases were encoded by erm(A) [subclass erm(TR)] genes, and their expression was inducible in 96.6% of isolates. The rest of the erythromycin-resistant Russian S. pyogenes isolates (7.6%) had an efflux resistance mechanism. Telithromycin was active against 100% of pneumococci and 99.2% of S. pyogenes, and levofloxacin and quinupristin-dalfopristin were active against all isolates of both species.
PMCID: PMC127395  PMID: 12183254
17.  Susceptibilities to Telithromycin and Six Other Agents and Prevalence of Macrolide Resistance Due to L4 Ribosomal Protein Mutation among 992 Pneumococci from 10 Central and Eastern European Countries 
The macrolide and levofloxacin susceptibilities of 992 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical specimens collected in 1999 and 2000 were determined in 10 centers in Central and Eastern European countries. The prevalences of penicillin G-intermediate (MICs, 0.125 to 1 μg/ml) and penicillin-resistant (MICs, ≤2 μg/ml) Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were 14.3 and 16.6%, respectively. The MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50s) and the MIC90s of telithromycin were 0.016 and 0.06 μg/ml, respectively; those of erythromycin were 0.06 and >64 μg/ml, respectively; those of azithromycin were 0.125 and >64 μg/ml, respectively; those of clarithromycin were 0.03 and >64 μg/ml, respectively; and those of clindamycin were 0.06 and >64 μg/ml, respectively. Erythromycin resistance was found in 180 S. pneumoniae isolates (18.1%); the highest prevalence of erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae was observed in Hungary (35.5%). Among erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates, strains harboring erm(B) genes (125 strains [69.4%]) were found to be predominant over strains with mef(E) genes (25 strains [13.4%]), L4 protein mutations (28 strains [15.6%]), and erm(A) genes (2 strains [1.1%]). Similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns suggested that some strains containing L4 mutations from the Slovak Republic, Bulgaria, and Latvia were clonally related. Of nine strains highly resistant to levofloxacin (MICs, >8 μg/ml) six were isolated from Zagreb, Croatia. Telithromycin at ≤0.5 μg/ml was active against 99.8% of S. pneumoniae isolates tested and may be useful for the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates.
PMCID: PMC127073  PMID: 11796344
18.  gyrA Mutations Associated with Quinolone Resistance in Bacteroides fragilis Group Strains 
Mutations in the gyrA gene contribute considerably to quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. Mechanisms for quinolone resistance in anaerobic bacteria are less well studied. The Bacteroides fragilis group are the anaerobic organisms most frequently isolated from patients with bacteremia and intraabdominal infections. Forty-four clinafloxacin-resistant and-susceptible fecal and clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group (eight Bacteroides fragilis, three Bacteroides ovatus, five Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, six Bacteroides uniformis, and 22 Bacteroides vulgatus) and six ATCC strains of the B. fragilis group were analyzed as follows: (i) determination of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and clinafloxacin by the agar dilution method and (ii) sequencing of the gyrA quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) located between amino acid residues equivalent to Ala-67 through Gln-106 in E. coli. Amino acid substitutions were found at hotspots at positions 82 (n = 15) and 86 (n = 8). Strains with Ser82Leu substitutions (n = 13) were highly resistant to all quinolones tested. Mutations in other positions of gyrA were also frequently found in quinolone-resistant and -susceptible isolates. Eight clinical strains that lacked mutations in their QRDR were susceptible to at least two of the quinolones tested. Although newer quinolones have good antimicrobial activity against the B. fragilis group, quinolone resistance in B. fragilis strains can be readily selected in vivo. Mutational events in the QRDR of gyrA seem to contribute to quinolone resistance in Bacteroides species.
PMCID: PMC90588  PMID: 11408211
19.  In Vitro Selection of Resistance to Clinafloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Trovafloxacin in Streptococcus pneumoniae 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(10):2740-2746.
Ability of daily sequential subcultures in subinhibitory concentrations of clinafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and trovafloxacin to select resistant mutants was studied in 10 pneumococci (ciprofloxacin MICs, 1 to 4 μg/ml, and clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin MICs, 0.06 to 0.125 μg/ml [n = 9]; ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, and trovafloxacin MICs, 32, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively [n = 1]). Subculturing was done 50 times, or until MICs increased fourfold or more. Mutants for which MICs were fourfold (or more) higher than those for parent strains were selected in five strains by clinafloxacin, in six strains by trovafloxacin, and nine strains by ciprofloxacin. Sequence analysis of type II topoisomerase showed that most mutants had mutations in ParC at Ser79 or Asp83 and in GyrA at Ser81, while a few mutants had mutations in ParE or GyrB. In the presence of reserpine, the MICs of ciprofloxacin and clinafloxacin for most mutants were lower (four to eight times lower), but for none of the mutants were trovafloxacin MICs lower, suggesting an efflux mechanism affecting the first two agents but not trovafloxacin. Single-step mutation rates were also determined for eight strains for which the MICs were as follows: 0.06 μg/ml (clinafloxacin), 0.06 to 0.125 μg/ml (trovafloxacin), and 1 μg/ml (ciprofloxacin). Single-step mutation rates with drugs at the MIC were 2.0×10−9 to <1.1×10−11, 5.0×10−4 to 3.6×10−9, and 4.8×10−4 to 6.7×10−9, respectively. For two strains with clinafloxacin MICs of 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml trovafloxacin MICs of 0.125 to 2 μg/ml, ciprofloxacin MICs of 4 to 32 μg/ml mutation rates with drugs at the MIC were 1.1×10−8−9.6×10−8, 3.3×10−6−6.7×10−8, and 2.3×10−5−2.4×10−7, respectively. Clinafloxacin was bactericidal at four times the MIC after 24 h against three parent and nine mutant strains by time-kill study. This study showed that single and multistep clinafloxacin exposure selected for resistant mutants less frequently than similar exposures to other drugs studied.
PMCID: PMC90145  PMID: 10991854
20.  Antipneumococcal Activities of GAR-936 (a New Glycylcycline) Compared to Those of Nine Other Agents against Penicillin-Susceptible and -Resistant Pneumococci 
GAR-936, a new glycylcycline, had lower MICs (≤0.016 to 0.125 μg/ml) for 201 penicillin- and tetracycline-susceptible and -resistant pneumococcal strains than tetracycline (≤0.06 to 128 μg/ml), minocycline (≤0.06 to 16.0 μg/ml), or doxycycline (≤0.06 to 32.0 μg/ml). GAR-936 was also bactericidal against 11 of 12 strains tested at the MIC after 24 h, with significant kill rates at earlier time points.
PMCID: PMC89820  PMID: 10722519
21.  Activities and Postantibiotic Effects of Gemifloxacin Compared to Those of 11 Other Agents against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis 
The activity of gemifloxacin against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was compared to those of 11 other agents. All quinolones were very active (MICs, ≤0.125 μg/ml) against 248 quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae isolates (40.7% of which were β-lactamase positive); cefixime (MICs, ≤0.125 μg/ml) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (MICs ≤4.0 μg/ml) were active, followed by cefuroxime (MICs, ≤16.0 μg/ml); azithromycin MICs were ≤4.0 μg/ml. For nine H. influenzae isolates with reduced quinolone susceptibilities, the MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50s) were 0.25 μg/ml for gemifloxacin and 1.0 μg/ml for the other quinolones tested. All strains had mutations in GyrA (Ser84, Asp88); most also had mutations in ParC (Asp83, Ser84, Glu88) and ParE (Asp420, Ser458), and only one had a mutation in GyrB (Gln468). All quinolones tested were equally active (MICs, ≤0.06 μg/ml) against 50 M. catarrhalis strains; amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefixime, cefuroxime, and azithromycin were very active. Against 10 H. influenzae strains gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin at 2× the MIC and ciprofloxacin at 4× the MIC were uniformly bactericidal after 24 h, and against 9 of 10 strains grepafloxacin at 2× the MIC was bactericidal after 24 h. After 24 h bactericidal activity was seen with amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2× the MIC for all strains, cefixime at 2× the MIC for 9 of 10 strains, cefuroxime at 4× the MIC for all strains, and azithromycin at 2× the MIC for all strains. All quinolones except grepafloxacin (which was bactericidal against four of five strains) and all ß-lactams at 2× to 4× the MIC were bactericidal against five M. catarrhalis strains after 24 h; azithromycin at the MIC was bactericidal against all strains after 24 h. The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) against four quinolone-susceptible H. influenzae strains were as follows: gemifloxacin, 0.3 to 2.3 h; ciprofloxacin, 1.3 to 4.2 h; levofloxacin, 2.8 to 6.2 h; sparfloxacin, 0.6 to 3.0 h; grepafloxacin, 0 to 2.1 h; trovafloxacin, 0.8 to 2.8 h. At 10× the MIC, no quinolone PAEs were found against the strain for which quinolone MICs were increased. Azithromycin PAEs were 3.7 to 7.3 h.
PMCID: PMC89738  PMID: 10681330
22.  Antipneumococcal Activities of Gemifloxacin Compared to Those of Nine Other Agents 
The activities of gemifloxacin compared to those of nine other agents was tested against a range of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci by agar dilution, microdilution, time-kill, and post-antibiotic effect (PAE) methods. Against 64 penicillin-susceptible, 68 penicillin-intermediate, and 75 penicillin-resistant pneumococci (all quinolone susceptible), agar dilution MIC50s (MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited)/MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter) were as follows: gemifloxacin, 0.03/0.06; ciprofloxacin, 1.0/4.0; levofloxacin, 1.0/2.0; sparfloxacin, 0.5/1.0; grepafloxacin, 0.125/0.5; trovafloxacin, 0.125/0.25; amoxicillin, 0.016/0.06 (penicillin-susceptible isolates), 0.125/1.0 (penicillin-intermediate isolates), and 2.0/4.0 (penicillin-resistant isolates); cefuroxime, 0.03/0.25 (penicillin-susceptible isolates), 0.5/2.0 (penicillin-intermediate isolates), and 8.0/16.0 (penicillin-resistant isolates); azithromycin, 0.125/0.5 (penicillin-susceptible isolates), 0.125/>128.0 (penicillin-intermediate isolates), and 4.0/>128.0 (penicillin-resistant isolates); and clarithromycin, 0.03/0.06 (penicillin-susceptible isolates), 0.03/32.0 (penicillin-intermediate isolates), and 2.0/>128.0 (penicillin-resistant isolates). Against 28 strains with ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥8 μg/ml, gemifloxacin had the lowest MICs (0.03 to 1.0 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), compared with MICs ranging between 0.25 and >32.0 μg/ml (MIC90s of 4.0 to >32.0 μg/ml) for other quinolones. Resistance in these 28 strains was associated with mutations in parC, gyrA, parE, and/or gyrB or efflux, with some strains having multiple resistance mechanisms. For 12 penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococcal strains (2 quinolone resistant), time-kill results showed that levofloxacin at the MIC, gemifloxacin and sparfloxacin at two times the MIC, and ciprofloxacin, grepafloxacin, and trovafloxacin at four times the MIC were bactericidal for all strains after 24 h. Gemifloxacin was uniformly bactericidal after 24 h at ≤0.5 μg/ml. Various degrees of 90 and 99% killing by all quinolones were detected after 3 h. Gemifloxacin and trovafloxacin were both bactericidal at two times the MIC for the two quinolone-resistant pneumococci. Amoxicillin at two times the MIC and cefuroxime at four times the MIC were uniformly bactericidal after 24 h, with some degree of killing at earlier time points. Macrolides gave slower killing against the seven susceptible strains tested, with 99.9% killing of all strains at two to four times the MIC after 24 h. PAEs for five quinolone-susceptible strains were similar (0.3 to 3.0 h) for all quinolones, and significant quinolone PAEs were found for the quinolone-resistant strain.
PMCID: PMC89675  PMID: 10639354
23.  Postantibiotic Effects of Grepafloxacin Compared to Those of Five Other Agents against 12 Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria 
The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10× the MIC) and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5× the MIC) were determined for six compounds against 12 strains. Measurable PAEs ranged between 0 and 1.8 h for grepafloxacin, 0 and 2.2 h for ciprofloxacin, 0 and 3.1 h for levofloxacin, 0 and 2.2 h for sparfloxacin, 0 and 2.4 h for amoxicillin-clavulanate and 0 and 4.8 h for clarithromycin. Reexposure to subinhibitory concentrations increased the PAEs against some strains.
PMCID: PMC89651  PMID: 10602746
24.  Activities of Clinafloxacin, Alone and in Combination with Other Compounds, against 45 Gram-Positive and -Negative Organisms for Which Clinafloxacin MICs Are High 
Time-kill studies indicated that clinafloxacin showed synergy after 24 h with ceftazidime, amikacin, and imipenem against 12, 8, and 10 of 33 gram-negative rods, respectively; with vancomycin, teicoplanin, cefotaxime, and amikacin against 3, 3, 1, and 1 of 9 staphylococci and enterococci, respectively; and with vancomycin, penicillin, and cefotaxime against 0, 2, and 2 of 3 pneumococci, respectively. The MICs of clinafloxacin alone for most strains were ≥1 μg/ml.
PMCID: PMC89464  PMID: 10471582
25.  Activity of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared to Those of Eight Other Agents by Time-Kill Methodology† 
Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO2. Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 μg/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC ≤ 2.0 μg/ml) against all anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 μg/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of ≤1.0 μg/ml, while metronidazole was active (MICs, 0.03 to 2.0 μg/ml) against all except Propionibacterium acnes. After 48 h at twice the MIC, telithromycin was bactericidal (≥99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred.
PMCID: PMC89408  PMID: 10428930

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