Two classification schemes for β-lactamases are currently in use. The molecular classification is based on the amino acid sequence and divides β-lactamases into class A, C, and D enzymes which utilize serine for β-lactam hydrolysis and class B metalloenzymes which require divalent zinc ions for substrate hydrolysis. The functional classification scheme updated herein is based on the 1995 proposal by Bush et al. (K. Bush, G. A. Jacoby, and A. A. Medeiros, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:1211-1233, 1995). It takes into account substrate and inhibitor profiles in an attempt to group the enzymes in ways that can be correlated with their phenotype in clinical isolates. Major groupings generally correlate with the more broadly based molecular classification. The updated system includes group 1 (class C) cephalosporinases; group 2 (classes A and D) broad-spectrum, inhibitor-resistant, and extended-spectrum β-lactamases and serine carbapenemases; and group 3 metallo-β-lactamases. Several new subgroups of each of the major groups are described, based on specific attributes of individual enzymes. A list of attributes is also suggested for the description of a new β-lactamase, including the requisite microbiological properties, substrate and inhibitor profiles, and molecular sequence data that provide an adequate characterization for a new β-lactam-hydrolyzing enzyme.
The proof that a new antibacterial agent is not only active in vitro but also effective in vivo under clinically relevant conditions is currently provided (i) by using appropriate nonclinical models of infection and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) analysis providing evidence of the likelihood of clinical efficacy and (ii) by examining the study drug in exploratory clinical trials, as well as dose and schedule finding during phase II of clinical development. This approach is both time-consuming and costly. Furthermore, PK-PD targets for any novel antibacterial agent cannot be derived from studies with experimental animals. Therefore, alternative strategies have to be identified to prove the principle that a novel antibacterial agent is active under clinically relevant conditions. This review summarizes evidence that the quantitative analysis of shifts in the viable counts of pathogens in infected patients or the evaluation of the PD effect of an investigational agent on indicator organisms of the human resident microflora or colonizers of healthy volunteers, if paralleled with PK monitoring of serum and the target site, provides an alternative to a classical proof-of-principle study in the course of a phase II study program.
The inherent drug susceptibility of microorganisms is determined by multiple factors, including growth state, the rate of drug diffusion into and out of the cell, and the intrinsic vulnerability of drug targets with regard to the corresponding antimicrobial agent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), remains a significant source of global morbidity and mortality, further exacerbated by its ability to readily evolve drug resistance. It is well accepted that drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is driven by the acquisition of chromosomal mutations in genes encoding drug targets/promoter regions; however, a comprehensive description of the molecular mechanisms that fuel drug resistance in the clinical setting is currently lacking. In this context, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that active extrusion of drugs from the cell is critical for drug tolerance. M. tuberculosis encodes representatives of a diverse range of multidrug transporters, many of which are dependent on the proton motive force (PMF) or the availability of ATP. This suggests that energy metabolism and ATP production through the PMF, which is established by the electron transport chain (ETC), are critical in determining the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis. In this review, we detail advances in the study of the mycobacterial ETC and highlight drugs that target various components of the ETC. We provide an overview of some of the efflux pumps present in M. tuberculosis and their association, if any, with drug transport and concomitant effects on drug resistance. The implications of inhibiting drug extrusion, through the use of efflux pump inhibitors, are also discussed.
As the incidence of Gram-negative bacterial infections for which few effective treatments remain increases, so does the contribution of drug-hydrolyzing β-lactamase enzymes to this serious clinical problem. This review highlights recent advances in β-lactamase inhibitors and focuses on agents with novel mechanisms of action against a wide range of enzymes. To this end, we review the β-lactamase inhibitors currently in clinical trials, select agents still in preclinical development, and older therapeutic approaches that are being revisited. Particular emphasis is placed on the activity of compounds at the forefront of the developmental pipeline, including the diazabicyclooctane inhibitors (avibactam and MK-7655) and the boronate RPX7009. With its novel reversible mechanism, avibactam stands to be the first new β-lactamase inhibitor brought into clinical use in the past 2 decades. Our discussion includes the importance of selecting the appropriate partner β-lactam and dosing regimens for these promising agents. This “renaissance” of β-lactamase inhibitors offers new hope in a world plagued by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria.
Historically, the primary target for research and treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis (HSL) has been limited to inhibiting herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication. Antiviral monotherapy, however, has proven only marginally effective in curtailing the duration and severity of recurrent lesions. Recently, the role of inflammation in the progression and resolution of recurrences has been identified as an additional target. This was evaluated in a randomized study comparing combination topical 5% acyclovir-1% hydrocortisone cream (AHC) with 5% acyclovir alone (AC; in the AHC vehicle) and the vehicle. The efficacy of each topical therapy was evaluated for cumulative lesion size—a novel composite efficacy endpoint incorporating episode duration, lesion area, and proportion of nonulcerative lesions. In that study, cumulative lesion area was significantly decreased with AHC compared with AC (25% decrease; P < 0.05) and the vehicle (50% decrease; P < 0.0001). As research continues in this arena, cumulative lesion area should be included as a measure of efficacy in clinical trials of recurrent HSL therapies.
All cells need to protect themselves against the osmotic challenges of their environment by maintaining low permeability to ions across their cell membranes. This is a basic principle of cellular function, which is reflected in the interactions among ion transport and drug efflux genes that have arisen during cellular evolution. Thus, upon exposure to pore-forming antibiotics such as amphotericin B (AmB) or daptomycin (Dap), sensitive cells overexpress common resistance genes to protect themselves from added osmotic challenges. These genes share pathway interactions with the various types of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter genes, which both preserve the native lipid membrane composition and at the same time eliminate disruptive hydrophobic molecules that partition excessively within the lipid bilayer. An increased understanding of the relationships between the genes (and their products) that regulate osmotic stress responses and MDR transporters will help to identify novel strategies and targets to overcome the current stalemate in drug discovery.
It is often necessary to include WHO group 5 drugs in the treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and fluoroquinolone-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). As clinical evidence about the use of group 5 drugs is scarce, we conducted a systematic review using published individual patient data. We searched PubMed and OvidSP through 7 April 2013 for publications in English to assemble a cohort with fluoroquinolone-resistant MDR-TB treated with group 5 drugs. Favorable outcome was defined as sputum culture conversion, cure, or treatment completion in the absence of death, default, treatment failure, or relapse. A cohort of 194 patients was assembled from 20 articles involving 12 geographical regions. In descending order of frequency, linezolid was used in treatment of 162 (84%) patients, macrolides in 84 (43%), clofazimine in 65 (34%), amoxicillin with clavulanate in 56 (29%), thioridazine in 18 (9%), carbapenem in 16 (8%), and high-dose isoniazid in 16 (8%). Cohort analysis with robust Poisson regression models and random-effects meta-analysis similarly suggested that linezolid use significantly increased the probability (95% confidence interval) of favorable outcome by 57% (10% to 124%) and 55% (10% to 121%), respectively. Defining significant associations by risk ratios ≥ 1.2 or ≤ 0.9, neither cohort analysis nor meta-analysis demonstrated any significant add-on benefit from the use of other group 5 drugs with respect to outcome for patients treated with linezolid, although selection bias might have led to underestimation of their effects. Our findings substantiated the use of linezolid in the treatment of XDR-TB or fluoroquinolone-resistant MDR-TB and call for further studies to evaluate the roles of other group 5 drugs.
Antimalarial drugs have usually been first deployed in areas of malaria endemicity at doses which were too low, particularly for high-risk groups such as young children and pregnant women. This may accelerate the emergence and spread of resistance, thereby shortening the useful life of the drug, but it is an inevitable consequence of the current imprecise method of dose finding. An alternative approach to dose finding is suggested in which phase 2 studies concentrate initially on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) characterization and in vivo calibration of in vitro susceptibility information. PD assessment is facilitated in malaria because serial parasite densities are readily assessed by microscopy, and at low densities by quantitative PCR, so that initial therapeutic responses can be quantitated accurately. If the in vivo MIC could be characterized early in phase 2 studies, it would provide a sound basis for the choice of dose in all target populations in subsequent combination treatments. Population PK assessments in phase 2b and phase 3 studies which characterize PK differences between different age groups, clinical disease states, and human populations can then be combined with the PK-PD observations to provide a sound evidence base for dose recommendations in different target groups.
Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health crisis. To address the development of bacterial resistance, the use of antibiotics has to be minimized for nonsystemic applications in humans, as well as in animals and plants. Possible substitutes with low potential for developing resistance are active chlorine compounds that have been in clinical use for over 180 years. These agents are characterized by pronounced differences in their chlorinating and/or oxidizing activity, with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as the strongest and organic chloramines as the weakest members. Bacterial killing in clinical practice is often associated with unwanted side effects such as chlorine consumption, tissue irritation, and pain, increasing proportionally with the chlorinating/oxidizing potency. Since the chloramines are able to effectively kill pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa), their application as anti-infectives is advisable, all the more so as they exhibit additional beneficial properties such as destruction of toxins, degradation of biofilms, and anticoagulative and anti-inflammatory activities. Within the ample field of chloramines, the stable N-chloro derivatives of ß-aminosulfonic acids are most therapeutically advanced. Being available as sodium salts, they distinguish themselves by good solubility and absence of smell. Important representatives are N-chlorotaurine, a natural compound occurring in the human immune system, and novel mono- and dichloro derivatives of dimethyltaurine, which feature improved stability.
The widespread use of intravascular devices, such as central venous and hemodialysis catheters, in the past 2 decades has paralleled the increasing incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs). Candida albicans is the fourth leading cause of hospital-associated BSIs. The propensity of C. albicans to form biofilms on these catheters has made these infections difficult to treat due to multiple factors, including increased resistance to antifungal agents. Thus, curing CR-BSIs caused by Candida species usually requires catheter removal in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Alternatively, antimicrobial lock therapy has received significant interest and shown promise as a strategy to treat CR-BSIs due to Candida species. The existing in vitro, animal, and patient data for treatment of Candida-related CR-BSIs are reviewed. The most promising antifungal lock therapy (AfLT) strategies include use of amphotericin, ethanol, or echinocandins. Clinical trials are needed to further define the safety and efficacy of AfLT.
Despite being genetically monomorphic, the limited genetic diversity within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) has practical consequences for molecular methods for drug susceptibility testing and for the use of current antibiotics and those in clinical trials. It renders some representatives of MTBC intrinsically resistant against one or multiple antibiotics and affects the spectrum and consequences of resistance mutations selected for during treatment. Moreover, neutral or silent changes within genes responsible for drug resistance can cause false-positive results with hybridization-based assays, which have been recently introduced to replace slower phenotypic methods. We discuss the consequences of these findings and propose concrete steps to rigorously assess the genetic diversity of MTBC to support ongoing clinical trials.
The recent and dramatic rise of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens underlies the fear that standard treatments for infectious disease will soon be largely ineffective. Resistance has evolved against nearly every clinically used antibiotic, and in the near future, we may be hard-pressed to treat bacterial infections previously conquered by “magic bullet” drugs. While traditional antibiotics kill or slow bacterial growth, an important emerging strategy to combat pathogens seeks to block the ability of bacteria to harm the host by inhibiting bacterial virulence factors. One such virulence factor, the type three secretion system (T3SS), is found in over two dozen Gram-negative pathogens and functions by injecting effector proteins directly into the cytosol of host cells. Without T3SSs, many pathogenic bacteria are unable to cause disease, making the T3SS an attractive target for novel antimicrobial drugs. Interdisciplinary efforts between chemists and microbiologists have yielded several T3SS inhibitors, including the relatively well-studied salicylidene acylhydrazides. This review highlights the discovery and characterization of T3SS inhibitors in the primary literature over the past 10 years and discusses the future of these drugs as both research tools and a new class of therapeutic agents.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) consists of a combination of drugs to achieve maximal virological response and reduce the potential for the emergence of antiviral resistance. Despite being the first antivirals described to be effective against HIV, reverse transcriptase inhibitors remain the cornerstone of HAART. There are two broad classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitor, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Since the first such compounds were developed, viral resistance to them has inevitably been described; this necessitates the continuous development of novel compounds within each class. In this review, we consider the NRTIs and NNRTIs currently in both preclinical and clinical development or approved for second-line therapy and describe the patterns of resistance associated with their use as well as the underlying mechanisms that have been described. Due to reasons of both affordability and availability, some reverse transcriptase inhibitors with a low genetic barrier are more commonly used in resource-limited settings. Their use results in the emergence of specific patterns of antiviral resistance and so may require specific actions to preserve therapeutic options for patients in such settings.
The vast majority of anti-infective therapeutics on the market or in development are small molecules; however, there is now a nascent pipeline of biological agents in development. Until recently, phage display technologies were used mainly to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeted against cancer or inflammatory disease targets. Patent disputes impeded broad use of these methods and contributed to the dearth of candidates in the clinic during the 1990s. Today, however, phage display is recognized as a powerful tool for selecting novel peptides and antibodies that can bind to a wide range of antigens, ranging from whole cells to proteins and lipid targets. In this review, we highlight research that exploits phage display technology as a means of discovering novel therapeutics against infectious diseases, with a focus on antimicrobial peptides and antibodies in clinical or preclinical development. We discuss the different strategies and methods used to derive, select, and develop anti-infectives from phage display libraries and then highlight case studies of drug candidates in the process of development and commercialization. Advances in screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies now mean that phage display can make a significant contribution in the fight against clinically important pathogens.
This minireview explores mitochondria as a site for antibiotic-host interactions that lead to pathophysiologic responses manifested as nonantibacterial side effects. Mitochondrion-based side effects are possibly related to the notion that these organelles are archaic bacterial ancestors or commandeered remnants that have co-evolved in eukaryotic cells; thus, this minireview focuses on mitochondrial damage that may be analogous to the antibacterial effects of the drugs. Special attention is devoted to aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, and fluoroquinolones and their respective single side effects related to mitochondrial disturbances. Linezolid/oxazolidinone multisystemic toxicity is also discussed. Aminoglycosides and oxazolidinones are inhibitors of bacterial ribosomes, and some of their side effects appear to be based on direct inhibition of mitochondrial ribosomes. Chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones target bacterial ribosomes and gyrases/topoisomerases, respectively, both of which are present in mitochondria. However, the side effects of chloramphenicol and the fluoroquinolones appear to be based on idiosyncratic damage to host mitochondria. Nonetheless, it appears that mitochondrion-associated side effects are a potential aspect of antibiotics whose targets are shared by prokaryotes and mitochondria—an important consideration for future drug design.
To date, the majority of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) discussions have focused on PK/PD relationships evaluated at steady-state drug concentrations. However, a concern with reliance upon steady-state drug concentrations is that it ignores events occurring while the pathogen is exposed to intermittent suboptimal systemic drug concentrations prior to the attainment of a steady state. Suboptimal (inadequate) exposure can produce amplification of resistant bacteria. This minireview provides an overview of published evidence supporting the positions that, in most situations, it is the exposure achieved during the first dose that is relevant for determining the therapeutic outcome of an infection, therapeutic intervention should be initiated as soon as possible to minimize the size of the bacterial burden at the infection site, and the duration of drug administration should be kept as brief as clinically appropriate to reduce the risk of selecting for resistant (or phenotypically nonresponsive) microbial strains. To support these recommendations, we briefly discuss data on inoculum effects, persister cells, and the concept of time within some defined mutation selection window.
Posaconazole has become an important part of the antifungal armamentarium in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Structurally related to itraconazole, posaconazole displays low oral bioavailability due to poor solubility, with significant drug interactions and gastrointestinal disease also contributing to the generally low posaconazole plasma concentrations observed in patients. While therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of plasma concentrations is widely accepted for other triazole antifungal agents such as voriconazole, the utility of TDM for posaconazole is controversial due to debate over the relationship between posaconazole exposure in plasma and clinical response to therapy. This review examines the available evidence for a relationship between plasma concentration and clinical efficacy for posaconazole, as well as evaluating the utility of TDM and providing provisional target concentrations for posaconazole therapy. Increasing evidence supports an exposure-response relationship for plasma posaconazole concentrations for prophylaxis and treatment of IFIs; a clear relationship has not been identified between posaconazole concentration and toxicity. Intracellular and intrapulmonary concentrations have been studied for posaconazole but have not been correlated to clinical outcomes. In view of the high mortality and cost associated with the treatment of IFIs, increasing evidence of an exposure-response relationship for posaconazole efficacy in the prevention and treatment of IFIs, and the common finding of low posaconazole concentrations in patients, TDM for posaconazole is likely to be of significant clinical utility. In patients with subtherapeutic posaconazole concentrations, increased dose frequency, administration with high-fat meals, and withdrawal of interacting medications from therapy are useful strategies to improve systemic absorption.
Mycobacterial persisters, the survivors from antibiotic exposure, necessitate the lengthy treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and pose a significant challenge for our control of the disease. We suggest that persisters in TB are heterogeneous in nature and comprise various proportions of the population depending on the circumstances; the mechanisms of their formation are complex and may be related to those required for persistence in chronic infection. Results from recent studies implicate multiple pathways for persister formation, including energy production, the stringent response, global regulators, the trans-translation pathway, proteasomal protein degradation, toxin-antitoxin modules, and transporter or efflux mechanisms. A combination of specifically persister-targeted approaches, such as catching them when active and susceptible either by stimulating them to “wake up” or by intermittent drug dosing, the development of new drugs, the use of appropriate drug combinations, and combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy, may be needed for more effective elimination of persisters and better treatment of TB. Variations in levels of persister formation and in host genetics can play a role in the outcome of clinical treatment, and thus, these may entail personalized treatment regimens.
In recent years, the explosive spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among pathogenic, commensal, and environmental bacteria has reached a global dimension. Classical measures trying to contain or slow locally the progress of antibiotic resistance in patients on the basis of better antibiotic prescribing policies have clearly become insufficient at the global level. Urgent measures are needed to directly confront the processes influencing antibiotic resistance pollution in the microbiosphere. Recent interdisciplinary research indicates that new eco-evo drugs and strategies, which take ecology and evolution into account, have a promising role in resistance prevention, decontamination, and the eventual restoration of antibiotic susceptibility. This minireview summarizes what is known and what should be further investigated to find drugs and strategies aiming to counteract the “four P's,” penetration, promiscuity, plasticity, and persistence of rapidly spreading bacterial clones, mobile genetic elements, or resistance genes. The term “drug” is used in this eco-evo perspective as a tool to fight resistance that is able to prevent, cure, or decrease potential damage caused by antibiotic resistance, not necessarily only at the individual level (the patient) but also at the ecological and evolutionary levels. This view offers a wealth of research opportunities for science and technology and also represents a large adaptive challenge for regulatory agencies and public health officers. Eco-evo drugs and interventions constitute a new avenue for research that might influence not only antibiotic resistance but the maintenance of a healthy interaction between humans and microbial systems in a rapidly changing biosphere.
Naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their mimics form a diverse class of antibacterial agents currently validated in preclinical and clinical settings for the treatment of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Numerous studies with linear, cyclic, and diastereomeric AMPs have strongly supported the hypothesis that their physicochemical properties, rather than any specific amino acid sequence, are responsible for their microbiological activities. It is generally believed that the amphiphilic topology is essential for insertion into and disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane. In particular, the ability to rapidly kill bacteria and the relative difficulty with which bacteria develop resistance make AMPs and their mimics attractive targets for drug development. However, the therapeutic use of naturally occurring AMPs is hampered by the high manufacturing costs, poor pharmacokinetic properties, and low bacteriological efficacy in animal models. In order to overcome these problems, a variety of novel and structurally diverse cationic amphiphiles that mimic the amphiphilic topology of AMPs have recently appeared. Many of these compounds exhibit superior pharmacokinetic properties and reduced in vitro toxicity while retaining potent antibacterial activity against resistant and nonresistant bacteria. In summary, cationic amphiphiles promise to provide a new and rich source of diverse antibacterial lead structures in the years to come.