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1.  MMP1-1607(1G>2G) polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer in Lebanon 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(3):130-132.
CONTEXT:
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that degrade various components of the extracellular matrix and are involved in the development and progression of cancer. Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Lebanon. MMP1 is responsible for degrading stromal collagens, which enhance the ability of neoplastic cells to cross basal membrane of both the endothelium and the vascular endothelium. A recent meta-analysis has suggested that the MMP1-1607 2G allele may be associated with an increased risk for certain types of cancers.
AIM:
This study was undertaken to investigate the association between guanine insertion polymorphism in the MMP1 promoter and the susceptibility to lung cancer in the Lebanese population.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
This case-control study was conducted on 41 patients with lung cancer and 51 age-matched healthy controls, recruited from different regions of Lebanon.
METHODS:
Cases were histologically confirmed lung cancer patients obtained from different hospitals in Lebanon. Controls were healthy unrelated individuals with no history of cancer or genetic diseases. All subjects were genotyped for MMP1 -1607(1G>2G) polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS:
No statistically significant differences were found when genotype and allele distribution of MMP1 -1607(1G>2G) polymorphism were compared between patients with lung cancer and controls [P= 0.6 by chi-squared test on a 3×2 contingency table; allelic P=0.61, OR (95% CI) = 1.18 (0.60-2.31)].
CONCLUSION:
Our data shows that MMP1 promoter polymorphism is not associated with lung cancer susceptibility in the Lebanese population.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.98844
PMCID: PMC3425043  PMID: 22924069
Lebanon; lung cancer; MMP1; polymorphism
2.  Authors’ reply 
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.69122
PMCID: PMC2954386
3.  Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2010;5(3):145-148.
BACKGROUND:
Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community.
OBJECTIVES:
The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students' attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption.
METHODS:
A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).
RESULTS:
A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19%) indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value <0.0001) and by senior more than junior students (<0.0001). About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20%) thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation.
CONCLUSION:
Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.65044
PMCID: PMC2930652  PMID: 20835308
Medical students; Saudi Arabia; smoking

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