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1.  MMP1-1607(1G>2G) polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer in Lebanon 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(3):130-132.
CONTEXT:
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that degrade various components of the extracellular matrix and are involved in the development and progression of cancer. Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Lebanon. MMP1 is responsible for degrading stromal collagens, which enhance the ability of neoplastic cells to cross basal membrane of both the endothelium and the vascular endothelium. A recent meta-analysis has suggested that the MMP1-1607 2G allele may be associated with an increased risk for certain types of cancers.
AIM:
This study was undertaken to investigate the association between guanine insertion polymorphism in the MMP1 promoter and the susceptibility to lung cancer in the Lebanese population.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
This case-control study was conducted on 41 patients with lung cancer and 51 age-matched healthy controls, recruited from different regions of Lebanon.
METHODS:
Cases were histologically confirmed lung cancer patients obtained from different hospitals in Lebanon. Controls were healthy unrelated individuals with no history of cancer or genetic diseases. All subjects were genotyped for MMP1 -1607(1G>2G) polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS:
No statistically significant differences were found when genotype and allele distribution of MMP1 -1607(1G>2G) polymorphism were compared between patients with lung cancer and controls [P= 0.6 by chi-squared test on a 3×2 contingency table; allelic P=0.61, OR (95% CI) = 1.18 (0.60-2.31)].
CONCLUSION:
Our data shows that MMP1 promoter polymorphism is not associated with lung cancer susceptibility in the Lebanese population.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.98844
PMCID: PMC3425043  PMID: 22924069
Lebanon; lung cancer; MMP1; polymorphism
2.  Study of the association between –403G/A and –28C/G RANTES gene polymorphisms and asthma in Lebanon 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(1):16-20.
CONTEXT:
Asthma is a complex inflammatory condition often associated with bronchial hyper reactivity and atopy. Genetic and environmental factors are implicated in the etiopathogenesis of asthma. Regulated upon Activation Normal T- cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) is a CC chemokine responsible for the recruitment of inflammatory cells, suggesting a possible role for this chemokine in asthma. Both -403A and -28G alleles of the RANTES promoter region were found to be associated with asthma/atopy in some but not all studies.
AIM:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic influence of -403A and -28G alleles of the RANTES promoter region on the development of asthma in Lebanon.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
This case control study was conducted at Makassed Hospital, Beirut on 40 asthmatic patients and 38 healthy controls.
METHODS:
RANTES gene polymorphisms -403G/A and -28C/G alleles were genotyped using PCR-RFLP.
RESULTS:
No significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies for the RANTES gene polymorphisms between asthmatic patients and controls were found. The difference of the -403 GA genotype frequency between patients and controls was not statisti-cally significant; (OR=0.8, 95% CI=0.2-2.3, P=0.8). Similarly, the difference of the A-allele frequencies between patients and con-trols was not significant (OR=0.824, CI=0.3–2.2, P=0.7).
CONCLUSIONS:
Our data show that RANTES gene promoter polymorphisms are not associated with asthma susceptibility in the Lebanese population.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.91558
PMCID: PMC3277035  PMID: 22347345
Asthma; Lebanon; polymorphism; RANTES

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